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Formulation and Dissolution Study of Valsartan Immediate Release Tablets
B. Brahmaiah*, K. Sasikanth, Sreekanth Nama , P.Suresh, Patan Adam Khan
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research , 2013,
Abstract: In the present study, design of oral immediate release tablets of Valsartan by direct compression techniquewas carried out. The main aim and objective of the work is to formulate immediate release tablets usingdifferent direct compression vehicles (DCV’S) in different ratios. The main motive is to compare thedissolution profile of these formulations and conclude the best formulation which release drug at a fasterrate. To determine the best fit dissolution profile for the dosage forms. Valsartan tablets were formulated byusing microcrystalline cellulose (diluents), potato starch, acacia (binder) and magnesium stearate(lubricant). The granules were compressed into tablets and were subjected to dissolution studies. Thedissolution profile of the formulation F2 was found to have better dissolution rate compared to others. TheIn-vitro dissolution studies of all the formulations were conducted and the results were obtained, it wasconcluded that formulation F2 was the best with fast release of drug compared to others.
Device Considerations for Nanophotonic CMOS Global Interconnects
Sasikanth Manipatruni,Michal Lipson,Ian A. Young
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We introduce an analytical framework to understand the path for scaling nanophotonic interconnects to meet the energy and footprint requirements of CMOS global interconnects. We derive the device requirements for sub 100 fJ/cm/bit interconnects including tuning power, serialization-deserialization energy, optical insertion losses, extinction ratio and bit error rates. Using CMOS with integrated nanophotonics as an example platform, we derive the energy/bit, linear and areal bandwidth density of optical interconnects. We also derive the targets for device performance which indicate the need for continued improvements in insertion losses (<8dB), laser efficiency, operational speeds (>40 Gb/s), tuning power (<100 {\mu}W/nm), serialization-deserialization (< 10 fJ/bit/Operation) and necessity for spectrally selective devices with wavelength multiplexing (> 6 channels).
Vitrectomy for intra ocular foreign body removal
Saroya Jasvinder,Sasikanth R,Agarwal T,Agarwal Sunita
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1992,
Abstract: Ten consecutive cases of perforating ocular injuries with retained intraocular foreign bodies over a period of 2 years were reviewed retrospectively in this study. All cases were operated upon by a 3 port pars plana vitrectomy and if necessary endolaser done. All ten cases (100%) were successful in terms of intraocular foreign body removal through the pars plana sclerotomy but ultimately we lost three [3] [30%] cases of which two had retinal detachments with P.V.R. D-3 preoperatively and the other had endophthalmitis. Of the seven (70%) successful cases four eyes (40%) had a post-operative vision of 6/12 or better while 2 [20%] had 6/24 and the last had 6/60 [10%]. Nine cases [90%] had a magnetic Intraocular foreign body. Various complications of Intraocular foreign bodies like vitreous haemorrhage, retinal incarceration, cataract and retinal detachment were noted preoperatively. Silicone oil was used in three (30%) cases. Sulfur Hexafluoride was used in 5 cases (50%). Endolaser photocoagulation was done in 7 cases (70%).
Safety and efficacy of rennin-angiotensin system inhibitors in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction '
Mukesh Singh,Tejaskumar Shah,Sasikanth Adigopula,Sandeep Khosla
International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Approximately half of the patients with chronic heart failure have preserved left ventricular systolic function. The trials of rennin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs) in this population have yielded mixed results. We performed a meta-analysis of these trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of RASIs in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction patients.Methods: A total of 8425 patients from six prospective randomized controlled trials were analyzed. The end points extracted were total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization for heart failure, worsening of heart failure, worsening of renal failure, hyperkalemia, hypotension, six minute walk test, quality of life score. RASIs evaluated were perindopril, enalapril, ramipril, valsartan, candesartan and irbesartan. Combined odds ratios (OR) across all the studies and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. A two-sided alpha error <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. All studies were homogeneous for outcomes studied, so fixed effect model was used for this meta- analysis.Results: Both groups share similar baseline characteristics. There was significant reduction in worsening of heart failure events [OR: 1.16, CI: 1.03-1.31; p<0.05] with RASIs compared to placebo group. This was associated with a tendency toward reduced hospitalizations due to heart failure [OR: 1.11, CI: 0.99-1.24; p=0.052] but it could not achieve statistical significance. RASIs also failed to show any benefit in total mortality [OR: 1.07, CI: 0.96-1.19; p=0.19] or cardiovascular mortality [OR: 1.01, CI: 0.89-1.15; p= 0.84] [Figure 1]. However, treatment with RASI lead to significant improvement in six minute walking distance [p<0.05] and quality of life score in RASIs group [p=0.002] [Figure 1]. Safety analysis, as expected, revealed significantly more hyperkalemic events [OR: 0.53, CI: 0.29-0.95; p<0.05] and worsening of renal failure [OR: 0.65, CI: 0.50-0.85; p<0.05] in RASI group as compared to placebo group.Conclusion: RASIs treatment in heart failure with preserve ejection fraction patients showed significant improvement in six minute walking distance, quality of life and significant reduction in worsening heart failure events but failed to reduce total and cardiovascular mortality.
