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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401269 matches for " Just M Vlak "
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Heterogeneous Host Susceptibility Enhances Prevalence of Mixed-Genotype Micro-Parasite Infections
Wopke van der Werf ,Lia Hemerik ,Just M. Vlak,Mark P. Zwart
PLOS Computational Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002097
Abstract: Dose response in micro-parasite infections is usually shallower than predicted by the independent action model, which assumes that each infectious unit has a probability of infection that is independent of the presence of other infectious units. Moreover, the prevalence of mixed-genotype infections was greater than predicted by this model. No probabilistic infection model has been proposed to account for the higher prevalence of mixed-genotype infections. We use model selection within a set of four alternative models to explain high prevalence of mixed-genotype infections in combination with a shallow dose response. These models contrast dependent versus independent action of micro-parasite infectious units, and homogeneous versus heterogeneous host susceptibility. We specifically consider a situation in which genome differences between genotypes are minimal, and highly unlikely to result in genotype-genotype interactions. Data on dose response and mixed-genotype infection prevalence were collected by challenging fifth instar Spodoptera exigua larvae with two genotypes of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), differing only in a 100 bp PCR marker sequence. We show that an independent action model that includes heterogeneity in host susceptibility can explain both the shallow dose response and the high prevalence of mixed-genotype infections. Theoretical results indicate that variation in host susceptibility is inextricably linked to increased prevalence of mixed-genotype infections. We have shown, to our knowledge for the first time, how heterogeneity in host susceptibility affects mixed-genotype infection prevalence. No evidence was found that virions operate dependently. While it has been recognized that heterogeneity in host susceptibility must be included in models of micro-parasite transmission and epidemiology to account for dose response, here we show that heterogeneity in susceptibility is also a fundamental principle explaining patterns of pathogen genetic diversity among hosts in a population. This principle has potentially wide implications for the monitoring, modeling and management of infectious diseases.
Evolutionary Trajectory of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Genome Shrinkage during Spread in Asia
Mark P. Zwart,Bui Thi Minh Dieu,Lia Hemerik,Just M. Vlak
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013400
Abstract: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the sole member of the novel Nimaviridae family, and the source of major economic problems in shrimp aquaculture. WSSV appears to have rapidly spread worldwide after the first reported outbreak in the early 1990s. Genomic deletions of various sizes occur at two loci in the WSSV genome, the ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 variable regions, and these have been used as molecular markers to study patterns of viral spread over space and time. We describe the dynamics underlying the process of WSSV genome shrinkage using empirical data and a simple mathematical model.
In silico identification of putative promoter motifs of White Spot Syndrome Virus
Hendrik Marks, Xin-Ying Ren, Hans Sandbrink, Mari?lle CW van Hulten, Just M Vlak
BMC Bioinformatics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-7-309
Abstract: The collective information shows that the upstream region of early WSSV genes, containing a TATA box and an initiator, is similar to Drosophila RNA polymerase II core promoter sequences, suggesting utilization of the cellular transcription machinery for generating early transcripts. The alignment of the 5' ends of known well-established late genes, including all major structural protein genes, identified a degenerate motif (ATNAC) which could be involved in WSSV late transcription. For these genes, only one contained a functional TATA box. However, almost half of the WSSV late genes, as previously assigned by microarray analysis, did contain a TATA box in their upstream region.The data may suggest the presence of two separate classes of late WSSV genes, one exploiting the cellular RNA polymerase II system for mRNA synthesis and the other generating messengers by a new virus-induced transcription mechanism.White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), type species of the virus family Nimaviridae (genus whispovirus), is a pathogen of major economic importance in cultured penaeid shrimp [1,2]. Histopathological studies on WSSV infected shrimp have shown that the virus mainly infects tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin, such as the stomach, gills, heart, gut, muscle tissue and hematopoietic tissue [3-5]. Infected cells within these tissues are characterized by the appearance of homogeneous hypertrophied nuclei and chromatin margination [1,5,6]. WSSV particles have been mainly detected in the nuclei of infected cells, indicating that transcription, replication and virion assembly probably occur in the nucleus [5-8]. It is not clear how the virions are released from the nucleus of an infected cell, but this most likely occurs by budding or by rupture of the nuclear envelope and/or the cell membrane.The circular ds DNA genome of three WSSV isolates, originating from Taiwan (WSSV-TW), China (WSSV-CN) and Thailand (WSSV-TH), have been completely sequenced [9-11]. The genome of W
Functional analysis of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus IAP1 and IAP2
XianDong Zeng,Fang Nan,ChangYong Liang,JianHua Song,Qian Wang,Just M. Vlak,XinWen Chen
Science China Life Sciences , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s11427-009-0105-5
Abstract: The Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) contains three apoptosis suppressor genes: p35, iap1 and iap2. AcMNPV P35 functions as a pancaspase inhibitor, but the function of IAP1 and IAP2 has not been entirely resolved. In this paper, we analyze the function of IAP1 and IAP2 in detail. AcMNPV with p35-deletion inhibited the apoptosis of BTI-Tn-5B1-4 (Tn-Hi5) cells induced by a Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid NPV (HearNPV) infection and rescued the replication of HearNPV and BV production in these cells. Transient-expression experiments indicated that both IAP1 and IAP2 suppress apoptosis of Tn-Hi5 cells during HearNPV infection. Recombinant HearNPVs expressing AcMNPV iap1, iap2 and p35, respectively, not only prevented apoptosis but also allowed HearNPV to replicate in Tn-Hi5 cells. However, the iap1, iap2 and p35 genes when expressed in HearNPV were unable to rescue BV production. These results indicate that both AcMNPV iap1 and iap2 function independently as apoptosis inhibitors of and are potential host range factors.
