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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 912 matches for " Julius Okonkwo "
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Some Characteristics of a Plant Growth Promoting Enterobacter sp. Isolated from the Roots of Maize  [PDF]
Frank Ogbo, Julius Okonkwo
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2012.23046
Abstract: Some properties of an Enterobacter sp. isolated from the roots of maize are described. Isolation was carried out using the semisolid enrichment culture technique and subsequent plating, both on nitrogen free biotin medium. Morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic characterization using the MicroSeqTM 16S rDNA technique were employed in identification of isolate, which was revealed to be closest matched at 99.4% with Enterobacter asburiae. The isolate possessed properties of plant growth promoting bacteria. Thus, it produced indole-3-acetic, plant polymer hydrolyzing enzymes, pectinase and cellulase as well as ammonia in vitro. The isolate grew well in the presence of both 3% NaCl and 10 μg of streptomycin. In plate bioassays, isolate promoted the germination of both maize and rice seeds as well as root and lateral root growth resulting in weight increases of seedlings over their controls. Experiments to quantify ability of isolate to promote plant growth was performed using hydroponics solutions and as appropriate, an inoculum of the isolate. Pot experiments were also employed. Results from these studies showed that isolate enhanced nitrogen accumulation and significantly (p < 0.05), improved the growth of maze seedlings over controls. Isolate has potential for utilizetion as inocula for sustainable production of cereals.
Analgesic Appraisal of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae) Leaf Extracts Used in Management of Oral Lesion Pain in HIV/AIDS Patients in Rodents  [PDF]
Joseph Obiezu Chukwujekwu Ezeonwumelu, Muhammad Ntale, Steve Okwudili Ogbonnia, Ezera Agwu, Julius Kihdze Tanayen, Ahmed Adebowale Adedeji, Chukwudi Onyeka Okonkwo, Ambrose Amamchukwu Akunne, Jennifer Chibuogwu Ebosie, Frederick Byarugaba
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2018.96014
Abstract: Oral lesions, diarrhoea, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, tuberculosis and urinary tract infections are some of the opportunistic infections (OIs) which arise when the CD4 cells of the HIV/AIDS patient fall below 200 cells/mm3. HIV/AIDS infection complications include tissue damage from oral lesions accompanied with pains. Pain is a disagreeable sensory and sensitive experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. This condition requires immediate treatment with analgesics and antibiotics. However, the inability of rural dwellers to afford readily available drugs is a consequence for using herbs like Bidens pilosa whose local usefulness in the management of oral lesions of HIV/AIDS has not been proven scientifically. Therefore, the objective of this study was to provide the scientific basis in rats for the traditional healers’ use of Bidens pilosa leaves’ extracts in managing pain associated with oral lesions of HIV/AIDS patients in South Western Uganda. Assessment of the analgesic effects of Bidens pilosa was conducted using acetic acid in mice, formalin-induced pain and tail flick methods in rats. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Bidens pilosa produced statistically significant dose dependent inhibition of acetic acid induced pain, non dose dependent pain reduction in formalin induced pain, (p < 0.05; student t-test) and non dose dependent tail withdrawal pattern (p < 0.05, Multivariate ANOVA test). Hence, we conclude that extracts of Bidens pilosa have an analgesic basis for their local use in treatment of oral lesions associated pain in HIV/AIDS patients in South-Western Uganda.
Maritime Boundaries Delimitation and Dispute Resolution in Africa  [PDF]
Theodore Okonkwo
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2017.81005
Abstract: Africa’s borders are bestride with many challenges ranging from religious and terrorist movements to cattle rustling, military conflicts to human trafficking. The challenges are endless, but whether the boundary disputes are terrestrial or maritime, they are mostly about security and prestige. Growing human population, political awareness and environmental challenges mean that the problems are likely to heighten, unless they are resolved. Despite the provisions of UNCLOS, Africa has several unresolved maritime boundary disputes. In this light, this article aims to examine the African situation, and discuss the challenges involved in the delimitation and management of maritime boundaries in Africa. This article presents the issues, causes, essence and the security imperative of maritime boundary disputes in Africa.
