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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 139475 matches for " K Praveen Karanth "
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Coalescent Method in Conjunction with Niche Modeling Reveals Cryptic Diversity among Centipedes in the Western Ghats of South India
Jahnavi Joshi, K. Praveen Karanth
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042225
Abstract: Background There has been growing interest in integrative taxonomy that uses data from multiple disciplines for species delimitation. Typically, in such studies, monophyly is taken as a proxy for taxonomic distinctiveness and these units are treated as potential species. However, monophyly could arise due to stochastic processes. Thus here, we have employed a recently developed tool based on coalescent approach to ascertain the taxonomic distinctiveness of various monophyletic units. Subsequently, the species status of these taxonomic units was further tested using corroborative evidence from morphology and ecology. This inter-disciplinary approach was implemented on endemic centipedes of the genus Digitipes (Attems 1930) from the Western Ghats (WG) biodiversity hotspot of India. The species of the genus Digitipes are morphologically conserved, despite their ancient late Cretaceous origin. Principal Findings Our coalescent analysis based on mitochondrial dataset indicated the presence of nine putative species. The integrative approach, which includes nuclear, morphology, and climate datasets supported distinctiveness of eight putative species, of which three represent described species and five were new species. Among the five new species, three were morphologically cryptic species, emphasizing the effectiveness of this approach in discovering cryptic diversity in less explored areas of the tropics like the WG. In addition, species pairs showed variable divergence along the molecular, morphological and climate axes. Conclusions A multidisciplinary approach illustrated here is successful in discovering cryptic diversity with an indication that the current estimates of invertebrate species richness for the WG might have been underestimated. Additionally, the importance of measuring multiple secondary properties of species while defining species boundaries was highlighted given variable divergence of each species pair across the disciplines.
Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Dating Suggest That Hemidactylus anamallensis Is Not a Member of the Hemidactylus Radiation and Has an Ancient Late Cretaceous Origin
Rohini Bansal, K. Praveen Karanth
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060615
Abstract: Background of the Work The phylogenetic position and evolution of Hemidactylus anamallensis (family Gekkonidae) has been much debated in recent times. In the past it has been variously assigned to genus Hoplodactylus (Diplodactylidae) as well as a monotypic genus ‘Dravidogecko’ (Gekkonidae). Since 1995, this species has been assigned to Hemidactylus, but there is much disagreement between authors regarding its phylogenetic position within this genus. In a recent molecular study H. anamallensis was sister to Hemidactylus but appeared distinct from it in both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. However, this study did not include genera closely allied to Hemidactylus, thus a robust evaluation of this hypothesis was not undertaken. Methods The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic position of H. anamallensis within the gekkonid radiation. To this end, several nuclear and mitochondrial markers were sequenced from H. anamallensis, selected members of the Hemidactylus radiation and genera closely allied to Hemidactylus. These sequences in conjunction with published sequences were subjected to multiple phylogenetic analyses. Furthermore the nuclear dataset was also subjected to molecular dating analysis to ascertain the divergence between H. anamallensis and related genera. Results and Conclusion Results showed that H. anamallensis lineage was indeed sister to Hemidactylus group but was separated from the rest of the Hemidactylus by a long branch. The divergence estimates supported a scenario wherein H. anamallensis dispersed across a marine barrier to the drifting peninsular Indian plate in the late Cretaceous whereas Hemidactylus arrived on the peninsular India after the Indian plate collided with the Eurasian plate. Based on these molecular evidence and biogeographical scenario we suggest that the genus Dravidogecko should be resurrected.
Delineating Ecological Boundaries of Hanuman Langur Species Complex in Peninsular India Using MaxEnt Modeling Approach
Nag Chetan, Karanth K. Praveen, Gururaja Kotambylu Vasudeva
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087804
Abstract: Hanuman langur is one of the widely distributed and extensively studied non-human diurnal primates in India. Until recently it was believed to be a single species - Semnopithecus entellus. Recent molecular and morphological studies suggest that the Hanuman langurs consists of at least three species S. entellus, S. hypoleucos and S. priam. Furthermore, morphological studies suggested that both S. hypoleucos and S. priam have at least three subspecies in each. We explored the use of ecological niche modeling (ENM) to confirm the validity of these seven taxa and an additional taxon S. johnii belonging to the same genus. MaxEnt modeling tool was used with 19 bioclimatic, 12 vegetation and 6 hydrological environmental layers. We reduced total environmental variables to 14 layers after testing for collinearity and an independent test for model prediction was done using ENMTools. A total of 196 non-overlapping data points from primary and secondary sources were used as inputs for ENM. Results showed eight distinct ecological boundaries, corroborating the eight taxa mentioned above thereby confirming validity of these eight taxa. The study, for the first time provided ecological variables that determined the ecological requirements and distribution of members of the Hanuman langur species complex in the Indian peninsula.
