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A Comparison of the Statutory Provisions of the United Kingdom (UK) Companies Act 2006 and Ghana’s Companies Act 1963 (Act 179), to the Rule in Foss v Harbottle  [PDF]
Alhassan Salifu Bawah
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2019.101009
Abstract: This paper adopts the comparative approach in its bid to compare the exceptions to the rule in Foss v Harbottle1 under the statutory provisions of the UK Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006), and Ghana’s Companies Act 1963 (Act 179). The rationale is to critically examine the differences and commonalities of the Companies Acts of both the UK and Ghana. The article argues that minority shareholders in Ghana are given more protection in terms of the avenues opened to them to bring actions against the company or the controlling majority shareholders as compared to what pertains in the United Kingdom.
Restrictive Foreign Sovereign Immunity in the United Kingdom (UK): A Welcome Development in International Commercial Transactions  [PDF]
Alhassan Salifu Bawah
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2019.101010
Abstract: The doctrine of absolute foreign State immunity to a great degree, appeared to stifle commercial transactions between contracting State parties and the private sector. Statute and earlier case law both attest to the absolute immunity of foreign States from the English courts’ jurisdiction. However, latter dicta of the English courts under the UK State Immunity Act 1978 (SIA 1978), successfully made a distinction between instances where a State’s actions were wholly of governmental character and some actions of the government that appeared commercial in nature, with basically features, similar to normal commercial transactions entered into by private individuals and companies. This paper, after a careful and painstaking overview of recent cases, concludes that the drift towards restrictive foreign State immunity by the English courts with respect to commercial transactions entered into by States, is a healthy development that carries the advantage of creating greater transparency, which in turn gives assurance to private individuals and companies that the State could be held liable for a breach of its commercial contractual obligations. Without this development, governments such as the Chinese government, which is basically operating as a “commercial/business conglomerate”, can argue State immunity in disputes involving commercial transactions entered into between the Chinese government and the private sector. This research, would in no small way, encourage private individuals and companies to enter into commercial transactions with sovereign States without hesitation, safe in the knowledge that the UK courts, are ready and willing to hold contracting State parties in commercial transactions, accountably.
An Evaluation of the Clinical Assessments of Under-Five Febrile Children Presenting to Primary Health Facilities in Rural Ghana
Frank Baiden, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Justina Bawah, Jane Bruce, Mathilda Tivura, Rupert Delmini, Stephaney Gyaase, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Daniel Chandramohan, Jayne Webster
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028944
Abstract: Background The shift to test-based management of malaria represents an important departure from established practice under the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI). The possibility of false results of tests for malaria and co-morbidity, however, make it important that guidelines in IMCI case assessment are still followed. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional observational study to evaluate current practices in IMCI-based assessment of febrile children in 10 health centres and 5 district hospitals, with follow up of a subset of children to determine day 7–10 post-treatment clinical outcome. Clinical consultation, examination and prescribing practices were recorded using a checklist by trained non-medical observers. The facility case management of 1,983 under-five years old febrile children was observed and 593 followed up at home on days 5–10. The mean number of tasks performed from the 11 tasks expected to be done by the IMCI guidelines was 6 (SD 1.6). More than 6 tasks were performed in only 35% of children and this varied substantially between health facilities (range 3–85%). All 11 tasks were performed in only 1% of children. The most commonly performed tasks were temperature measurement (91%) and weighing (88%). Respiratory rate was checked in only 4% of children presenting with cough or difficulty in breathing. The likelihood of performing “better than average number of tasks” (>6) was higher when the consultation was done by medical assistants than doctors (O.R. = 3.16, 1.02–9.20). The number of tasks performed during assessment did not, however, influence clinical outcome (O.R. = 1.02, 0.83–1.24). Conclusion Facility-tailored interventions are needed to improve adherence to IMCI guidelines incorporating test-based management of malaria. Studies are needed to re-evaluate the continued validity of tasks defined in IMCI case assessment guidelines.
Between Care and the Ethics of Utility: Towards a Better Human Social Relationship  [PDF]
Justina O. Ehiakhamen
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.42020

Michael Schluter and David Lee among other scholars decry the extent of erosion in genuine personal relationships among human persons in present day societies. The concern it generates is consequent upon the social ills prevalent among humankind ranging from corruption, poverty, unemployment, armed robbery, kidnapping (adult napping), human trafficking, drug trafficking, internet fraud, ritual killings, conflicts, wars and a host of others. The wave of these social vices has been identified as a moral problem, which emanates from failure of the human person to develop a strong moral sense in present-day society with the emergence of democracy and market economy. This is so because if principles of moral actions are socially weak, they are usually unable to ensure a healthy inter-personal relationship as well as a healthy society. Given this backdrop, the paper attempts to interrogate the social import of an ethic of utility and care in order to come to terms with which would foster social relationships in contemporary society for the achievement of human well-being, viable and sustainable development.

Zwischen Reflexiv and Passiv: zwei ausgew hlte reflexive Konstruktionen des Deutchen. Tarp sangr os ir pasyvo: dviej vokie i kalbos sangr ini konstrukcij analiz
Justina Daunorien?
