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An Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Synergy of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Utazi (Gongronema latifolium) on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus
Eja, M. E.,Arikpo, G. E.,Enyi-Idoh, K. H.,Ikpeme, E. M.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology , 2011,
Abstract: As part of the on-going search for potent and resistance-free antimicrobial medicinal plants, the antimicrobial and synergistic effects of the plants, Allium sativum (E1) and Gongronema latifolium (E2) on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The sensitivities of E. coli and S. aureus to E1 and E2 and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the plant extracts, individually and in combination with themselves, and with ciprofloxacin (CPX) and ampicillin (AMP), were tested using standard procedures. E1 and E2 individually showed appreciable antimicrobial effect (zones of inhibition > 16mm). The combination of E1 and E2 against the test organisms was not effective due to antagonism between E1 and E2. E1 or E2 when combined with CPX, completely suppressed the effect of CPX against E. coli, and rather produced additive effect on S. aureus similar to the combination of E2 and AMP against S. aureus, although CPX alone was more effective than either E1 or E2, unlike AMP. Synergism was observed in the combination of E1 and AMP against S. aureus. It is concluded that synergism associated with the combination of medicinal plants is doubtful. However, the synergistic or additive effect between garlic and conventional drugs to some strains of bacteria which are resistant to some conventional drugs, gives hope of fighting drug resistance.
Antibiogram Studies and Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase Activity Profile of Salmonella-like Species Isolated from Poultry Soil of the University of Uyo, Nigeria
Eja, M. E.,Udoekong, N. S.,Ikpeme, E. M.,Enyi-Idoh, K. H.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology , 2012,
Abstract: Aims: The contribution of beta-lactamase activity of various bacterial species to the increased antimicrobial resistance being experienced worldwide is very scanty in the literature. This study was undertaken to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern (antibiogram) of Salmonella-like bacterial species against some antibiotics, and the role beta-lactamase assumably produced by the Salmonella-like species, played in producing resistance.Methodology and Results: The antimicrobial sensitivity test and the beta-lactamase test of the Salmonella-like species were carried out using the methods of Kirby Bauer sensitivity test and the Double Disk Synergy test respectively, following isolation and identification of the organisms from poultry soil. Results revealed that Salmonella-like species were most highly resistant to Nalidixic acid (20, 66.66%), followed by Tetracycline (19, 63.33%), Cotrimoxazole, Amoxicillin and Augmentin (18, 60%), while the least was Ofloxacin (8, 26.66%). Multiple resistance of 4 or more antibiotics among the isolates from the soil outside the broilers enclosure was observed, while there was a significant difference (P <0.05) between poultry soil and control soil. This implied that the antibiotics with the highest resistance were most often applied to the birds, the droppings of which contaminated the soil. The resistant pattern of the isolates from the control soil is lower than that from the poultry soil. Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase activity was expressed by all the isolates against Cefotazime, while the least resistance was against mostly Cefotazime.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: It is concluded that there is a widespread Beta-lactamase activity causing antibiotic resistance by many species of bacteria as well as poultry Salmonella, thus exacerbating the global problem of antibiotic resistance and a serious health related implication for antibiotic use in poultry.
Nasal Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated Post-surgical Wounds Infections
Ikpeme, E. M.,Enyi-Idoh, K. H.,Nfongeh, J. F.,Etim, L. B.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology , 2012,
Abstract: Aims: Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization is an important risk factor for developing a wide range of infections in clinical setting. This study was aimed at determining the extent of staphylococcal carriages including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in post-surgical patients and employees in a tertiary health facility. Methodology and Results: Between April and July 2010, 240 post-surgical patients and 80 hospital personnel at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar were enrolled in the present study. All subjects consented to participation in the study and those who had previous medical history or treatment on antibiotic in the last six months prior to enrolment were noted. Nasal specimens collected from carrier and post-surgical sites in individuals (15-63 years) who were hospitalized for at least 21 days were immediately placed in Staurts’ transport medium and kept at 4 °C before being analyzed accordingly and screened for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Out of a total number of 320 subjects examined within a period of 4 months 144 (45%) were carriers of Staphylococcus aureus and 55 (38%) of these were MRSA. Demographic and clinical data of subjects indicated more male carriers (60.7%) confined to older age groups above 35 years. There was a significant difference (p> 0.05) in Staphylococcus aureus carriage for subjects with recent medical history of hospitalization or treatment with antibiotics. There also appears to be a considerable association (50.9%) between nasal carriage status and autoinfection of post-surgical wounds. A good proportion of all strains tested were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Approximately 89% of MRSA were resistant to penicillin. Resistant rate against other antibiotics was largely below 30%. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: An improved understanding of nasal carriage is needed to foster development of new strategies to reduce colonization and subsequent infection with bacteria.
