Coronary artery dissection due to blunt chest trauma (traumatic coronary artery dissection [TCAD]) may heal spontaneously, and some surgeons believe that conservative or elective treat-ments are sufficient, provided that there are no progressing ischemic symptoms. However, we report a patient who experienced sudden ventricular fibrillation (VF) during initial medical care for trauma injuries. The 32-year-old woman was riding in a passenger car when an accident occurred, and was subsequently transported to our emergency department. Twelve-lead electrocardiography revealed ST segment elevation in leads II, III, and aVF, although her vital signs remained stable. Therefore, we prioritized assessing the trauma at other sites, and VF suddenly occurred. Coronary angiography was performed with repeated defibrillation and chest compressions, which resulted in recovery of spontaneous circulation. Occlusion was observed in the right coronary artery, which we treated with balloon angioplasty. However, intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) subsequently revealed coronary artery dissection, a stent was placed, and the patient successfully recovered. Therefore, IVUS may be useful for diagnosing TCAD, and swift intervention is needed if TCAD is detected.

Abstract:
Nitroaromatics are usually prepared using a mixed acid of nitric acid with strong acids. However, the use of strong acids caused dangerous work-up and the disposal of large amounts of acid-waste. Therefore, much effort has been made on the improvement of nitration process without strong acids. We examined solid-phase aromatic nitration with Mg(NO_{3})_{2} on silica gel in order to establish the nitration process without strong acids. The nitration of 1,2- and 1,3-, 1,4-dimethoxybenzenes and 4-methylanisole with Mg(NO_{3})_{2} proceeded by heating on silica gel at 150°C for 4 - 5 h to produce the nitroaromatics. The nitration of 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene produced the nitrated dimer, 2,4,6,2’, 4’,6’-hexamethoxy-3-nitrobiphenyl, which was not isolated in other solid-phase nitration. In the cases of naphthalene derivatives, the α-nitrated compounds were obtained. In the cases of p-cresol and 2-naphthol, the esterification occurred at the hydroxyl group to give 4-tolyl nitrate and 2-naphthyl nitrate, respectively. It is synthetic interest to note that nitrate esters were isolated in solid phase. Thus Mg(NO_{3})_{2}-SiO_{2} composite was mild reagent for solid-phase nitration. Acidity of Mg(NO_{3})_{2}-SiO_{2} composite was determined to be pH 0.96 by the measurement of absorption spectra on a micro spectrophotometer using meso-tetra(p-cyanophenyl)porphyrin as a pH-indicator. Mg(NO_{3})_{2}-SiO_{2} composite made acidic conditions. Therefore, it was suggested that Mg(NO_{3})_{2} reacted with proton on silica gel to form the NO^{+}_{2}. Thus, electron-rich aromatic hydrocarbons led the efficient nitration through electrophilic attack of NO^{+}_{2}. After the nitration, acidic Mg(NO_{3})_{2}-SiO_{2} composite could be turned into neutrality by exposing wet conditions and disposed safely since the composite did not involve harmful elements. Thus the solid-phase nitration using Mg(NO_{3})_{2}-SiO_{2} composite will provide safety and environmentally conscious chemical process.

Abstract:
The Copenhagen interpretation is the most authorized interpretation of quantum mechanics, but there are a number of ideas that are associated with the Copenhagen interpretation. It is ceratin that this fact is not necessarily desirable. Thus, we propose a new interpretation of measurement theory, which is the linguistic aspect (or, the mathematical generalization) of quantum mechanics. Although this interpretation is superficially similar to a part of so-called Copenhagen interpretation, we show that it has a merit to be applicable to both quantum and classical systems. For example, we say that Bell’s inequality is broken even in classical systems.

