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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 47005 matches for " Jung-Chung Lin "
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Molecular typing and characterization of nasal carriage and community-onset infection methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates in two Taiwan medical centers
Chen Feng-Jui,Siu Leung-Kei,Lin Jung-Chung,Wang Chen-Her
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-343
Abstract: Background Compared to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), characteristics of nasal carriage and community-onset infection methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) are less well known. No characteristics of MSSA in Taiwan have been reported previously. Methods We analyzed 100 nasal carriage and 34 community-onset infection MSSA isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing, agr typing, virulence gene detection, growth rate measurement, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Results In PFGE analysis, most (68%) infection isolates could be grouped in one major cluster using a 70% similarity cutoff. In contrast, only 17% of nasal carriage isolates belonged to this cluster. A similar classification was obtained using Based Upon Repeat Pattern analysis of spa types. The MSSA infection isolates cluster was closely related to the virulent clones of clonal complex 1 (CC1), which includes strains MW2 (USA400) and MSSA476. ST188 of CC1 was the predominant clone detected for community-onset MSSA infections. The only common ST type for MSSA and MRSA in Taiwan was ST59, the community-associated MRSA clone. It is likely, therefore, that MRSA originated from MSSA clones through SCCmec transfer. Compared to nasal carriage isolates, infection isolates less frequently possessed egc, tst and hlg genes, were more commonly susceptible to erythromycin (91% vs. 54%), and had shorter mean doubling times (38 min vs. 55 min). Conclusions The clonal lineages of MSSA nasal carriage and infection isolates differed in our sample of Taiwan isolates. Most community-onset MSSA infections resulted from relatively few clonal lineages. Nasal carriage isolates more frequently possessed the egc, tst and hlg genes, were more resistant to erythromycin, and grew more slowly.
Single or in Combination Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae Contribute to Varied Susceptibility to Different Carbapenems
Yu-Kuo Tsai, Ci-Hong Liou, Chang-Phone Fung, Jung-Chung Lin, L. Kristopher Siu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079640
Abstract: Resistance to carbapenems has been documented by the production of carbapenemase or the loss of porins combined with extended-spectrum β-lactamases or AmpC β-lactamases. However, no complete comparisons have been made regarding the contributions of each resistance mechanism towards carbapenem resistance. In this study, we genetically engineered mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae with individual and combined resistance mechanisms, and then compared each resistance mechanism in response to ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem, doripenem and other antibiotics. Among the four studied carbapenems, ertapenem was the least active against the loss of porins, cephalosporinases and carbapenemases. In addition to the production of KPC-2 or NDM-1 alone, resistance to all four carbapenems could also be conferred by the loss of two major porins, OmpK35 and OmpK36, combined with CTX-M-15 or DHA-1 with its regulator AmpR. Because the loss of OmpK35/36 alone or the loss of a single porin combined with blaCTX-M-15 or blaDHA-1-ampR expression was only sufficient for ertapenem resistance, our results suggest that carbapenems other than ertapenem should still be effective against these strains and laboratory testing for non-susceptibility to other carbapenems should improve the accurate identification of these isolates.
Curcumin Protects against UVB-Induced Skin Cancers in SKH-1 Hairless Mouse: Analysis of Early Molecular Markers in Carcinogenesis
Kuen-Daw Tsai,Jung-Chung Lin,Shu-mei Yang,Min-Jen Tseng,Jeng-Dong Hsu,Yi-Ju Lee,Jaw-Ming Cherng
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/593952
Abstract: Curcumin (CUR) has been shown to possess a preventive effect against various cancers and interfere with multiple-cell signaling pathways. We evaluated the protective effects of CUR in regression of UVB-induced skin tumor formation in SKH-1 hairless mice and its underlying early molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis. Mice irradiated with UVB at 180 mJ/cm2 twice per week elicited 100% tumor incidence at 20 weeks. Topical application of CUR prior to UVB irradiation caused delay in tumor appearance, multiplicity, and size. Topical application of CUR prior to and immediately after a single UVB irradiation (180 mJ/cm2) resulted in a significant decrease in UVB-induced thymine dimer-positive cells, expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, and apoptotic sunburn cells together with an increase in p53 and p21/Cip1-positive cell population in epidermis. Simultaneously, CUR also significantly inhibited NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) levels. The results suggest that the protective effect of CUR against photocarcinogenesis is accompanied by downregulation of cell proliferative controls, involving thymine dimer, PCNA, apoptosis, transcription factors NF-κB, and of inflammatory responses involving COX-2, PGE2, and NO, while upregulation of p53 and p21/Cip1 to prevent DNA damage and facilitate DNA repair.
