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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 432 matches for " Junko Tanuma "
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Amebiasis in HIV-1-Infected Japanese Men: Clinical Features and Response to Therapy
Koji Watanabe,Hiroyuki Gatanaga ,Aleyla Escueta-de Cadiz,Junko Tanuma,Tomoyoshi Nozaki,Shinichi Oka
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001318
Abstract: Invasive amebic diseases caused by Entamoeba histolytica are increasing among men who have sex with men and co-infection of ameba and HIV-1 is an emerging problem in developed East Asian countries. To characterize the clinical and epidemiological features of invasive amebiasis in HIV-1 patients, the medical records of 170 co-infected cases were analyzed retrospectively, and E. histolytica genotype was assayed in 14 cases. In this series of HIV-1-infected patients, clinical presentation of invasive amebiasis was similar to that described in the normal host. High fever, leukocytosis and high CRP were associated with extraluminal amebic diseases. Two cases died from amebic colitis (resulting in intestinal perforation in one and gastrointestinal bleeding in one), and three cases died from causes unrelated to amebiasis. Treatment with metronidazole or tinidazole was successful in the other 165 cases. Luminal treatment was provided to 83 patients following metronidazole or tinidazole treatment. However, amebiasis recurred in 6 of these, a frequency similar to that seen in patients who did not receive luminal treatment. Recurrence was more frequent in HCV-antibody positive individuals and those who acquired syphilis during the follow-up period. Various genotypes of E. histolytica were identified in 14 patients but there was no correlation between genotype and clinical features. The outcome of metronidazole and tinidazole treatment of uncomplicated amebiasis was excellent even in HIV-1-infected individuals. Luminal treatment following metronidazole or tinidazole treatment does not reduce recurrence of amebiasis in high risk populations probably due to amebic re-infection.
Differences in Lipid Measurements by Antiretroviral Regimen Exposure in Cohorts from Asia and Australia
Amit C. Achhra,Janaki Amin,Jennifer Hoy,Junko Tanuma,Thira Sirisanthana,David Nolan,Tuti Merati,Michelle Giles
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/246280
Abstract: We explored the mean differences in routinely measured lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) according to exposure to different combination antiretroviral regimens in Asian ( ) and Australian (predominantly Caucasian, ) cohorts. The regimen was defined as at least 3 antiretroviral drugs with at least 2 nucleoside-reverse transcriptases (NRTIs) and either of at least one protease inhibitor (PI) or non-nucleoside-reverse transcriptases (NNRTIs). We categorised cART regimens as: NRTIs as tenofovir based or not; NNRTIs as nevirapine or efavirenz (but not both); and PI as atazanavir based or not. We found that the impact of various antiretroviral regimens on lipids in Asian and Australian cohorts was only different by cohort for total cholesterol ( for interaction between regimen and cohort: <0.001) but not in case of other lipids ( for interaction: >0.05). The differences in total cholesterol were however small and unlikely to be of clinical significance. Overall, tenofovir with nevirapine or atazanavir was associated with the most favorable lipids, while the PI regimens without tenofovir and atazanavir were associated with least favorable lipids. We conclude that the impact of various ART regimens on lipids is largely similar in Asian and Australian cohorts and that the newer drugs such as tenofovir and atazanavir are likely to provide similar benefit in terms of lipid profiles in both populations. 1. Introduction Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV infection is associated with adverse changes in lipid profiles and can include elevation in total cholesterol and triglycerides, which may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) [1–4]. Moreover, different classes of cART and drugs within each class have differential impacts on lipids [2]. Protease-inhibitors (PIs) are associated with more significant changes in lipid profile than nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NNRTIs, resp.) [2, 3, 5]. And within NNRTI class, efavirenz (EFV) is associated with greater changes in the lipid profile than nevirapine (NVP) [2, 5, 6]. Also tenofovir (TDF) and atazanavir (ATV) are known to have a favorable impact on lipids [5, 7, 8]. Drugs such as TDF, EFV, and ATV are becoming increasingly available in low-middle-income countries, including Asia [9, 10]. However, much of our knowledge about the relative impact of different cART regimens on lipids comes mainly from clinical trials and cohort studies from European or North-American settings [2, 4, 7, 8]. The impact of cART
Exopolysaccharides Produced from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus  [PDF]
Junko Nishimura
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.414112

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, which has been widely used as a fermented milk starter, is a type of probiotic, and certain strains are able to produce exopolysaccharide (EPS). EPS produced from L. bulgaricus contributes to the physical and biological function of dairy products by regulating immune response, and this tendency seems to place EPS with acidic groups. To date, six types of chemical structure have been determined and are basically composed from glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), and rhamnose (Rha). Eps clusters on chromosome DNA control the EPS synthesis and are transcribed as one mRNA 14 genes with 18kb on L. bulgaricus Lfi5. Furthermore, L. bulgaricus is able to utilize lactose (Lac) as carbohydrate source, repeating units of EPS are synthesized from Glc 6-phosphate, generated by an Embden-Meyerhof (EM) pathway in cellular carbohydrate assimilation. This review discusses EPS produced from L. bulgaricus.