Phylogenetics and biogeography of a spectacular Old World radiation of butterflies: the subtribe Mycalesina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrini)
Ullasa Kodandaramaiah, David C Lees, Chris J Müller, Elizabeth Torres, K Praveen Karanth, Niklas Wahlberg
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-172
Abstract: The results indicate that the group Mycalesina radiated rapidly around the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Basal relationships are unresolved, but we recover six well-supported clades. Some species of Mycalesis are nested within a primarily Madagascan clade of Heteropsis, while Nirvanopsis is nested within Lohora. The phylogeny suggests that the group had its origin either in Asia or Africa, and diversified through dispersals between the two regions, during the late Oligocene and early Miocene. The current dataset tentatively suggests that the Madagascan fauna comprises two independent radiations. The Australasian radiation shares a common ancestor derived from Asia. We discuss factors that are likely to have played a key role in the diversification of the group.We propose a significantly revised classification scheme for Mycalesina. We conclude that the group originated and radiated from an ancestor that was found either in Asia or Africa, with dispersals between the two regions and to Australasia. Our phylogeny paves the way for further comparative studies on this group that will help us understand the processes underlying diversification in rapid radiations of invertebrates.Knowledge of phylogenetic relationships among the species comprising a rapid radiation has proved invaluable for detailed investigations into the processes and patterns of their diversification. There are still relatively few studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms of radiations for invertebrates, even in popular groups such as butterflies which feature prominent model-organisms in evolutionary biology [1]. It is the lack of robust phylogenies for such groups that has imposed a crucial impediment for comparative analyses. Among butterflies, a phylogenetic perspective has been applied to a number of radiations (e.g. [2-6]). However, few butterfly groups can compare with the mycalesine radiation (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Satyrini: Mycalesina) in terms of diversity of species and geographic swee
Flying between Sky Islands: The Effect of Naturally Fragmented Habitat on Butterfly Population Structure
Sandhya Sekar, Praveen Karanth
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071573
Abstract: High elevation montane areas are called “sky islands” when they occur as a series of high mountains separated by lowland valleys. Different climatic conditions at high elevations makes sky islands a specialized type of habitat, rendering them naturally fragmented compared to more continuous habitat at lower elevations. Species in sky islands face unsuitable climate in the intervening valleys when moving from one montane area to another. The high elevation shola-grassland mosaic in the Western Ghats of southern India form one such sky island complex. The fragmented patches make this area ideal to study the effect of the spatial orientation of suitable habitat patches on population genetic structure of species found in these areas. Past studies have suggested that sky islands tend to have genetically structured populations, possibly due to reduced gene flow between montane areas. To test this hypothesis, we adopted the comparative approach. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we compared population genetic structures of two closely related, similar sized butterfly species: Heteropsis oculus, a high elevation shola-grassland specialist restricted to the southern Western Ghats, and Mycalesis patnia, found more continuously distributed in lower elevations. In all analyses, as per expectation the sky island specialist H. oculus exhibited a greater degree of population genetic structure than M. patnia, implying a difference in geneflow. This difference in geneflow in turn appears to be due to the natural fragmentation of the sky island complexes. Detailed analysis of a subset of H. oculus samples from one sky island complex (the Anamalais) showed a surprising genetic break. A possible reason for this break could be unsuitable conditions of higher temperature and lower rainfall in the intervening valley region. Thus, sky island species are not only restricted by lack of habitat continuity between montane areas, but also by the nature of the intervening habitat.
CFD Analysis on the Effect of Radial Gap on Impeller-Diffuser Flow Interaction as well as on the Flow Characteristics of a Centrifugal Fan
K. Vasudeva Karanth,N. Yagnesh Sharma
International Journal of Rotating Machinery , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/293508
Abstract: The flow between the impeller exit and the diffuser entry (i.e., in the radial gap is generally considered to be complex). With the development of PIV and CFD tools such as moving mesh techniques, it is now possible to arrive at a prudent solution compatible with the physical nature of flow. In this work, numerical methodology involving moving mesh technique is used in predicting the real flow behavior, as exhibited when a target blade of the impeller is made to move past corresponding vane on the diffuser. Many research works have been undertaken using experimental and numerical methods on the impeller-diffuser interactive phenomenon. It is found from the literature that the effect of radial gap between impeller and diffuser on the interaction and on the performance of the fan has not been the focus of attention. Hence numerical analysis is undertaken in this work to explore and predict the flow behavior due to the radial gap. This has revealed the presence of an optimum radial gap which could provide better design characteristics or lower loss coefficient. It is found that there is a better energy conversion by the impeller and enhanced energy transformation by the diffuser, corresponding to optimum radial gap. The overall efficiency also found to increase for relatively larger gap.
