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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 714 matches for " Junichi Kitagawa "
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Garenoxacin Prophylaxis for Febrile Neutropenia after Chemotherapy in Hematological Malignancies  [PDF]
Nobuhiko Nakamura, Takeshi Hara, Soranobu Ninomiya, Yuhei Shibata, Takuro Matsumoto, Hiroshi Nakamura, Junichi Kitagawa, Yasuhito Nannya, Masahito Shimizu, Nobuo Murakami, Hisashi Tsurumi
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2016.64018
Abstract: Background: Febrile neutropenia is one of the most serious adverse events in patients with hematological malignancies and chemotherapy. The routine use of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis in patients with hematological malignancies is controversial. Therefore, we prospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of prophylactic use of garenoxacin for febrile neutropenia. Patients and Methods: Consecutive adult patients with hematological malignancies who were at risk for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia lasting more than seven days were eligible for present study. They received oral garenoxacin (400 mg daily) from the neutrophil count decreased to less than 1000/μl and continued until the neutropenia had resolved. The primary endpoint was incidence of febrile neutropenia, and the secondary endpoints were the type and incidence of adverse events. Results: We enrolled 46 consecutive patients (median age, 59 years). The underlying diseases comprised acute myeloid leukemia (n = 17), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 3), malignant lymphoma (n = 23), and multiple myeloma (n = 3). There were 23 febrile neutropenia episodes and 2 episodes of bacteremia. There were no grade 3 or 4 adverse events; however serum creatinine levels were significantly elevated after garenoxacin administration. The overall prophylactic efficacy of garenoxacin was 50%, and there were no infection-related deaths. Conclusions: Prophylactic use of garenoxacin is effective and safe in patients with hematological malignancies. (Clinical trial registration number: UMIN000004979).
Endoscopic Examination for Patients with Diarrhea after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation  [PDF]
Junichi Kitagawa, Takuro Matsumoto, Yuhei Shibata, Nobuhiko Nakamura, Hiroshi Nakamura, Soranobu Ninomiya, Yasuhito Nannya, Masahito Shimizu, Takeshi Hara, Hiroshi Araki, Hisashi Tsurumi
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2017.74011
Abstract: Objective: Intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) represents one of the most serious complications of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Endoscopic and histological proof is required due to the number of differential diagnoses manifesting as diarrhea. We investigated the safety of endoscopic biopsies, and the role of conducting biopsies and inspections of the terminalileum. Patients: Thirty two colonoscopic examinations and 29 biopsies were performed for 19 patients after allo-SCT in our institute between October 2011 and May 2015. Results: Endoscopic examinations and biopsies were performed safely under the policy of transfusing platelets for thrombocytopenia (<30 × 103/μL). For biopsied cases, the diagnostic consistency rate with endoscopic findings was 60%, with a tendency toward negative correlations with early examinations after diarrhea onset (25% for 0 - 1 days; 62.5% for later) or low-grade GVHD according to Freiburg criteria (41.2% for grade 1, 66.7% for grade 2, 100% for higher). The terminal ileum was inspected with colonoscopy in 13 cases. Endoscopic diagnoses of the ileum were provided in 11 cases and histological diagnoses in 9 cases. Diagnostic consistency for diagnosis of the terminal ileum between endoscopy and histology was 77.8%. Conclusion: Because endoscopic and histopathological findings do not always match, caution is required when focusing on endoscopic findings alone, as there is a risk of misdiagnosis. Extensive inspection of the terminal ileum with biopsy appears useful to identify otherwise undetected lesions. Our data thus support invasive endoscopic examinations for gastrointestinal complications, including ileac inspection and biopsies under appropriate management.