Integrated GHz silicon photonic interconnect with micrometer-scale modulators and detectors
Long Chen,Kyle Preston,Sasikanth Manipatruni,Michal Lipson
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1364/OE.17.015248
Abstract: We report an optical link on silicon using micrometer-scale ring-resonator enhanced silicon modulators and waveguide-integrated germanium photodetectors. We show 3 Gbps operation of the link with 0.5 V modulator voltage swing and 1.0 V detector bias. The total energy consumption for such a link is estimated to be ~120 fJ/bit. Such compact and low power monolithic link is an essential step towards large-scale on-chip optical interconnects for future microprocessors.
Spin-Orbit Logic with Magnetoelectric Nodes: A Scalable Charge Mediated Nonvolatile Spintronic Logic
Sasikanth Manipatruni,Dmitri E. Nikonov,Ian A. Young
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: As nanoelectronics approaches the nanometer scale, a massive effort is underway to identify the next scalable logic technology beyond Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) computing. Such computing technology needs to improve switching energy & delay at reduced dimensions, allow improved interconnects and provide a complete logic/memory family. However, a viable beyond-CMOS logic technology has remained elusive. Here, we propose a scalable spintronic logic device which operates via spin-orbit transduction combined with magneto-electric switching. The proposed Magneto-Electric Spin Orbit (MESO) logic enables a new paradigm to continue scaling of logic performance to near thermodynamic limits for GHz logic (100 kT switching energy at 100 ps delay). The proposed MESO devices scale strongly and favorably with critical dimensions of the device, showing a cubic dependence of switching energy on size, (E_m proportional to W^3), and square dependence on voltage (E_m proportional to V^2). The excellent scaling is obtained thanks to the properties of the spin orbit effects (e.g. Inverse Spin Hall Effect (ISHE) and Inverse Rashba-Edelstein Effect (IREE)) and the dependence of capacitance on size. The operating voltages for these devices are predicted to be < 100 mV allowing a significant jump ahead of historic trends of scaling voltage with size and corresponding reduction of energy. Interconnect resistance is a critical obstacle for scaling beyond 10 nm dimensions. We project a less detrimental impact of interconnect resistance and show that MESO logic is amenable for highly resistive interconnects (100 uOhm.cm-1 mOhm.cm) which opens a possibility to use nano-metallic (width < bulk electron mean free path) or doped semiconducting wires (width<5 nm). A scalable, CMOS compatible, non-volatile logic family proposed here may enable the next multi-generational scaling of computing devices.
Broadband Tuning of Optomechanical Cavities
Gustavo S. Wiederhecker,Sasikanth Manipatruni,Sunwoo Lee,Michal Lipson
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1364/OE.19.002782
Abstract: We demonstrate broadband tuning of an optomechanical microcavity optical resonance by exploring the large optomechanical coupling of a double-wheel microcavity and its uniquely low mechanical stiffness. Using a pump laser with only 13 mW at telecom wavelengths we show tuning of the silicon nitride microcavity resonances over 32 nm. This corresponds to a tuning power efficiency of only 400 $\mu$W/nm. By choosing a relatively low optical Q resonance ($\approx$18,000) we prevent the cavity from reaching the regime of regenerative optomechanical oscillations. The static mechanical displacement induced by optical gradient forces is estimated to be as large as 60 nm.
Voltage and Energy-Delay Performance of Giant Spin Hall Effect Switching for Magnetic Memory and Logic
Sasikanth Manipatruni,Dmitri E. Nikonov,Ian A. Young
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.7567/APEX.7.103001
Abstract: In this letter, we show that Giant Spin Hall Effect (GSHE) MRAM can enable better energy- delay and voltage performance than traditional MTJ based spin torque devices at scaled nanomagnet dimensions (10-30 nm). Firstly, we derive the effect of dimensional scaling on spin injection efficiency, voltage-delay and energy-delay of spin torque switching using MTJs and GSHE and identify the optimum electrode geometry for low operating voltage (<0.1 V), high speed (>10 GHz) operation. We show that effective spin injection efficiency >100 % can be obtained using optimum spin hall electrode thickness for 30 nm nanomagnet widths. Finally, we derive the energy-delay trajectory of GSHE and MTJ devices to calculate the energy-delay product of GSHE and MTJ devices with an energy minimum at the characteristic time of the magnets. Optimized GSHE devices when combined with PMA can enable MRAM with scaled nanomagnets (30 nm X 60 nm), ultra-low voltage operation (< 0.1 V), fast switching times (10 ps) and switching energy as low as 100 aJ/bit.
Automotion of Domain Walls for Spintronic Interconnects
Dmitri E. Nikonov,Sasikanth Manipatruni,Ian A. Young
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1063/1.4881061
Abstract: We simulate automotion, the spontaneous transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate with only a transient current pulse and provide favorable scaling down to the 20nm scale. Cases of both in-plane and perpendicular magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.
Circuit Theory for SPICE of Spintronic Integrated Circuits
Sasikanth Manipatruni,Dmitri E. Nikonov,Ian A. Young
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: We present a theoretical and a numerical formalism for analysis and design of spintronic integrated circuits (SPINICs). The formalism encompasses a generalized circuit theory for spintronic integrated circuits based on nanomagnetic dynamics and spin transport. We propose an extension to the Modified Nodal Analysis technique for the analysis of spin circuits based on the recently developed spin conduction matrices. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework using an example spin logic circuit described using spin Netlists.
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