Outcomes of Integrated Community Care Interventions for Frail Elderly People: A Literature Review  [PDF]
Junko Imaiso
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.108085
Abstract: This study aimed to summarize the outcome measures and the significant outcome of effective integrated community care for frail elderly people through a literature review. A literature search was conducted using the Cochrane Library and PubMed for articles published up to November 2016 with the following search terms: Integrated community care, primary care, community, frail elderly, and effectiveness. A total of 106 articles were identified, of which eight with an interventional research design the inclusion criteria. All outcome measures were classified into the three categories: Functional abilities, quality of life, and health. As the significant effect, the physical function was perceived in four references, the quality of life in one reference, and the mental health in one reference. The evidence of the effectiveness of integrated community care seemed to be lacking. More studies will need to be conducted.
Impact of Small Body Weight on Tenofovir-Associated Renal Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Japanese Patients
Takeshi Nishijima,Hirokazu Komatsu,Hiroyuki Gatanaga,Takahiro Aoki,Koji Watanabe,Ei Kinai,Haruhito Honda,Junko Tanuma,Hirohisa Yazaki,Kunihisa Tsukada,Miwako Honda,Katsuji Teruya,Yoshimi Kikuchi,Shinichi Oka
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022661
Abstract: Treatment with tenofovir is sometimes associated with renal dysfunction. Limited information is available on this side effect in patients with small body weight, although the use of tenofovir will spread rapidly in Asia and Africa, where patients are likely to be of smaller body weight.
WHO Antiretroviral Therapy Guidelines 2010 and Impact of Tenofovir on Chronic Kidney Disease in Vietnamese HIV-Infected Patients
Daisuke Mizushima, Junko Tanuma, Fumihide Kanaya, Takeshi Nishijima, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Nguyen Tien Lam, Nguyen Thi Hoai Dung, Nguyen Van Kinh, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Shinichi Oka
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079885
Abstract: Objective The 2010 WHO antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines have resulted in increased tenofovir use. Little is known about tenofovir-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) in HIV-infected Vietnamese with mean body weight of 55 kg. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in this country. Design Cross-sectional study was performed. Methods Clinical data on HIV-infected Vietnamese cohort were collected twice a year. To evaluate the prevalence of CKD, serum creatinine was measured in 771 patients in October 2011 and April 2012. CKD was defined as creatinine clearance less than 60 ml/min at both time points. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with CKD Results Tenofovir use increased in Vietnam from 11.9% in April 2011 to 40.3% in April 2012. CKD was diagnosed in 7.3%, of which 7% was considered moderate and 0.3% was severe. Multivariate analysis of October-2011 data identified age per year-increase (OR: 1.229, 95%CI, 1.170-1.291), body weight per 1 kg-decrement (1.286, 1.193-1.386), and tenofovir use (2.715, 1.028-7.168) as risk factors for CKD. Conclusions Older age, low body weight and tenofovir use were independent risk factors for CKD in Vietnam. Further longitudinal study is required to evaluate the impact of TDF on renal function in Vietnam and other countries with small-body weight patients.
Pharmacokinetics of Rifabutin in Japanese HIV-Infected Patients with or without Antiretroviral Therapy
Junko Tanuma, Kazumi Sano, Katsuji Teruya, Koji Watanabe, Takahiro Aoki, Haruhito Honda, Hirohisa Yazaki, Kunihisa Tsukada, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Shinichi Oka
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070611
Abstract: Objective Based on drug-drug interaction, dose reduction of rifabutin is recommended when co-administered with HIV protease inhibitors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated mycobacterial infection. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of rifabutin administered at 300 mg/day alone to that at 150 mg every other day combined with lopinavir-ritonavir in Japanese patients with HIV/mycobacterium co-infection. Methods Plasma concentrations of rifabutin and its biologically active metabolite, 25-O-desacetyl rifabutin were measured in 16 cases with HIV-mycobacterial coinfection. Nine were treated with 300 mg/day rifabutin and 7 with 150 mg rifabutin every other day combined with lopinavir-ritonavir antiretroviral therapy (ART). Samples were collected at a median of 15 days (range, 5–63) of rifabutin use. Results The mean Cmax and AUC0–24 of rifabutin in patients on rifabutin 150 mg every other day were 36% and 26% lower than on 300 mg/day rifabutin, while the mean Cmax and AUC0–24 of 25–O-desacetyl rifabutin were 186% and 152% higher, respectively. The plasma concentrations of rifabutin plus its metabolite were similar between the groups within the first 24 hours, but it remained low during subsequent 24 to 48 hours under rifabutin 150 mg alternate day dosing. Conclusion Rifabutin dose of 150 mg every other day combined with lopinavir-ritonavir seems to be associated with lower exposure to rifabutin and its metabolite compared with rifabutin 300 mg/day alone in Japanese patients. Further studies are needed to establish the optimal rifabutin dose during ART. The results highlight the importance of monitoring rifabutin plasma concentration during ART. Trial registration UMIN-CTR (https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/c?tr/ctr.cgi?function=search&action=input&?language=E) UMIN000001102