Cannabinoids Facilitate the Swallowing Reflex Elicited by the Superior Laryngeal Nerve Stimulation in Rats
Rahman Md. Mostafeezur, Hossain Md. Zakir, Hanako Takatsuji, Yoshiaki Yamada, Kensuke Yamamura, Junichi Kitagawa
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050703
Abstract: Cannabinoids have been reported to be involved in affecting various biological functions through binding with cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2). The present study was designed to investigate whether swallowing, an essential component of feeding behavior, is modulated after the administration of cannabinoid. The swallowing reflex evoked by the repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve in rats was recorded before and after the administration of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55-212-2 (WIN), with or without CB1 or CB2 antagonist. The onset latency of the first swallow and the time intervals between swallows were analyzed. The onset latency and the intervals between swallows were shorter after the intravenous administration of WIN, and the strength of effect of WIN was dose-dependent. Although the intravenous administration of CB1 antagonist prior to intravenous administration of WIN blocked the effect of WIN, the administration of CB2 antagonist did not block the effect of WIN. The microinjection of the CB1 receptor antagonist directly into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) prior to intravenous administration of WIN also blocked the effect of WIN. Immunofluorescence histochemistry was conducted to assess the co-localization of CB1 receptor immunoreactivity to glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) or glutamate in the NTS. CB1 receptor was co-localized more with GAD67 than glutamate in the NTS. These findings suggest that cannabinoids facilitate the swallowing reflex via CB1 receptors. Cannabinoids may attenuate the tonic inhibitory effect of GABA (gamma-aminobuteric acid) neurons in the central pattern generator for swallowing.
Mechanisms involved in an increment of multimodal excitability of medullary and upper cervical dorsal horn neurons following cutaneous capsaicin treatment
Kuniya Honda, Junichi Kitagawa, Barry J Sessle, Masahiro Kondo, Yoshiyuki Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki Yonehara, Koichi Iwata
Molecular Pain , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-4-59
Abstract: Compared to vehicle application, capsaicin application to the lateral facial skin produced 1 hour later a flare in the skin, and also induced significantly greater nocifensive behaviors to heat, cold or mechanical stimulus of the lateral facial skin. The intrathecal (i.t.) injection of the MEK inhibitor PD98059 markedly attenuated the nocifensive behaviors to these stimuli in capsaicin-treated rats. Moreover, the number of pERK-like immunoreactive (pERK-LI) cells in Vc and C1-C2 was significantly larger following the heat, cold and mechanical stimuli in capsaicin-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated rats. The number of pERK-LI cells gradually increased following progressive increases in the heat or mechanical stimulus intensity and following progressive decrease in the cold stimulus. The ERK phosphorylation in Vc and C1-C2 neurons was strongly inhibited after subcutaneous injection of the capsaicin antagonist capsazepine in capsaicin-treated rats.The present findings revealed that capsaicin treatment of the lateral facial skin causes an enhancement of ERK phosphorylation in Vc and C1-C2 neurons as well as induces nocifensive behavior to heat, cold and mechanical simulation of the capsaicin-treated skin. The findings suggest that TRPV1 receptor mechanisms in rat facial skin influence nociceptive responses to noxious cutaneous thermal and mechanical stimuli by inducing neuroplastic changes in Vc and C1-C2 neurons that involve in the MAP kinase cascade.Thermal allodynia or hyperalgesia to heat, cold or mechanical stimuli can be produced by peripheral inflammation or peripheral nerve injury [1,2]. Capsaicin is an inflammatory irritant and a specific excitant of C- and small-diameter Aδ-fibers innervating peripheral tissues [3-5]. It is well known that capsaicin binds to the transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel and induces cation influx in peripheral nerve fiber terminals [6-8]. These receptors are also activated by heat stimulation of per
Potassium channels as a potential therapeutic target for trigeminal neuropathic and inflammatory pain
Mamoru Takeda, Yoshiyuki Tsuboi, Junichi Kitagawa, Kazuharu Nakagawa, Koichi Iwata, Shigeji Matsumoto
Molecular Pain , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-7-5
Abstract: Pain caused by a lesion of the peripheral or central nervous system is commonly termed neuropathic pain, and this type of pain frequently persists, even following normal repair of the injured tissue [1-3]. In a clinically significant proportion of cases, the neuropathic pain becomes chronic, severely debilitating, and extremely difficult to treat. Although several different types of neuropathic pain animal models have been developed and extensively studied [4,5], no common therapeutic molecular target has been identified for neurons located in the nociceptive pathway.Multiple types of voltage-gated ion channels are associated with neuronal excitability. Among these, voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels are important physiological regulators of membrane potentials, action potential shape, and firing adaptation in excitable tissues including nociceptive sensory neurons [6-8]. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons expressed three distinct classes of K+ currents in varying quantities: slow-inactivating sustained (K-current; IK), fast-inactivating transient (A-current; IA), and slow-inactivating transient (D-current; ID) currents based on their inactivation of kinetics and sensitivities to tetraethylammoniun (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and α-dendorotoxin (α-DTX), respectively [9-13]. Peripheral nerve injury and inflammation markedly reduces the densities of Kv channels, implicating them in the development of neuropathic/inflammatory pain [14-17]. Since the opening of K+ channels leads to hyperpolarization of cell membrane and a resultant decrease in cell excitability, several types of Kv channels have been proposed as potential target candidates for such pain pathways [18]. Recent studies in various pain models identified the voltage-gated KCNQ/Kv7 channel (M-current) opener [19-21] and alterations in either calcium-activated (KCa) or ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels as potential therapeutic targets for neuropathic/inflammatory pain [22,23].