Prevalence, antibiogram profile and cross transmission of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a tertiary burn unit
Ikpeme, E. M.,Enyi-Idoh, K. H.,Nfongeh, J. F.,Etim, L. B.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology , 2013,
Abstract: Aims: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that still develops life threatening infections in patients with immunological system defects like burns. The major problem with this organism is the ability to persist during infections due to its high rate of resistance to many drugs. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and drug susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients admitted to a burn unit in a tertiary health facility.Methodology and Result: From 80 selected patients, appropriate clinical specimens from burn sites were collected and processed for the isolation and identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, 78 surveillance samples from various environmental sites and hands impressions of nursing staff in the burn unit were cultured for the isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Drug susceptibility profile showed high resistance for ceftazidime (40.7%) ciprofloxacin (13.1%) and piperacillin (34.6%); furthermore, low resistance for some antibiotics like imipenem (17.5%) pipereracillin/tazobactam (12.3%) and aztreonam (16%) were obtained. In addition, 8 multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MRPA) isolates were recovered from clinical specimens and from environmental samples. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Evidence of high prevalence of clinical and environmental MRPA reported in this study provides the rationale for strict enforcement of infection prevention protocol to minimize crosstransmission of bacterial pathogens in hospital burn units and consequent disease burden arising from MRPA.
Antimicrobial Activities of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) Fruit Extracts on Six Standard Microorganisms and Their Clinical Counterpart  [PDF]
Y.-G. Afanyibo, K. Anani, K. Esseh, Y. Sadji, K. Idoh, K. Koudouvo, A. Agbonon, Y. Améyapoh, K. Tozo, M. Gbeassor
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104951
Abstract:
Syzygium aromaticum is used in combination with other plants as an al-coholic infusion by traditional practitioners to treat infections. It has been selected for evaluation for its antimicrobial properties to justify its use in traditional pharmacopoeia. The fruits were used as plant material while the microbial germs consisted of six reference strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Candida albicans ATCC 35659 and their clinical counterparts. The extracts were obtained by aqueous decoction, hydroethanolic and ethanolic macerations. The phytochemical screening was performed by chemical staining tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the well diffusion method and the MIC and MBC or MFC were determined using the 96-well microplate dilution method. The results showed that 66.67% of the strains tested were sensitive to the aqueous extract with inhibition diameters ranging from 15 to 21 mm and MIC and MCB or MFC between 0.0976 - 0.3906 mg/mL and 0.1953 - 07812 mg/mL respectively, thus determining bacteriostatic activity. 100% of the germs tested were sensitive to hydroethanolic and ethanolic extracts. The inhibition diameters range from 12 - 28 mm for hydroethanolic extract with MIC and MBC or MFC ranging from 0.0488 - 0.3906 mm and 0.0488 - 0.7812 mm respectively. The ethanolic extract gave inhibition diameters of 12 - 26 mm; MIC and MBC or MFC ranging from 0.0976 - 0.7812 mm. Hydroethanolic extract gave three (3) bactericidal/fungicidal activities compared to four (4) as for ethanolic extract. These results prove the use of S. aromaticum among traditional recipes for treating infections in the pharmacopoeia but further studies remain important to produce traditionally improved drugs.
The Constrained Mean-Semivariance Portfolio Optimization Problem with the Support of a Novel Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm  [PDF]
K. Liagkouras, K. Metaxiotis
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.67B005
Abstract:

The paper addresses the constrained mean-semivariance portfolio optimization problem with the support of a novel multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (n-MOEA). The use of semivariance as the risk quantification measure and the real world constraints imposed to the model make the problem difficult to be solved with exact methods. Thanks to the exploratory mechanism, n-MOEA concentrates the search effort where is needed more and provides a well formed efficient frontier with the solutions spread across the whole frontier. We also provide evidence for the robustness of the produced non-dominated solutions by carrying out, out-of-sample testing during both bull and bear market conditions on FTSE-100.