Abstract:
Recently we proposed “a new interpretation of quantum mechanics (called quantum and classical measurement theory)” in this journal (JQIS: Vol. 1, No. 2), which was characterized as the metaphysical and linguistic turn of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only realize the remarkable extension of quantum mechanics but also yield the quantum mechanical world view (i.e., the philosophy of quantum mechanics). And thus, the turn urges us to dream that traditional philosophies (i.e., Parmenides, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, John Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Saussure, Wittgenstein, etc.) can be understood in the quantum mechanical world view. This dream will be challenged in this paper. We, of course, know that most scientists are skeptical to philosophy. Still, we can expect that readers find a good linguistic philosophy (i.e. philosophy of language) in quantum mechanics.

Abstract:
When a manufacturing firm has a plan to build a factory, the determination of the factory’s location site is one of the most important elements in the plan. Since the manufacturer does not have enough information of economic conditions of all potential location sites, the manufacturer cannot determine immediately its location site. A series of steps are taken to determine the location place. The firm makes range of searching area small step by step toward the site deter-mination; 1) Determination of a prospective region in a large space, 2) Selection of a potential area in that region, 3) Choice of an urban district in that area, 4) Decision of a site in the district. This paper proposes that chaotic phenome-non, which is appeared in the calculation processes to specify the optimal location site, may be used to identify a pro-spective region. And then, it is shown in the paper that the central place systems laid in the region play a role in the se-lection of a potential area for the factory location. This paper elucidates how a firm searches step by step an appropriate factory’s location within a large geographical area.

Abstract:
In this paper, we study and answer the following fundamental problems concerning classical equilibrium statistical mechanics: 1): Is the principle of equal a priori probabilities indispensable for equilibrium statistical mechanics? 2): Is the ergodic hypothesis related to equilibrium statistical mechanics? Note that these problems are not yet answered, since there are several opinions for the formulation of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In order to answer the above questions, we first introduce measurement theory (i.e., the theory of quantum mechanical world view), which is characterized as the linguistic turn of quantum mechanics. And we propose the measurement theoretical foundation of equili-brium statistical mechanics, and further, answer the above 1) and 2), that is, 1) is “No”, but, 2) is “Yes”.

Abstract:
It is a matter of course that Kolmogorov’s probability theory is a very useful mathematical tool for the analysis of statistics. However, this fact never means that statistics is based on Kolmogorov’s probability theory, since it is not guaranteed that mathematics and our world are connected. In order that mathematics asserts some statements concerning our world, a certain theory (so called “world view”) mediates between mathematics and our world. Recently we propose measurement theory (i.e., the theory of the quantum mechanical world view), which is characterized as the linguistic turn of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we assert that statistics is based on measurement theory. And, for example, we show, from the pure theoretical point of view (i.e., from the measurement theoretical point of view), that regression analysis can not be justified without Bayes’ theorem. This may imply that even the conventional classification of (Fisher’s) statistics and Bayesian statistics should be reconsidered.

Abstract:
In this paper, we study the principle of equal probability (i.e., unless we have sufficient reason to regard one possible case as more probable than another, we treat them as equally probable) in measurement theory (i.e., the theory of quantum mechanical world view), which is characterized as the linguistic turn of quantum mechanics with the Copenhagen interpretation. This turn from physics to language does not only realize theremarkable extensionof quantum mechanicsbut alsoestablish the method of science. Our study will be executed in the easy example of the Monty Hall problem. Although our argument is simple, we believe that it is worth pointing out the fact that the principle of equal probability can be, for the first time, clarified in measurement theory (based on the dualism) and not the conventional statistics (based on Kolmogorov’s probability theory).

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has some unique characteristics in the digestive organ cancer. Therefore it is very important to select an appropriate treatment for recurrent HCC according to several situations such as the type of recurrence, previous treatments and conditions of patient. This article is a review of the concept of recurrent multiple HCC and its therapeutic strategies.

Abstract:
As the fundamental theory of quantum information science, recently I proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, which was characterized as the linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical theory but also yield the quantum mechanical world view. Although the wave function collapse (or more generally, the post-measurement state) is prohibited in the linguistic interpretation, in this paper I show that the phenomenon like wave function collapse can be realized. That is, the projection postulate is completely clarified in the linguistic interpretation.