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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 139357 matches for " Julius K. Koech "
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Factors Associated with First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy Failure amongst HIV-Infected African Patients: A Case-Control Study  [PDF]
Charles M. Kwobah, Ann W. Mwangi, Julius K. Koech, Gilbert N. Simiyu, Abraham M. Siika
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.24036
Abstract: Background: Since 2001, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has been provided to over 75,000 HIV-infected patients at the USAID-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Partnership in western Kenya. Over 1000 of these patients have switched to second-line ART. We therefore set out to determine factors associated with first-line ART failure amongst these patients. Methods: This case controlled study matched patients (in the ratio 1:2) from the electronic AMPATH Medical Record System on the basis of age, gender, and ART initiation date. Cases were adults (≥18 years) who initiated second-line ART between January 1, 2007 and July 31, 2011 after at least one viral load measurement >5000 copies/ml or satisfying the WHO immunological or clinical failure criteria. Controls were those on non-failing first-line ART with a CD4 count > 400 /ml within the last 12 months, at the time of case incidence. Conditional logistic regression for paired data was used to assess association. We evaluated the strength of association of risk factors using stratified Cox model. Results: Of the 1084 cases and 2149 controls included in the analysis, 62% were female. Median age was 36.5 years (IQR = 30.7 - 43.1); median baseline CD4 cell count was 161 /ml (IQR = 72 - 277); Median time to ART failure was 37 months (IQR = 24 - 47). Low baseline CD4 count < 50 /ml (H.R = 7.07, (95% CI = 4.92 - 10.15); Zidovudine based ART (H.R 1.76, 95% CI = 1.25 - 2.48) and imperfect ART adherence (H.R = 2.77, 95% CI = 2.20 - 3.49) were independently associated with treatment failure. Conclusion: In this setting, low baseline CD4 count, zidovudine-based ART and imperfect adherence are associated with first-line ART treatment failure.
Surface Modification of Hollow Glass Microspheres  [PDF]
Fredrick N. Mutua, Peijie Lin, Jacob K. Koech, Yimin Wang
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2012.312125
Abstract: Hollow Glass Microspheres are high-strength, low-density additives made from water resistant and chemically-stable soda-lime-borosilicate glass. These hollow glass microspheres offer a variety of advantages over conventional irregularly-shaped mineral fillers or glass fiber. Their spherical shape helps reduce resin content in a variety of applications. They also create a ball bearing effect that can result in higher filler loading and improved flow. In this research, amine terminated hollow glass microspheres were prepared by adopting three different routes. The results were investigated using FT-IR and SEM to establish the formation of amine groups and observe the morphological structure of the modified HGMs. The results obtained were used to select a suitable less toxic and environmental friendly modification method based on the chemicals used.
Correlation between Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction, Pairing Energy Gap and Phase Shift for Identical Nucleons in Nuclear Systems  [PDF]
Willy K. Koech, Ken M. Muguro, Godfrey S. Murunga, Kapil M. Khanna
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2019.52018
Abstract: Assuming some known nucleon-nucleon interactions, and using the relations between phase shift δ and nucleon-nucleon interaction potential V (r) ; the relation between nucleon-nucleon interaction and scattering length a; the relation between energy gap Δ, and scattering length a; an equation is obtained between energy gap Δ and Fermi momentum kF via the phase shift δ (kF). Assuming 1s0 (singlet) pairing between the nucleons, the energy gap Δ has been calculated and it is found that Δ = 3.0 MeV at Fermi momentum kF = 0.8 fm-1.
Impact of Domestic Care Environment on Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Orphans in Western Kenya
Lukoye Atwoli, David Ayuku, Joseph Hogan, Julius Koech, Rachel Christine Vreeman, Samuel Ayaya, Paula Braitstein
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089937
Abstract: Objective The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the domestic care environment on the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among orphaned and separated children in Uasin Gishu County, western Kenya. Methods A total of 1565 (55.5% male) orphaned and separated adolescents aged 10–18 years (mean 13.8 years, sd 2.2), were assessed for PTSD and PTEs including bullying, physical abuse and sexual abuse. In this sample, 746 lived in extended family households, 746 in Charitable Children's Institutions (CCIs), and 73 on the street. Posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) scores and PTSD were assessed using the Child PTSD Checklist. Results Bullying was the commonest PTE in all domestic care environments, followed by physical and sexual abuse. All PTEs were commonest among the street youth followed by CCIs. However, sexual abuse was more prevalent in households than in CCIs. Prevalence of PTSD was highest among street youth (28.8%), then households (15.0%) and CCIs (11.5%). PTSS scores were also highest among street youth, followed by CCIs and households. Bullying was associated with higher PTSS scores and PTSD odds than either sexual or physical abuse. Conclusion This study demonstrated differences in distribution of trauma and PTSD among orphaned and separated children in different domestic care environments, with street youth suffering more than those in CCIs or households. Interventions are needed to address bullying and sexual abuse, especially in extended family households. Street youth, a heretofore neglected population, are urgently in need of dedicated mental health services and support.