Do Neutrophils Play a Role in Establishing Liver Abscesses and Distant Metastases Caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae?
Jung-Chung Lin,Feng-Yee Chang,Chang-Phone Fung,Kuo-Ming Yeh,Chiung-Tong Chen,Yu-Kuo Tsai,L. Kristopher Siu
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015005
Abstract: Serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major cause of liver abscesses and endophthalmitis. This study was designed to identify the role of neutrophils in the development of distant metastatic complications that were caused by serotype K1 K. pneumoniae. An in vitro cellular model was used to assess serum resistance and neutrophil-mediated killing. BALB/c mice were injected with neutrophils containing phagocytosed K. pneumoniae. Serotype K1 K. pneumoniae was significantly more resistant to serum killing, neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis and intra-cellular killing than non-K1 isolates (p<0.01). Electron microscopic examination had similar findings as in the bioassay findings. Intraperitoneal injection of neutrophils containing phagocytosed serotype K1 K. pneumoniae led to abscess formation in multiple sites including the subcutaneous tissue, lung, and liver, whereas no abscess formation was observed in mice injected with non-K1 isolates. The resistance of serotype K1 K. pneumoniae to complement- and neutrophil-mediated intracellular killing results in the dissemination of K. pneumoniae via the bloodstream. Escape from neutrophil intracellular killing may contribute to the dissemination and establishment of distant metastases. Thus, neutrophils play a role as a vehicle for helping K. pneumoniae and contributing to the establishment of liver abscess and distant metastatic complications.
Seroepidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae colonizing the intestinal tract of healthy chinese and overseas chinese adults in Asian countries
Yi-Tsung Lin, L Kristopher Siu, Jung-Chung Lin, Te-Li Chen, Chih-Peng Tseng, Kuo-Ming Yeh, Feng-Yee Chang, Chang-Phone Fung
BMC Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-12-13
Abstract: Serotypes K1/K2 accounted for 9.8% of all K. pneumoniae isolates from stools in all countries. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of K1/K2 isolates among the countries excluding Thailand and Vietnam. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was nearly the same in K. pneumoniae isolates. The result of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed no major clonal cluster of serotype K1 isolates.The result showed that Chinese ethnicity itself might be a major factor predisposing to intestinal colonization by serotype K1/K2 K. pneumoniae isolates. The prevalent serotype K1/K2 isolates may partially correspond to the prevalence of K. pneumoniae liver abscess in Asian countries.Klebsiella pneumoniae is responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, including purulent infections, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, septicemia, and meningitis [1]. In the past three decades, K. pneumoniae has emerged as the single leading cause of pyogenic liver abscess in East Asian countries, especially in Taiwan [2-7]. An invasive syndrome of liver abscess complicated by meningitis, endophthalmitis or other metastatic suppurative foci has been reported, and capsular serotypes K1 and K2 of K. pneumoniae are thought to the major virulence determinants responsible for this syndrome [3,6,8]. In an analysis of K. pneumoniae liver abscess from two hospitals in New York by Rahimian et al. [9], 78.3% of patients were of Asian origin. These findings raise the possibility that genetic susceptibility to or geographic distribution patterns of virulent K. pneumoniae subtypes may play important roles [10].The intestine is one of the major reservoirs of K. pneumoniae, and epidemiological studies have suggested that the majority of K. pneumoniae infections are preceded by colonization of the gastrointestinal tract [11]. The possibility of fecal-oral transmission has been raised on the basis of molecular typing of isolates from siblings, family members, and the environm
A Truncated AdeS Kinase Protein Generated by ISAba1 Insertion Correlates with Tigecycline Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii
