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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 139300 matches for " K Owusu-Darko "
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Evaluation of two novel Ziehl-Neelsen methods for tuberculosis diagnosis
EH Frimpong, R Adukpo, K Owusu-Darko
West African Journal of Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: Background: Currently, the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Ghana relies on direct sputum smear, Ziehl- Neelsen (ZN) staining method. This method has low sensitivity and poses some health risks. The study was to compare the, direct sputum smear, (ZN) staining method against two newer ZN methods; 1% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL)-xylene floatation and 1% NaOCL sedimentation methods, to determine the most sensitive and the safest. Study design: A prospective descriptive study involving 150 adult patients attending Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana suspected of pulmonary tuberculosis, using the three ZN microscopy methods: direct sputum smear, 1% NaOCL sedimentation, and 1% NaOCL-xylene floatation, for the detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB). Sputum culture on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) slopes was used as the gold standard for determining the sensitivity and specificity rates. Results: The sensitivity rates of NaOCL sedimentation, NaOCL-xylene floatation and direct smear methods were 77.2%, 71.8% and 66.3% respectively. The specificity rate was 95.9 % for all three methods. Whereas the difference between the NaOCL sedimentation and the direct smear methods was statistically significant (P= 0.0446), that between the NaOCL-xylene floatation and direct smear was not (P=0.1788). Conclusion: In spite of the cost of chemicals, the hypochlorite sedimentation method was found to be the most accurate and the safest.
First Nationwide Survey on the Resistance to First Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs in Ghana  [PDF]
Kennedy K. Addo, Richard Owusu, Christian Bonsu, Kwaku Owusu-Darko, Samuel O. Addo, Gloria I. Mensah, Mercy J. Newman, David Ofori-Adjei, Frank A. Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.61007
Abstract: Background/objective: A nationwide survey on the resistance to first line anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs was conducted in Ghana from 2007-2008 by Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research in collaboration with the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. We aimed to characterize mycobacterial species causing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and determine the resistance pattern to first line anti-TB drugs among newly diagnosed and previously treated PTB patients in Ghana. Methods: Two sputum samples from consented new smear positive PTB patients who had never been treated for TB or had been on anti-TB treatment for less than a month and patients who had been treated for TB previously for more than a month in selected diagnostic centres nationwide were collected for culture, identification and drug susceptibility test. Culture positive isolates were tested against streptomycin (S), isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R) and ethambutol (E) using the simplified proportion method and line probe assay (LPA). The LPA was performed in mid-2017. Results: Among 410 samples, 345 positive cultures were obtained and identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Of the 345 isolates, 133 were further differentiated by GenoType MTBC® as M. tuberculosis, 126 (94.7%) and M. africanum 7 (5.3%). The overall drug resistance patterns were as follows: 43/345 (12.5%), 6/345 (1.7%), 9/345 (2.6%) and 71/345 (20.6%) were resistant to H, R, E and S respectively and 5/345 (1.4%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Conclusion: The results indicate high levels of resistance to S and H among new and previously treated TB patients. We recommend adequate surveillance systems including periodic national anti-TB drug resistance surveys.
Microbiological quality of “Khebab” consumed in the Accra metropolis
D Agbodaze, PNA Nmai, FC Robertson, D Yeboah-Manu, K Owusu-Darko, KK Addo
Ghana Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: The study was carried out in 2003 to evaluate the microbial load in “khebab”, meat products from pork, and beef, which are vended in most of the streets and some public drinking places, either with alcoholic or non-alcoholic drinks. Osu (Alata), Nima-Kotobabi and Central Accra (Adabraka – very close to the main lorry station), all in the Accra Metropolis, were selected for the investigation. The main reason for the selection of these sites was based on the population density as well as patronage for the khebab. Our main interest for this investigation was to assess the microbial load in khebab as far as enteric pathogen and other pathogenic micro-organisms reported earlier in the raw meat are concerned. Thirty samples of khebab were bought from these sampling points. Results obtained from samples at Osu recorded mean total plate count (TPC) of 5.02, Accra Central samples had TPC of 4.08 and those from Nima had TPC of 4.80 log10 colony-forming units (cfu) per gram of khebab. Samples from Accra Central recorded the highest mean coliform count (5.12) whist samples bought from Osu and Nima recorded 4.41 and 3.70 log10 cfu/g respectively. Accra Central samples again recorded the highest faecal coliforms (4.4 log10 cfu/g) as compared to 3.98 and 3.80 log10 cfu/g for samples bought from Osu and Nima respectively. Salmonella ssp were not isolated from the samples bought at the three sampling sites. Khebab samples from sites were contaminated with E. coli, other gram-negative bacteria and Staphylococcus species, whose virulence factor(s) are yet to be determined. The faecal coliforms enumerated could originate from either humans or the animals slaughtered for the khebab. Staphylococcus species could originate from the vendors. Vendors have to be educated on hygienic practices which could help reduce risks of food-borne infection. Skin disinfection can be done by a thorough wash. Vendors could also be educated to stop selling their products to customers once they have bouts of diarrhoea, vomiting and “fever”. Washing of their hands with soap and water before serving their customers could also help reduce the risk of food-borne infection from eating their products.