Adjudicating International Environmental Law Litigation: Recent Development of Case Law  [PDF]
Theodore Okonkwo
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2017.83014
Abstract: This article revolves around distinct dimensions related to the international environmental legal framework. In the recent years, there have been various developments in the field of international environmental law. Some of the inter-state disputes have raised concern towards resolving environmental issues. There are three well-known cases properly discussed in this article, i.e. Indus Waters Kishenganga, South China Sea and Pulp Mills case. In all of these three cases, a new jurisdiction has been proclaimed giving a new side to the international environmental litigation. For instance, ICJ’s judgement introduced the need for inclusion of EIA in the Pulp Mills case. On the contrary, the Partial Award in the case of Indus Waters Kishenganga, extended rights of India over Indus River but restricted the State from conducting extensive operations. The South China Sea case prohibited China from exercising historic rights over resources which belong to the nine dash line.
In vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of Bidens pilosa, Ageratum conyzoides and Ocimum suave Extracts against HIV/AIDS Patients’ Oral Bacteria in South-Western Uganda  [PDF]
Joseph Obiezu Chukwujekwu Ezeonwumelu, Muhammad Ntale, Steve Okwudili Ogbonnia, Ezera Agwu, Julius Kihdze Tanayen, Keneth Iceland Kasozi, Chukwudi Onyeka Okonkwo, Anthonia Shodunke, Ambrose Amamchukwu Akunne, Onokiojare Ephraim Dafiewhare, Jennifer Chibuogwu Ebosie, Frederick Byarugaba
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2017.89023
Abstract: The objective of the study was to determine the antibacterial efficacy of Bidens pilosa Aqueous (BPA), Bidens pilosa Ethanolic (BPE), Ageratum conyzoides Aqueous (ACA), Ageratum conyzoides Ethanolic (ACE), Ocimum suave Aqueous (OSA) and Ocimum suave Ethanolic (OSE) extracts on HIV/AIDS patients’ oral bacteria. Healthy green leaves of the plants were collected in Ishaka Uganda, processed and portions separately extracted with hot distilled water and cold ethanol. The susceptibility, MIC and MBC of each extract were determined using standard protocols. The bacteria had significant (p < 0.05) respective total susceptibilities of 35 [28.7%] to BPA; 42 [34.4%] to BPE; 61 [50.0%] to ACA; 45 [36.9%] to ACE; 38 [31.1%] to OSA; 32 [26.3%] to OSE; 105 (86.0%)] to ceftriaxone. BPE, ACA, OSA, OSE and ceftriaxone had significant MIC with [F(1, 13); P = 0.00 and BPA with F(1, 13); P = 0.03]. BPE, ACA, ACE, OSA and ceftriaxone had significant MBC with [F(1, 13); P = 0.00 and BPA with F(1, 13); P = 0.01] on the test bacteria (MANOVA). These tested medicinal plants’ extracts and ceftriaxone had significant activity against oral bacteria with ACA having the best activity when compared with the control. However, the plants’ extracts were resisted by some of the bacteria. These findings validate the claims of efficacy of Bidens pilosa, Ageratum conyzoides and Ocimum suave on oral lesions of HIV/AIDS patients made by traditional healers and local people in South-Western Uganda. We recommend a detailed study of structural identities and activities of the active antibacterial principle(s) in these plants for possible new drug entities and verification of the interactive effects of the principle(s) with ARVs and cotrimoxazole used daily by HIV/AIDS patients.
“Oil Injustice” in Nigeria’s Niger Delta Region: A Call for Responsive Governance  [PDF]
Theodore Okonkwo, Uzuazo Etemire
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.81005
Abstract: The injustice and chaos in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria resulting from the manner in which the oil industry is being run and regulated have since captured the attention of the world. Importantly, the 2011 UNEP Report on the Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland (a Niger Delta community) which revealed shocking levels of ecological degradation has helped to keep the issue on the front burners of international discussion. In this light, this article explores the nature of injustice in the oil producing areas of Nigeria; it assesses the regulatory mechanisms that have been set up to prevent and reverse the injustice in the region; and based on the inadequacies of the present system, it makes recommendations as to how the mechanisms might be better strengthened, and governance executed, all in a manner that is more responsive to the plight of the affected people.