Jun-Ren Sun, Cherng-Lih Perng, Ming-Chin Chan, Yuji Morita, Jung-Chung Lin, Chih-Mao Su, Wei-Yao Wang, Tein-Yao Chang, Tzong-Shi Chiueh
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049534
Abstract: Over-expression of AdeABC efflux pump stimulated continuously by the mutated AdeRS two component system has been found to result in antimicrobial resistance, even tigecycline (TGC) resistance, in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB). Although the insertion sequence, ISAba1, contributes to one of the AdeRS mutations, the detail mechanism remains unclear. In the present study we collected 130 TGC-resistant isolates from 317 carbapenem resistant MRAB (MRAB-C) isolates, and 38 of them were characterized with ISAba1 insertion in the adeS gene. The relationship between the expression of AdeABC efflux pump and TGC resistant was verified indirectly by successfully reducing TGC resistance with NMP, an efflux pump inhibitor. Further analysis showed that the remaining gene following the ISAba1 insertion was still transcribed to generate a truncated AdeS protein by the Pout promoter on ISAba1 instead of frame shift or pre-termination. Through introducing a series of recombinant adeRS constructs into a adeRS knockout strain, we demonstrated the truncated AdeS protein was constitutively produced and stimulating the expression of AdeABC efflux pump via interaction with AdeR. Our findings suggest a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance induced by an aberrant cytoplasmic sensor derived from an insertion element.
Molecular events associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transition of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in the absence of Epstein-Barr virus genome
Jung-Chung Lin, Shuen-Kuei Liao, En-Huei Lee, Man-Shan Hung, Yiyang Sayion, Hung-Chang Chen, Chen-Chen Kang, Liang-Sheng Huang, Jaw-Ming Cherng
Journal of Biomedical Science , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1423-0127-16-105
Abstract: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignant tumor. NPC is latently infected with the virus, and monoclonal EBV episomes are present and expressed in the tumor cells in both endemic and sporadic forms of NPC, regardless of geographic origin [1,2]. A prominent clinical characteristic of NPC is frequent involvement of cervical lymph nodes and distant organs compared with other head and neck carcinomas [3-6]. Among head-and-neck cancers, NPC is distinguished by its highly metastatic character and poor prognosis [6].Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that was first observed in embryonic development [7] and has more recently been implicated as an underlying event in neoplastic progression [8,9]. EMT is characterized by the loss of epithelial markers and gain of mesenchymal markers, often identified in cell lines established from tumors representing different stage and grade [10,11]. Metastatic spread of cancer cells is a result of a complex cascade of cellular/molecular events. The cascade is composed of multiple sequential steps such as down-regulation of intercellular adhesion, degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and up-regulation of cell motility. In addition, tumor size and likelihood of metastasis are thought to depend on increased vascularity in tumors [12].Tumor metastasis is a complex phenomenon that is the culmination of effects of numerous cellular factors. Recent studies have shown that latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) of EBV induces the expression of a series of cell-invasiveness and angiogenic factors, such as matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) [13], MMP1 and MMP3 [14], c-Met and ets-1 [15], fibroblast growth factor 2 [16], vascular endothelial factor [17], hypoxia-inducible factor 1a [18], MUC1 [19], Siah 1 [20], Twist [21] and ezrin [22]. However, unlike in vivo growth, EBV genome is commonly lost during the establishment of NPC cell lines from biopsies or xenografts [23], implying that EBV i
National Surveillance Study on Carbapenem Non-Susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan: The Emergence and Rapid Dissemination of KPC-2 Carbapenemase
Sheng-Kang Chiu, Tsu-Lan Wu, Yin-Ching Chuang, Jung-Chung Lin, Chang-Phone Fung, Po-Liang Lu, Jann-Tay Wang, Lih-Shinn Wang, L. Kristopher Siu, Kuo-Ming Yeh
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069428