Cocoyam (corms and cormels)—An underexploited food and feed resource  [PDF]
Patricia G. Owusu-Darko, Alistair Paterson, Emmanuel L. Omenyo
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2014.31004
Abstract: Cocoyams (old-taro: Colocasia esculenta; newtannia: Xanthosoma sagittifolium) yield corms as root crops produced in regions of tropical and subtropical developing countries. In certain countries such as Ghana, there are surpluses in production but deficits in cereals. Cocoyams are used in a range of indigenous foods. Post harvest losses are high due to mechanical damage of corms during harvest and microbial attacks on such damaged corms during storage. Cocoyams contain, on average, 25% starch (wet weight basis) with A-type structures characterized by small granule size (<1.5 μm). Non-starch polysaccharides in cocoyams confer gummy properties to the starch. However, mechanical effects of raphides—crystals of calcium oxalate and other components—produce irritation when raw corm tissue is ingested resulting in several levels of discomfort. With appropriate processing, cocoyams could be a rich source of starch for food and industrial applications and corms have potential for new product development. Stabilizing cocoyam crops and adding value could greatly improve its utilization in cocoyam producing countries.
Mycobacterial species causing pulmonary tuberculosis At the korle bu teaching hospital, Accra,
K.K Addo, K Owusu-darko, D Yeboah-manu, P Caulley, M Minamikawa, F Bonsu, C Leinhardt, P Akpedonu, D Ofori-adjei
Ghana Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: Characterize mycobacterial species causing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. Design: Sputum smear positive samples, two (2) from 70 patients diagnosed as having tuberculosis, after they had consented, were collected from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic between January and July 2003. Setting: Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. Results: Sixty-four mycobacterial isolates were obtained and confirmed as members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by colonial morphology and conventional biochemical assays. Fortyseven (73%) were M. tuberculosis, the human strain, 2 (3%) M. bovis, the bovine strain, 13 (20%) M. africanum I (West Africa type), and 2 (3%) M. africanum II (East Africa type). Conclusion: The results indicate that, there are various strains causing PTB at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and of great concern is M. bovis, which mostly causes extra-PTB in humans but found to cause PTB in this study. This calls for the need to conduct a nationwide survey using both conventional and molecular techniques to characterize various mycobacterial species causing TB in Ghana. This will result in better understanding of the various strains circulating in the country and inform individual TB treatment regimen especially the inclusion or exclusion of pyrazinamide.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis in Ghana: The role of laboratory training
KK Addo, D Yeboah-Manu, M Dan-Dzide, K Owusu-darko, P Caulley, GI Mensah, M Minamikawa, C Lienhardt, FA Bonsu, D Ofori-Adjei
Ghana Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: The laboratory is considered the cornerstone of tuberculosis (TB) control programme. International review of Ghana’s programme in the late nineties identified the laboratory services as the weakest component. Sputum smear microscopy (SSM) being the main method of diagnosing pulmonary TB in Ghana, the training objectives were to: (i) strengthen the knowledge and skills of laboratory personnel on SSM (ii) impart necessary techniques in biosafety and (iii) introduce a Quality Assurance (QA) system in order to strengthen SSM services. Methods: Personnel were selected for training during a nationwide situation analysis of SSM centres in 2000/2001. Four training sessions on SSM/QA were held between 2001/2004. Results: A total of 80 personnel were trained: 10 regional TB coordinators and 70 laboratory personnel. The participants upon return to their respective regions also organized training within their districts. This approach resulted in another 100 district TB coordinators and 200 laboratory personnel being trained. Improvement in smear preparation, staining and reading ability of the participants were observed during the post-test and subsequent visit to their respective laboratories. The training has led to strengthening of TB laboratory services in the country and has contributed to increase in case detection from 10,745 in 2000 to 11,827 in 2004 and 14,022 in 2008. It was observed during the post-training follow-up and quarterly supervision visits that morale of the personnel was high. Conclusion: Continuous training and re-training of laboratory personnel on SSM and QA at regular intervals do play an important role for effective and efficient TB control programme.
Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?
Mensah,Patience; Yeboah-Manu,Dorothy; Owusu-Darko,Kwaku; Ablordey,Anthony;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862002000700006
Abstract: objective: to investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. methods: structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. findings: most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. diarrhoea was defined as the passage of 33 stools per day) by 110 vendors (94.0%), but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9%) associated diarrhoea with germs. the surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4%) were classified as very dirty. the cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%): 28 contained bacillus cereus (5.5%), 163 contained staphylococcus aureus (31.9%) and 172 contained enterobacteriaceae (33.7%). the microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and salmonella arizonae from light soup. conclusion: street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene.
Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?
Mensah Patience,Yeboah-Manu Dorothy,Owusu-Darko Kwaku,Ablordey Anthony
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or = 3 stools per day) by 110 vendors (94.0%), but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9%) associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4%) were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%): 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%), 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9%) and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%). The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. CONCLUSION: Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene.
Body Mass Index and Percentage Body Fat Determination in Cancer Patients  [PDF]
J. Owusu-Banahene, E. O. Darko, F. Hasford
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2018.84034
Abstract: Body Mass Index (BMI) and Percentage Body Fat (%BF) values have been determined in cancer patients. In the study, 83 adult cancer patients were assessed of which 15 (18.1%) were males and 68 (81.9%) females. Body weight and height of individual patients were used in calculating their respective BMI values. The respective %BF values were determined taking into consideration of the age, gender and BMI. Maximum values of BMI (34.71 kg/m2) and %BF (46.37%) were obtained, for which they were females and the minimum values of BMI (12.08 kg/m2) and %BF (12.35%) respectively. The patient with the minimum %BF value was male and that of BMI was female. It was observed from the results that females have higher values of both BMI and %BF than their male counterparts. The study reveals higher rate of female cancer incidence than males.
Scatter Radiation Dose Assessment in the Radiology Department of Cape Coast Teaching Hospital-Ghana  [PDF]
J. Owusu-Banahene, E. O. Darko, D. F. Charles, A. Maruf, I. Hanan, G. Amoako
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2018.84033
Abstract: During the operation of an X-ray machine, if the radiation protection of X-ray room is insufficient, not only the patient but also clinical staffs as well as public are exposed to high X-ray exposures. In this research work, leakage and scattered radiations were measured from X-ray machine in the radiology department of Cape Coast Teaching hospital in the Cape Coast Municipality of Ghana. The scattered radiation exposures of X-rays in some selected areas within the facility were measured. The X-ray machine was operated for a range of kilo voltage peaks of kVp 77, 70, 63 and 66 with intensities 20, 6.3 and 8.0 mAs, which represents the main technique factors of some body parts such as chest, lumbar spine and extremities during radiographic examinations. The measurements were performed using a RADOS-120 Universal survey meter. The radiation doses rates measured in the various locations in the Radiology Department of Cape Coast Teaching Hospital of Ghana were in the range of 0.10 μSv/hr to 0.12 μSv/hr. These values were all within the background measurement of 0.10 μSv/hr. Moreover, there were no risks of high radiation doses to patients, staffs and people visiting the X-ray department. The results obtained indicated that within the radiology department of the Hospital, all the selected locations were very safe to patients, occupational workers and the general public which could be attributed to adequate shielding in the facility.
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