Multiple Intelligence Theory Can Help Promote Inclusive Education for Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Developmental Disorders: Historical Reviews of Intelligence Theory, Measurement Methods, and Suggestions for Inclusive Education  [PDF]
Junichi Takahashi
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.49086

Inclusive education, based on the principle that all children (including those with disabilities) should receive similar education, has been recently adopted in primary and secondary schools throughout several countries. Within an inclusive education context, teachers are faced with the challenge of developing their knowledge and skills necessary to properly assess the intellectual abilities of a wide range of children. Although intelligence has been examined for over 100 years, researchers are still debating what abilities should or should not be classified as belonging to the domain of intelligence. In order to effectively apply intelligence theory and assessment methods for inclusive education, we compared traditional intelligence theory (Spearman’s two-factor model) with a more recent intelligence theory (Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory). Spearman’s theory focuses on elementary perceptual processes by using the single g factor, whereas Gardner’s theory recognizes several types of intelligence. On the basis of these reviews, we propose the utility of multiple intelligence theory for inclusive education, considering the various profiles of intelligence shown by children with intellectual disabilities and developmental disorders.

Suggestions for a Teacher Training Program for Inclusive Education in a Japanese University  [PDF]
Junichi Takahashi
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.48074

Inclusive education has been recently proposed in primary and secondary educations in many countries. Children who need special education support should be educated together with typically developing children in general classes. Although many studies have examined the effectiveness of inclusive education, researchers have pointed out that some general education teachers experience problems in their relationships with children who have disabilities such as developmental disorders and intellectual disabilities. In this paper, we review teacher training programs in a Japanese university and offer suggestions to enhance teachers’ relationships with disabled children. In our discussion, we focused on adult attachment theory, which is an affective connection and interactions between self and others. First, we reviewed the importance of teachers’ relationships with disabled children. Second, we reviewed attachment theories with respect to the quality of teacher-child relationships, and lastly, we proposed that adult attachment theory is a mediator in the quality of teacher-child relationships. We proposed a direction for the application of these conceptual assumptions to the teacher-training program for inclusive education in a Japanese university.

The effect of minocycline on the masticatory movements following the inferior alveolar nerve transection in freely moving rats
Rahman MD. Mostafeezur, Hossain MD. Zakir, Yoshiaki Yamada, Kensuke Yamamura, Koichi Iwata, Barry J. Sessle, Junichi Kitagawa
Molecular Pain , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-8-27
Abstract: The number of Iba1-immunoreactive (IR) cells both in prV and motV was significantly larger in IAN-X rats compared with sham rats on day 3 after IAN-X. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MC caused a significant reduction of the number of Iba1-IR cells both in prV and motV that was evident on day 14 after IAN-X. Furthermore, a significant reduction of the number of Iba1-IR cells could be observed in motV but not in prV after microinjection (m.i.) of MC into the motV of IAN-X rats. The rats also exhibited a significant decrease in the head-withdrawal threshold on the side ipsilateral to the IAN-X compared to the threshold before IAN-X and it lasted to day 14. In addition, IAN-X markedly affected the ability to rat to carry out mastication. The number of complete masticatory sequences was significantly decreased. Furthermore, the total masticatory sequence time and food preparatory (PP) period duration was significantly elongated in compared to sham rats. Although IAN-X significantly affected the total number of chewing cycles within the RC period of a masticatory sequence, it had no effect on the duration of the chewing cycles. On the other hand, systemic administration of MC (both i.p. and m.i.) in IAN-X rats significantly improved decreased head-withdrawal threshold and the impaired masticatory jaw movements.The present findings reveal that the strong modulation of masticatory jaw movements occurs following microglial cell activation after IAN-X, and the modulation recovers after inhibition of the microglial cell activation by MC, suggesting that microglial cell activation in the motV as well as in the prV has a pivotal role in modulating mastication following trigeminal nerve injury associated with orofacial neuropathic pain.