Why the Indian Subcontinent Holds the Key to Global Tiger Recovery
Samrat Mondol,K. Ullas Karanth,Uma Ramakrishnan
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000585
Abstract: With only ~3,000 wild individuals surviving restricted to just 7% of their historical range, tigers are now a globally threatened species. Therefore, conservation efforts must prioritize regions that harbor more tigers, as well try to capture most of the remaining genetic variation and habitat diversity. Only such prioritization based on demographic, genetic, and ecological considerations can ensure species recovery and retention of evolutionary flexibility in the face of ongoing global changes. Although scientific understanding of ecological and demographic aspects of extant wild tiger populations has improved recently, little is known about their genetic composition and variability. We sampled 73 individual tigers from 28 reserves spread across a diversity of habitats in the Indian subcontinent to obtain 1,263 bp of mitochondrial DNA and 10 microsatellite loci. Our analyses reveals that Indian tigers retain more than half of the extant genetic diversity in the species. Coalescent simulations attribute this high genetic diversity to a historically large population size of about 58,200 tigers for peninsular India south of the Gangetic plains. Furthermore, our analyses indicate a precipitous, possibly human-induced population crash ~200 years ago in India, which is in concordance with historical records. Our results suggest that only 1.7% (with an upper limit of 13% and a lower limit of 0.2%) of tiger numbers in historical times remain now. In the global conservation context our results suggest that, based on genetic, demographic, and ecological considerations, the Indian subcontinent holds the key to global survival and recovery of wild tigers.
On a Dhole Trail: Examining Ecological and Anthropogenic Correlates of Dhole Habitat Occupancy in the Western Ghats of India
Arjun Srivathsa, Krithi K. Karanth, Devcharan Jathanna, N. Samba Kumar, K. Ullas Karanth
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098803
Abstract: Although they play a critical role in shaping ecological communities, many threatened predator species are data-deficient. The Dhole Cuon alpinus is one such rare canid with a global population thought to be <2500 wild individuals. We assessed habitat occupancy patterns of dholes in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India, to understand ecological and anthropogenic determinants of their distribution and habitat-use. We conducted spatially replicated detection/non-detection surveys of dhole signs along forest trails at two appropriate scales: the entire landscape and a single wildlife reserve. Landscape-scale habitat occupancy was assessed across 38,728 km2 surveying 206 grid cells of 188-km2 each. Finer scale habitat-use within 935 km2 Bandipur Reserve was studied surveying 92 grid cells of 13-km2 km each. We analyzed the resulting data of dhole signs using likelihood-based habitat occupancy models. The models explicitly addressed the problematic issue of imperfect detection of dhole signs during field surveys as well as potential spatial auto-correlation between sign detections made on adjacent trail segments. We show that traditional ‘presence versus absence’ analyses underestimated dhole habitat occupancy by 60% or 8682 km2 [na?ve = 0.27; (SE) = 0.68 (0.08)] in the landscape. Addressing imperfect sign detections by estimating detection probabilities [(L) (SE) = 0.12 (0.11)] was critical for reliable estimation. Similar underestimation occurred while estimating habitat-use probability at reserve-scale [na?ve = 0.39; (SE) = 0.71 (0.06)]. At landscape scale, relative abundance of principal ungulate prey primarily influenced dhole habitat occupancy. Habitat-use within a reserve, however, was predominantly and negatively influenced by anthropogenic disturbance. Our results are the first rigorous assessment of dhole occupancy at multiple spatial scales with potential conservation value. The approach used in this study has potential utility for cost-effectively assessing spatial distribution and habitat-use in other species, landscapes and reserves.
Umbilical metastasis: An unusual presentation of pancreatic adenocarcinoma
Pranjali K,Prabhash K,Karanth V,Kane S
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2007,
Genetic Variability and Direct Selection Criterion for Seed Yield in Segregating Generations of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  [PDF]
Sunil K. Yadav, Ashok K. Singh, Praveen Pandey, Smita Singh
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.69153
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine nature and extent of variability parameters and their utilization in barley breeding programme. A total of 45 F1s along with their parents and F2 populations were evaluated in a randomized block design with 3 replications during Rabi (winter season) 2014. The various traits measured were days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, flag leaf area, upper leaf area, tillers-plant, spikes-plant, spike length, grains-spike, spike weight, grain weight-spike, spike harvest index, 1000 grain weight, biological yield-plant, grain yield-plant (g), harvest index, grain size, husk content and protein content. Results showed that significant variation was observed for all the traits studied in the entire gene pool. The degree of genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation was high for tillers-plant, spike-plant, grain yield-plant, flag leaf area, harvest index, 1000 grain weight, grain weight-spike, upper leaf area and husk content. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was recorded for tillers-plant, spikes-plant, grain yield-plant, flag leaf area, harvest index, grain weight-spike, upper leaf area, husk content, grain size and plant height suggesting that these traits are highly heritable and governed by additive gene action. Moderate heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for 1000 grain weight, biological yield-plant, spike length, protein content, grains-spike and spike weight; however, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity had moderate heritability coupled with low genetic advance suggesting preponderance on non-additive gene action in the inheritance of these traits. It could be concluded that
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