Abstract: Objectives The global spread and increasing incidence of carbapenem non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (CnSKP) has made its treatment difficult, increasing the mortality. To establish nationwide data on CnSKP spread and carbapenem-resistance mechanisms, we conducted a national surveillance study in Taiwanese hospitals. Methods We collected 100 and 247 CnSKP isolates in 2010 and 2012, respectively. The tests performed included antibiotic susceptibility tests; detection of carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL), and AmpC β-lactamases genes; outer membrane porin profiles; and genetic relationship with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence type. Results The resistance rate of CnSKP isolates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, and ciprofloxacin was over 90%. Susceptibility rate to tigecycline and colistin in 2010 was 91.0% and 83.0%, respectively; in 2012, it was 91.9% and 87.9%, respectively. In 2010, carbapenemase genes were detected in only 6.0% of isolates (4 blaIMP-8 and 2 blaVIM-1). In 2012, carbapenemase genes were detected in 22.3% of isolates (41 blaKPC-2, 7 blaVIM-1, 6 blaIMP-8, and 1 blaNDM-1). More than 95% of isolates exhibited either OmpK35 or OmpK36 porin loss or both. Impermeability due to porin mutation coupled with AmpC β-lactamases or ESBLs were major carbapenem-resistance mechanisms. Among 41 KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, all were ST11 with 1 major pulsotype. Conclusions In 2010 and 2012, the major mechanisms of CnSKP in Taiwan were the concomitance of AmpC with OmpK35/36 loss. KPC-2-KP dissemination with the same ST11 were observed in 2012. The emergence and rapid spread of KPC-2-KP is becoming an endemic problem in Taiwan. The identification of NDM-1 K. pneumoniae case is alarming.
The Influence of Ultrasonic-Vibration on Double Backward-Extrusion of Aluminum Alloy
Jung-Chung Hung,Ming-Chieh Chiang
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2009,
Cesarean and VBAC rates among immigrant vs. native-born women: a retrospective observational study from Taiwan Cesarean delivery and VBAC among immigrant women in Taiwan
Jung-Chung Fu, Sudha Xirasagar, Jihong Liu, Janice C Probst
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-548
Abstract: We conducted a nation-wide, population-based, observational study using secondary data from Taiwan. De-identified data were obtained on all 392,246 singleton live births (≥500 g; ≥20 weeks) born to native-born Taiwanese, Vietnamese and mainland Chinese-born mothers between January 1 2006 and December 31 2007 from Taiwan's nation-wide birth certificate data. Our analytic samples consisted of the following: for overall cesarean likelihood 392,246 births, primary cesarean 336,766 (excluding repeat cesarean and VBAC), and VBAC 55,480 births (excluding primary cesarean and vaginal births without previous cesarean). Our main outcome measures were the odds of cesarean delivery, primary cesarean delivery and VBAC for Vietnamese and Chinese immigrant mothers relative to Taiwanese mothers, using multiple regression analyses to adjust for maternal and neonatal characteristics, paternal age, institutional setting, and major obstetric complications.Unadjusted overall cesarean, primary cesarean, and VBAC rates were 33.9%, 23.0% and 4.0% for Taiwanese, 27.6%, 20.1% and 5.0% for mainland Chinese, and 19.3%, 13.9 and 6.1% for Vietnamese respectively. Adjusted for confounders, Vietnamese mothers were less likely than native-born Taiwanese to have overall and primary cesarean delivery (OR = 0.59 and 0.58 respectively), followed by Chinese mothers (both ORs = 0.90 relative to native-born Taiwanese). Vietnamese mothers were most likely to have successful VBAC (OR = 1.58), followed by Chinese mothers (OR = 1.25).Immigrant Vietnamese and Chinese mothers have lower odds of cesarean and higher VBAC odds than native-born Taiwanese, consistent with lower cesarean rates prevailing in their home countries (Vietnam 10.1%; mainland China 20% - 50% rural and urban respectively).With increasing prosperity and higher educational attainment of women, Taiwan is experiencing major social changes in attitudes to marriage and child bearing. Many Taiwanese women decline or delay marriage and child-bearing
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