Evaluation of Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Power, and Antioxidant Potential of Breastmilk of Breast-Feeding Mothers  [PDF]
Naoko Kuramoto, Mariko Kitagawa
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.98083
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress, antioxidant power, and antioxidant potential of breastmilk of breast-feeding mothers from the early postpartum period to the first 3 months postpartum, and to examine the dynamics and the relationships among them. Method: For 47 pu-erperant women who gave vaginal birth without any pregnancy complications, the oxidative stress levels (d-ROMs levels) and antioxidant power (BAP levels) in the maternal plasma as well as antioxidant potential of breastmilk (BAP levels in breastmilk) were measured 3 times, i.e., in the early puerperium (4 or 5 days after giving birth), one month after giving birth, and 3 months after giving birth. Results: The d-ROMs levels in the maternal plasma were significantly high in the early puerperium (p < 0.001), and decreased gradually in the post-partum period (p < 0.001). On the other hand, BAP levels were significantly low in the early puerperium (p < 0.001), and increased to the almost normal level during one month after giving birth. BAP levels in breastmilk were significantly high in the early puerperium compared with the other periods (p < 0.001), and decreased gradually until 3 months after giving birth (p < 0.001). BAP levels in breastmilk in the early puerperium were higher compared with the maternal BAP levels, and there was a positive correlation between BAP levels in breast-milk and those in the maternal plasma (p < 0.05). Discussion: Regarding the oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system of breast-feeding mothers, the d-ROMs level was highest and the BAP level was lowest in the early puerperium. The BAP level then showed a clear tendency to recover in the first 3 months after giving birth. Conclusion: When the maternal antioxidant potential remains at a low level after giving birth, careful consideration should be given to the mother’s health and wellbeing because there is a possibility that it might affect the antioxidant potential of breastmilk.
Alteration of primary afferent activity following inferior alveolar nerve transection in rats
Kazuharu Nakagawa, Mamoru Takeda, Yoshiyuki Tsuboi, Masahiro Kondo, Junichi Kitagawa, Shigeji Matsumoto, Azusa Kobayashi, Barry J Sessle, Masamichi Shinoda, Koichi Iwata
Molecular Pain , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-6-9
Abstract: Fluorogold (FG) injection into the mental region 14 days after IAN transection showed massive labeling of trigeminal ganglion (TG). The escape threshold to mechanical stimulation of the mental skin was significantly lower (i.e. mechanical allodynia) at 11-14 days after IAN transection than before surgery. The background activity, mechanically evoked responses and afterdischarges of IAN Aδ-fibers were significantly higher in IAN-transected rats than naive. The small/medium diameter TG neurons showed an increase in both tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant (TTX-R) and -sensitive (TTX-S) sodium currents (INa) and decrease in total potassium current, transient current (IA) and sustained current (IK) in IAN-transected rats. The amplitude, overshoot amplitude and number of action potentials evoked by the depolarizing pulses after 1 μM TTX administration in TG neurons were significantly higher, whereas the threshold current to elicit spikes was smaller in IAN-transected rats than naive. Resting membrane potential was significantly smaller in IAN-transected rats than that of naive.These data suggest that the increase in both TTX-S INa and TTX-R INa and the decrease in IA and Ik in small/medium TG neurons in IAN-transected rats are involved in the activation of spike generation, resulting in hyperexcitability of Aδ-IAN fibers innervating the mental region after IAN transection.Numerous papers have described how peripheral nerve injury causes a variety of functional deficits in sensory processing [1-7]. Neuropathic pain also may occur after nerve injury [8-11], and whereas the injured tissue does usually repair, the neuropathic pain frequently persists [12-14]. One mechanism that is considered to underlie the abnormal pain after nerve damage involves regenerating nerve fibers. Injured nerves regenerate several weeks after nerve damage [15-17]. Some clinical reports have noted that areas innervated by the regenerated nerves show an altered sensitivity to a variety of stimuli compared
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