Design of a Cantilever - Type Rotating Bending Fatigue Testing Machine  [PDF]
K. K. Alaneme
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.1011078
Abstract: This research is centered on the design of a low–cost cantilever loading rotating bending fatigue testing machine using locally sourced materials. The design principle was based on the adaptation of the technical theory of bending of elastic beams. Design drawings were produced and components/materials selections were based on functionality, durability, cost and local availability. The major parts of the machine: the machine main frame, the rotating shaft, the bearing and the bearing housing, the specimen clamping system, pulleys, speed counter, electric motor, and dead weights; were fabricated and then assembled following the design specifications. The machine performance was evaluated using test specimens which were machined in conformity with standard procedures. It was observed that the machine has the potentials of generating reliable bending stress – number of cycles data; and the cost of design (171,000 Naira) was lower in comparison to that of rotating bending machines from abroad. Also the machine has the advantages of ease of operation and maintenance, and is safe for use.
FROM THE BOLOGNA DECLARATION IDEAS TO THE CREATION OF COL-LECTIVE INTELLIGENCE В Д ДЕЙ БОЛОНСЬКОЙ ДЕКЛАРАЦ ДО РЕАЛ Й СТВОРЕННЯ КОЛЕКТИВНОГО НТЕЛЕКТУ
K. Метешк?н,Х. Раковський
Information Technologies and Learning Tools , 2010,
Abstract: The results of Bologna process are investigated. It is underlined that theoretical – methodological bases of the Bologna process have been poorly developed. A scheme for master’s education both on requirements of separate states, and on requirements of EU is offered. Досл джуються п дсумки Болонського процесу. П дкреслю ться, що слабко розроблен теоретико-методолог чн основи Болонського процесу. Пропону ться схема навчання маг стр в, як для потреб окремих держав, так для потреб С.
THE FORMING OF NEW METHODOLOGICAL PARADIGM OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE MANAGEMENT ФОРМУВАННЯ НОВО МЕТОДОЛОГ ЧНО ПАРАДИГМИ УПРАВЛ ННЯ ОСВ ТОЮ НАУКОЮ
Х.В. Раковський,Н.Х. Раковська,K.О. Метешк?н
Information Technologies and Learning Tools , 2010,
Abstract: The process and phenomena connected with the initiation of new methodological paradigm of the scientific and educational management in Ukraine has been investigated. The paradigm is conditioned by global tendencies of informatization, development of communicative means and integrative processes in education and science У статт досл джен процеси та явища, пов’язан з зародженням в Укра н ново методолог чно парадигми управл ння осв тою наукою, яка обумовлена глобальними тенденц ями нформатизац , розвитком комун кац йних засоб в, а також нтеграц йними процесами в осв т та науц .
ДОБ Р КОМП'ЮТЕРНОГО ПРОГРАМНОГО ЗАБЕЗПЕЧЕННЯ ДИСТАНЦ ЙНОГО НАВЧАННЯ ДЛЯ ОРГАН ЗАЦ П СЛЯДИПЛОМНО ОСВ ТИ ВЧИТЕЛ В НФОРМАТИКИ DISTANCE LEARNING COMPUTER SOFTWARE FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF THE POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION FOR INFORMATICS TEACHERS
K.Р. Ковальська
Information Technologies and Learning Tools , 2010,
Abstract: У статт визначено та охарактеризовано основн вимоги до дистанц йних систем, що використовуються для забезпечення потреб навчального процесу; наведено низку безкоштовних систем управл ння навчальними ресурсами; зроблено пор вняльний анал з основних систем для визначення оптимально дистанц йно платформи до розвитку предметно-ор нтовно компетентност вчител в у п слядипломн й педагог чн осв т . The main demands to the distance learning systems which are used for providing the needs of the studying process are defined and characterized in the article. There is also a list of free of charge systems for the management of the educational resources. A comparative analysis of the main systems has been done for determining the optimal distance learning platform for the development of the teachers’ subject-oriented competence in the postgraduate pedagogical education.
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