Antioxidant Properties of Diospyros Preussi (Ebenaceae Gurke) Seed Oil
TJN Okonkwo, CJO Okonkwo
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2009,
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the lipid peroxidation inhibiting and glutathione-sparing activities (i.e., antioxidant effect) of Diospyros preussi seed oil in male Wistar albino rats. Methods: The n-hexane extract of the seed (seed oil) of Diospyros preussi (DP) was tested for its antioxidant properties against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in male Wistar albino rats by evaluating its lipid peroxidation inhibition and glutathione-sparing activity (free radical scavenging effect). Vitamin E, at a dose of 4 ml/kg body weight, was used reference. These parameters were determined in vivo by assaying the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the serum of exposed and normal Wistar albino rats. Results: At doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg of DP seed oil, the values of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS, (0.80 ± 0.04 and 0.72 ± 0.01 μg/ml, respectively) were not significantly different (p < 0.05) from the TBARS level of 0.83 ± 0.03 μg/ml induced by the reference, Vitamin E. Animals treated with 1000, 500 and 200 mg/kg doses of DP seed oil manifested glutathione levels of 206.7 ± 6.5, 188.0 ± 4.7 and 156.0±7.6 μg/100 ml of serum, respectively. These levels were significantly different from each other at p < 0.05 as well as the level (138.7 ± 8.0/100 ml) produced by the reference, Vitamin E. Conclusion: The results indicate that DP seed oil significantly protected the rats from H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, its antioxidant effect is dose-related.
Structural evolution of bode Saadu area, Southwestern Nigeria
CT Okonkwo
African Journal of Science and Technology , 2001,
Abstract: The Bode Saadu area comprises metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks which have been subjected to polyphase deformation and have subsequently been intruded by post-tectonic granitic rocks of probably Pan-African (600 ± 150Ma)age. Five phases of post-sedimentary tectonic deformation have been recognized in the rocks of this area. The first phase was associated with the development of the regional foliation, S1, and tight to isoclinal minor folds. The second phase involved heterogeneous deformation which gave rise to ductile shear zones, extensional and contractional faults. Second phase structures also include minor asymmetrical folds which deform S1 and S0. The third phase produced the dominant major folding on approximately N-S axis including the major Bode Saadu antiform. The fourth phase gave rise to open folds and crenulation of the earlier structures. Late brittle structures include transcurrent faults, both dextral and sinistral, which occasionally occurred in conjugate sets under generally N-S trending, maximum conpressive stress.
Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Software: Evaluation of its Influence in a Language Learning Process
UC Okonkwo
UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities , 2011,
Abstract: Evaluating the nature and extent of the influence of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on the quality of language learning is highly problematic. This is owing to the number and complexity of interacting variables involved in setting the items for teaching and learning languages. This paper identified and characterised features and processes through which computer assisted language learning impacts upon learning language. It offers a framework for analysing the effects of computer assisted language learning in combination with other factors which may enhance or ameliorate the positive impact of it in the classroom and beyond.
An Advanced Review of the Relationships between Sahel Precipitation and Climate Indices: A Wavelet Approach
Churchill Okonkwo
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/759067
Abstract: The interannual and decadal to multidecadal variability of precipitation in western Sahel region was examined using wavelet transform and coherency analysis. The aim was to identify the major climate index that has a robust relationship with Sahel precipitation (drought). The results show that ENSO, North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) all have some relationship with precipitation at different time scales which is in agreement with recent studies. There is an antiphase relationship between Sahel precipitation and ENSO at the 3-4-year band localized around 1982/83 El Ni?o episode. This indicates a cause and effect relationship between the droughts of 1983 and 1982/83 El Ni?o. In addition, wavelet transform coherence analysis also revealed a relatively antiphase relationship between AMO and precipitation signifying cause and effect. The wavelet analyses indicate that IOD control on rainfall variability in Sahel is limited to the east (15°E–35°E). Advancing this understanding of variability in rainfall and climate forcing could improve the accuracy of rainfall forecast. 1. Introduction Several authors have reported marked interannual variability in rainfall across Africa [1–3]. Since economic development in the region is highly dependent on water availability [4], the effect of climate variability on rainfall is critical [5]. Western Sahel region (latitudes 14°N and 18°N—longitude ?18°W to 10°W) is the semiarid transition zone between the Sahara desert and humid tropical Africa that is prone to drought [6, 7]. The Disaster Management Center (DMC) [8] reported that more than 900,000 people were severely affected by the devastating drought of the 1970s across the Sahel. The associated social and economic consequence of drought such as failure in crop yield, destruction of pasture, and famine has led to a series of studies exploring the interactions and dynamics that control precipitation within the region. Over the past three decades, studies on the possible causes of drought in Sahel have focused on forcing by either sea surface temperature (SST) or land-atmosphere interaction. Simulations of hydrological impact of land-atmosphere interactions include [9–12] which all attributed reduced rainfall to degradation of land surface at least in part. Li et al. [12] confirmed the impact of land surface changes on the regional climate through a feedback mechanism that sustains drought. The contribution of these mechanisms has however been exaggerated [13, 14] especially the characterization of
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