苜蓿银纹夜蛾核多角体病毒iap1和iap2基因功能分析
曾宪东,南方,梁昌镛,宋建华,王倩,Just M. Vlak,陈新文
中国科学 生命科学 , 2009,
Abstract: 苜蓿银纹夜蛾核多角体病毒(Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus,AcMNPV)基因组含有3个细胞凋亡抑制基因,即p35,iap1和iap2.其中,p35作为一个有效的依赖于天冬氨酸的半胱氨酸蛋白酶(caspase)抑制因子,能够抑制多种因素诱发细胞凋亡,而iap1和iap2的功能仍未完全明晰,本研究对IAP1和IAP2的功能进行了详细分析.缺失了p35的AcMNPV仍可抑制棉铃虫核多角体病毒(Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid NPV,HearNPV)诱导的BTI-Tn-5B1-4(Tn-Hi5)细胞凋亡并挽救HearNPV在Tn-Hi5细胞中复制及HearNPV出芽型病毒粒子的产生.进一步构建了瞬时表达质粒以及分别表达AcMNPV的p35,iap1和iap2基因的重组HearNPV,转染瞬时表达的IAP1和IAP2对HearNPV感染诱导的Tn-Hi5细胞凋亡有抑制效果,而重组病毒感染Tn-Hi5细胞也可抑制其凋亡并在其中复制,然而重组HearNPV表达的p35,iap1和iap2并未能挽救出芽型病毒粒子的产生....
Functional analysis of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus IAP1 and IAP2

XianDong Zeng,Fang Nan,ChangYong Liang,JianHua Song,Qian Wang,Just M Vlak,XinWen Chen,

中国科学C辑(英文版) , 2009,
Abstract: The Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) contains three apoptosis suppressor genes: p35, iap1 and iap2. AcMNPV P35 functions as a pancaspase inhibitor, but the function of IAP1 and IAP2 has not been entirely resolved. In this paper, we analyze the function of IAP1 and IAP2 in de-tail. AcMNPV with p35-deletion inhibited the apoptosis of BTI-Tn-5B1-4 (Tn-Hi5) cells induced by a Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid NPV (HearNPV) infection and rescued the replication of HearNPV and BV production in these cells. Transient-expression experiments indicated that both IAP1 and IAP2 suppress apoptosis of Tn-Hi5 cells during HearNPV infection. Recombinant HearNPVs ex-pressing AcMNPV iap1, iap2 and p35, respectively, not only prevented apoptosis but also allowed HearNPV to replicate in Tn-Hi5 cells. However, the iap1, iap2 and p35 genes when expressed in HearNPV were unable to rescue BV production. These results indicate that both AcMNPV iap1 and iap2 function independently as apoptosis inhibitors of and are potential host range factors.
苜蓿银纹夜蛾核多角体病毒iap1和iap2基因功能分析
曾宪东,南方,梁昌镛,宋建华,王倩,Just,M.,Vlak,陈新文
中国科学 生命科学 , 2009,
Abstract: 苜蓿银纹夜蛾核多角体病毒(Autographacalifornicanucleopolyhedrovirus,AcMNPV)基因组含有3个细胞凋亡抑制基因,即p35,iap1和iap2.其中,p35作为一个有效的依赖于天冬氨酸的半胱氨酸蛋白酶(caspase)抑制因子,能够抑制多种因素诱发细胞凋亡,而iap1和iap2的功能仍未完全明晰,本研究对IAP1和IAP2的功能进行了详细分析.缺失了p35的AcMNPV仍可抑制棉铃虫核多角体病毒(HelicoverpaarmigerasinglenucleocapsidNPV,HearNPV)诱导的BTI-Tn-5B1-4(Tn-Hi5)细胞凋亡并挽救HearNPV在Tn-Hi5细胞中复制及HearNPV出芽型病毒粒子的产生.进一步构建了瞬时表达质粒以及分别表达AcMNPV的p35,iap1和iap2基因的重组HearNPV,转染瞬时表达的IAP1和IAP2对HearNPV感染诱导的Tn-Hi5细胞凋亡有抑制效果,而重组病毒感染Tn-Hi5细胞也可抑制其凋亡并在其中复制,然而重组HearNPV表达的p35,iap1和iap2并未能挽救出芽型病毒粒子的产生.结果表明,AcMNPV的iap1和iap2基因表达产物作为细胞凋亡抑制因子是有功能的.