Renal Function Declines More in Tenofovir- than Abacavir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy in Low-Body Weight Treatment-Na?ve Patients with HIV Infection
Takeshi Nishijima, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Hirokazu Komatsu, Kunihisa Tsukada, Takuro Shimbo, Takahiro Aoki, Koji Watanabe, Ei Kinai, Haruhito Honda, Junko Tanuma, Hirohisa Yazaki, Miwako Honda, Katsuji Teruya, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Shinichi Oka
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029977
Abstract: Objective To compare the rate of decline of renal function in tenofovir- and abacavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low-body weight treatment-na?ve patients with HIV infection. Design We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of 503 Japanese patients who commenced on either tenofovir- or abacavir-based initial ART. Methods The incidence of renal dysfunction, defined as more than 25% fall in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from the baseline, was determined in each group. The effect of tenofovir on renal dysfunction was estimated by univariate and multivariate Cox hazards models as the primary exposure. Changes in eGFR until 96 weeks were estimated in both groups with a repeated measures mixed model. Results The median body weight of the cohort was 64 kg. The estimated incidence of renal dysfunction in the tenofovir and the abacavir arm was 9.84 per 100 and 4.55 per 100 person-years, respectively. Tenofovir was significantly associated with renal dysfunction by univariate and multivariate analysis (HR = 1.747; 95% CI, 1.152–2.648; p = 0.009) (adjusted HR = 2.080; 95% CI, 1.339–3.232; p<0.001). In subgroup analysis of the patients stratified by intertertile baseline body weight, the effect of tenofovir on renal dysfunction was more evident in patients with lower baseline body weight by multivariate analysis (≤60 kg: adjusted HR = 2.771; 95%CI, 1.494–5.139; p = 0.001) (61–68 kg: adjusted HR = 1.908; 95%CI, 0.764–4.768; p = 0.167) (>68 kg: adjusted HR = 0.997; 95%CI, 0.318–3.121; p = 0.995). The fall in eGFR was significantly greater in the tenofovir arm than the abacavir arm after starting ART (p = 0.003). Conclusion The incidence of renal dysfunction in low body weight patients treated with tenofovir was twice as high as those treated with abacavir. Close monitoring of renal function is recommended for patients with small body weight especially those with baseline body weight <60 kg treated with tenofovir.
Glycosylation and secretion of human α-amylases  [PDF]
Shou Takashima, Junko Amano
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.21002
Abstract: Three human α-amylases exist: Amy1 (salivary amylase), Amy2A (pancreatic amylase), and Amy2B (expressed in various tissues). These amylases share a 97% - 99% amino acid sequence identity, and two potential N-glycosylation sites (N427 and N476) are commonly found in the C-terminal region. In general, salivary amylase is more frequently glycosylated than pancreatic amylase, and it is still uncertain why differences in the glycosylation pattern among human amylase iso-zymes occur. In this study, we found that there was no significant change of ratio of glycosylated molecules among isozymes produced by the same cultured cells, indicating that glycosylation of amylase is influenced by the type of cell producing the enzyme rather than being an inherent property of the amylase isozymes. We analyzed the glycosylation efficiency of N-glycosylation sites in recombinant Amy2A mutants produced by HEK293 cells and found that glycosylation efficiencies of N427 and N476 were 3% - 18% and 40% - 52%, respectively, indicating that the major N-glycosylation site of glycosylated Amy2A produced by HEK293 cells is N476. The difference in the glycosylation efficiency of each N-glycosylation site also seemed to contribute in part to generate different glycosylation patterns of human amylases. We also confirmed that the C-terminal region of human amylase plays a critical role in secretion, although glycosylation does not play a part in this effect.
Gender differences in recognising depression in a case vignette in a university student population: Interaction of participant and vignette subject gender with depressive symptomatology  [PDF]
Junko Andou, Toshinori Kitamura
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.34041

Objective: Gender difference in depression prevalence may be explained by variation in the recognition of depression due to differences in gender identity. Method: We distributed one of four questionnaires describing fictional cases of Major Depressive Episode (MDE) (2 predominant symptom types × 2 case vignette subject genders) to 72 students. Participants were asked whether and how much they thought the subject in the case was emotionally as well as somatically ill. They were also administered the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale and the Ito Sex Role Scale. Results: Participants scoring high in gender identity communion and ideal gender roles communion and delicacy were more likely to identify the vignette subject as ill. The severity of somatic illness was rated more highly for the case of predominantly somatic symptomatology. The recognition of severity of psychological illness was influenced by two interactive terms: the gender of the vignette subjects x gender of the participants and predominant symptoms x gender of the vignette subjects. Recognition of MDE case vignettes as indicating illness, particularly psychological illness, was more likely when the participant was female, scored highly in femininity, or was of the gender as the case subject. Conclusion: These findings may be concordant with the self-schema theory.

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