Kalbotyra , 2008,
Abstract: Straipsnyje skaitytojai supa indinami su dviem gana naujais vokie i kalbotyroje terminais – me-diopasyvas (Mediopassiv) ir sangr os pasyvas (Reflexivpassiv). iais terminais apibūdinamos dvi sangr in s vokie i kalbos konstrukcijos, kurioms pastaraisiais metais skiriama itin daug d mesio. Mediopasyvas yra sangr in konstrukcija, neturinti semantin s sangr os reik m s, o savo reik me visi kai atitinkanti veiksmo pasyv . Sangr os pasyvas yra retesn ir vokie i kalbos gramati-kose da niausiai net neminima konstrukcija, kuri nekamojoje kalboje, prie ingai, yra sutinkama gana da nai. i konstrukcija sudaroma i sangr ini veiksma od i , kuri semantiniai po ymiai neleid ia sudaryti pasyvini form , ir jai būdinga veiksmo pasyvo forma. Daugelio kalbos tyr j nuomone, ios dvi konstrukcijos ligi iol u ima neapibr t viet tarp sangr os ir pasyvo.
Bedeutungswandel bei den reflexiven Verben im Deutschen. Vokie i kalbos refleksyvini veiksma od i reik m s kaita
Justina Daunorien?
Kalbotyra , 2007,
Abstract: Straipsnyje i keliama problema, kad iuolaikin s kalbotyros darbuose, nagrin jan iuose sangr ini veiksma od i grup , labai ma ai d mesio skiriama istorinei i veiksma od i analizei. Nuosekli form ir reik mi ap valga suteikt galimyb tiksliau paai kinti iandienin je kalboje vartojamas sangr ines veiksma od i konstrukcijas. Did ioji straipsnio dalis skiriama atskir vokie i kalbos sangr ini veiksma od i reik mi analizei, polisemijos problemai, bandoma nustatyti vykusius reik m s kitimus bei j prie astis ir juos iliustruoti kalbos vartojimo pavyzd iais i vairi vokie i kalbos raidos period . Atlikta analiz reik m s kitimus leid ia skirstyti tris pagrindines grupes: kitimai d l pasikeitusio veiksma od io aktant i sid stymo, d l sangr in s formos praradimo ir d l veiksma od io vartojimo metaforizuota reik me.
Zur Reflexivit t der deutschen Verben: Was umfasst der Begriff reflexiv“? Veiksma od io sangr a vokie i kalboje: K apima s voka sangr inis“?
Justina Daunorien?
Kalbotyra , 2008,
Abstract: Straipsnis nagrin ja problem , kad iuolaikin s kalbotyros darbuose, tirian iuose sangr ini veiksma od i grup , vartojami labai vairūs terminai, apibr iantys sangr ini veiksma od i grup , sangr ines konstrukcijas ir j gramatines funkcijas. Kartais tie patys terminai taikomi skir-tingoms konstrukcijoms nusakyti. Be to, pa ioje sangr ini veiksma od i grup je n ra pasiektas vieningas skirstymas pogrupius. Straipsnyje minimi lingvist da niausiai vartojami sangr os apibū-dinimui skirti terminai, lyginami vienas su kitu, pateikiamos terminologin s pastabos.
Case 3
Justina Sam
University of Toronto Medical Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.5015/utmj.v81i2.717
Collective violence and attitudes of women toward intimate partner violence: Evidence from the Niger Delta
Diddy Antai, Justina Antai
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-9-12
Abstract: The 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was used for this study. Respondents were selected using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling procedure through which 3725 women were selected and interviewed. These women contributed 6029 live born children born to the survey. Internal consistency of the measure of the women's attitudes towards intimate partner violence against a woman was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (α). Percentage distributions of the relevant characteristics of the respondents were carried out, and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to measure the magnitude and direction of the relationship between the outcome and predictor variables were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and statistical significance was determined at the 95 percent confident interval level (CI).Tolerance for intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger delta (47 percent) was higher than that of women from the rest of the country (42 percent). Rural residence, lower household wealth, lower status occupations, and media access (newspaper and radio) were associated with higher risk of justifying IPV among the women in the Niger Delta. In contrast full or partial autonomy in household decisions regarding food to be cooked, and access to television were associated with a lower risk of justifying violence.The increased justification of intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger Delta could be explained by a combination of factors, among which are cognitive dissonance theory (attitudes that do not fit with other opinions they hold as a means of coping with their situation), ecological theory (behaviour or attitudes being shaped by current factors in their neighbourhood, community or family), and gender-role attitudes. Further in-depth studies are required to fully understand women's attitudes toward violence in areas of conflictIntimate partner violence (IPV) against women is the most common form of violence against women [1]. It is now a well kno
Definite descriptions, misdescriptions and semantic content: different ways to solve a tricky puzzle
Díaz Legaspe,Justina;
An??lisis filos?3fico , 2009,
Abstract: michael devitt (2004, 2007) claims that the predicative material that constitutes complex referential expressions makes a semantic contribution to the proposition expressed. he thus deviates from direct referentialism, according to which every referential expression -either simple or complex- contributes just with an object to the proposition expressed, leaving the predicative material out of the semantic content. however, when dealing with misdescriptions, devitt has suggested a pragmatic way out: the audience can understand what the speaker is referring to even if the object does not fall under the corresponding description. from my perspective, this proposal questions the semantic validity of the predicative material, together with devitt's original claim. in this paper, i propose a way to solve the problem posed by misdescriptions that appeals to the idea of epistemically relativized properties, according to which the properties ascribed to the object -by means of the predicative material- correspond to the way the speaker thinks of it and not to the way the object really is.
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