Effective Chikungunya Virus-like Particle Vaccine Produced in Insect Cells
Stefan W. Metz,Joy Gardner,Corinne Geertsema,Thuy T. Le,Lucas Goh,Just M. Vlak,Andreas Suhrbier,Gorben P. Pijlman
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002124
Abstract: The emerging arthritogenic, mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes severe disease in humans and represents a serious public health threat in countries where Aedes spp mosquitoes are present. This study describes for the first time the successful production of CHIKV virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. This well-established expression system is rapidly scalable to volumes required for epidemic responses and proved well suited for processing of CHIKV glycoproteins and production of enveloped VLPs. Herein we show that a single immunization with 1 μg of non-adjuvanted CHIKV VLPs induced high titer neutralizing antibody responses and provided complete protection against viraemia and joint inflammation upon challenge with the Réunion Island CHIKV strain in an adult wild-type mouse model of CHIKV disease. CHIKV VLPs produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses thus represents as a new, safe, non-replicating and effective vaccine candidate against CHIKV infections.
The Salivary Secretome of the Tsetse Fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) Infected by Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus
Henry M. Kariithi,Ikbal A. Ince,Sjef Boeren,Adly M. M. Abd-Alla,Andrew G. Parker,Serap Aksoy,Just M. Vlak ,Monique M. van Oers
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001371
Abstract: Background The competence of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae) to acquire salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), to support virus replication and successfully transmit the virus depends on complex interactions between Glossina and SGHV macromolecules. Critical requisites to SGHV transmission are its replication and secretion of mature virions into the fly's salivary gland (SG) lumen. However, secretion of host proteins is of equal importance for successful transmission and requires cataloging of G. pallidipes secretome proteins from hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied SGs. Methodology/Principal Findings After electrophoretic profiling and in-gel trypsin digestion, saliva proteins were analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. MaxQuant/Andromeda search of the MS data against the non-redundant (nr) GenBank database and a G. morsitans morsitans SG EST database, yielded a total of 521 hits, 31 of which were SGHV-encoded. On a false discovery rate limit of 1% and detection threshold of least 2 unique peptides per protein, the analysis resulted in 292 Glossina and 25 SGHV MS-supported proteins. When annotated by the Blast2GO suite, at least one gene ontology (GO) term could be assigned to 89.9% (285/317) of the detected proteins. Five (~1.8%) Glossina and three (~12%) SGHV proteins remained without a predicted function after blast searches against the nr database. Sixty-five of the 292 detected Glossina proteins contained an N-terminal signal/secretion peptide sequence. Eight of the SGHV proteins were predicted to be non-structural (NS), and fourteen are known structural (VP) proteins. Conclusions/Significance SGHV alters the protein expression pattern in Glossina. The G. pallidipes SG secretome encompasses a spectrum of proteins that may be required during the SGHV infection cycle. These detected proteins have putative interactions with at least 21 of the 25 SGHV-encoded proteins. Our findings opens venues for developing novel SGHV mitigation strategies to block SGHV infections in tsetse production facilities such as using SGHV-specific antibodies and phage display-selected gut epithelia-binding peptides.
Virology, Epidemiology and Pathology of Glossina Hytrosavirus, and Its Control Prospects in Laboratory Colonies of the Tsetse Fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae)
Henry M. Kariithi,Monique M. van Oers,Just M. Vlak,Marc J. B. Vreysen,Andrew G. Parker,Adly M. M. Abd-Alla
Insects , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/insects4030287
Abstract: The Glossina hytrosavirus (family Hytrosaviridae) is a double-stranded DNA virus with rod-shaped, enveloped virions. Its 190 kbp genome encodes 160 putative open reading frames. The virus replicates in the nucleus, and acquires a fragile envelope in the cell cytoplasm. Glossina hytrosavirus was first isolated from hypertrophied salivary glands of the tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera; Glossinidae) collected in Kenya in 1986. A certain proportion of laboratory G. pallidipes flies infected by Glossina hytrosavirus develop hypertrophied salivary glands and midgut epithelial cells, gonadal anomalies and distorted sex-ratios associated with reduced insemination rates, fecundity and lifespan. These symptoms are rare in wild tsetse populations. In East Africa, G. pallidipes is one of the most important vectors of African trypanosomosis, a debilitating zoonotic disease that afflicts 37 sub-Saharan African countries. There is a large arsenal of control tactics available to manage tsetse flies and the disease they transmit. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a robust control tactic that has shown to be effective in eradicating tsetse populations when integrated with other control tactics in an area-wide integrated approach. The SIT requires production of sterile male flies in large production facilities. To supply sufficient numbers of sterile males for the SIT component against G. pallidipes, strategies have to be developed that enable the management of the Glossina hytrosavirus in the colonies. This review provides a historic chronology of the emergence and biogeography of Glossina hytrosavirus, and includes researches on the infectomics (defined here as the functional and structural genomics and proteomics) and pathobiology of the virus. Standard operation procedures for viral management in tsetse mass-rearing facilities are proposed and a future outlook is sketched.
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