Social and Economic Characteristics of Street Youth by Gender and Level of Street Involvement in Eldoret, Kenya
Rebecca Sorber, Susanna Winston, Julius Koech, David Ayuku, Liangyuan Hu, Joseph Hogan, Paula Braitstein
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097587
Abstract: Background Street-connected youth are a neglected and vulnerable population, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The development of interventions and supports for this population requires insight into how they live. This study describes the social and economic characteristics of a convenience sample of street youth (SY) in Eldoret, Kenya. Methods Participants were eligible if they were aged 12–21, living in Eldoret, spending days only (part-time), or nights and days on the street (full-time) and able and willing to consent or assent. Data were collected using a standardized interview conducted in English or Kiswahili. Binary dependent variables were having been arrested and/or jailed, and first priority for spending money (food vs. other). Nominal categorical dependent variables included major source of support, and major reason for being street-involved. Multivariable analysis used logistic regression models to examine the association of gender and level of street-involvement with social and economic factors of interest adjusting for age and length of time on the street. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3. Results Of the 200 SY enrolled, 41% were female, mean age of 16.3 years; 71% were on the street full-time, and 29% part-time. Compared with part-time SY, full-time SY were more likely to have been arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]:1.01–5.35), name food as their first spending priority (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI:1.03–6.45), have left home due to violence (AOR: 5.54, 95%CI: 1.67–18.34), and more likely to report friends on the street as a major source of support (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.01–12.82). Compared with females, males were more likely to have ever been arrested (AOR: 2.66, 95%CI:1.14–6.18), and to have ever been jailed (AOR: 3.22, 95%CI:1.47–7.02). Conclusions These results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability among SY in this setting. There is an urgent need for interventions taking into consideration these characteristics.
Status of Treated Slaughter-House Efluent and its Effects on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Surface Water in Kavuthi Stream, Dagoretti-Kenya
H.K. Koech,G.M. Ogendi,J. Kipkemboi
Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the status of treated slaughter-house effluent from Dagoretti slaughterhouses and its effect on the physico-chemical characteristics of Kavuthi stream. Samples of both treated slaughterhouse effluent and water along a 5 km stretch of the stream were taken and subjected to standard procedures to determine the levels of pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) between January and April 2010. The first two months corresponded with the dry season while March and April with wet season. A mean of 2520±7.66 μS/cm for EC, 2.3±0.13 mg/L for DO, 189.66±3.65 mg/L for TSS, 80.90±5.27 mg/L for BOD and 609.3±81.87mg/L for COD were recorded for slaughter-house effluent. The corresponding measurements for the stream water samples were: 5.41± 0.13 mg/L for DO, 736±5.69 μS/cm for EC, 89.74±2.51 mg/L for TSS, 27.15±2.9 mg/L for BOD and 190.82±43.29 mg/L for COD. While the downstream sites from the point of effluent discharge showed much higher concentrations of the parameters under investigation than the head waters, it was evident that as the stream progressed it was able to recover through self purification. Although the slaughter-house effluent were treated, it did not meet the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) standard for effluent discharge into the environment leading to cross pollution of the receiving water based on the parameters under investigation. This therefore, calls for the need to upscale the existing wastewater treatment system and to enforce existing legislations to curb water pollution to safeguard both the environment and human health.
The Imperatives of People-Centered Development
Julius K. Nyerere
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 1991,
Abstract: Speech delivered by Julius K. Nyerere at the University of the Philippines on July 12, 1991 when he was conferred the degree of Doctor of Laws, honoris causa.
Review of: homas Wabel, Michael Weichenhan (Hrsg.), Kommentare. Interdisziplin re Perspektiven auf eine wissenschaftliche Praxis.
David Julius K?stle
Forum Historiae Iuris , 2012,
Abstract:
Clinical aplications of Trioxolane derivatives
DK Koech
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The aqueous extracts of three medicinal plants, Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl (Apocynaceae), Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkm (Rosaceae) and Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) have shown significant reduction in the replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblasts cells in vitro. Using the plaque inhibition assay for the determination of anti-viral activity, the HEL fibroblast cells cultured in 24 well plates were infected with 1 x 102 PFU 91S HCMV and treated with various concentrations of the extracts. The plaques formed were counted after 7 days incubation at 37°C in 5% CO2 and the percent plaques inhibited were calculated against infected untreated control. The effective concentrations inhibiting plaque formation by 50% (EC50) was found between 40 to 80 μg/ml for all the extracts. The cell cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) for each of the three extracts, by the trypan blue exclusion test, gave a safe therapeutic index. These results have demonstrated the potential anti-viral activities of the extracts of the three medicinal plants at non-cytotoxic concentrations African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 15 (1&2) 2008: pp. 1-5
Effects of Prosopis juliflora Seedpod Meal Supplement on Weight Gain of Weaner Galla Goats in Kenya
O.K. Koech,R.N. Kinuthia,R.G. Wahome,S.K. Choge
Research Journal of Animal Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjnasci.2010.58.62
Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100g/goat/day Prosopis), T3 (200 g/goat/day Prosopis) and T4 (400 g/goat/day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% Dry Matter (DM), 18.5% Crude Protein (CP), 83.2% Organic Matter (OM), 51.8% Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However for the first 3 weeks these differences were not statistically significant (p<0.05). From the 5th week on wards however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (p<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg) followed by T4 (2.70 kg). Group T1 had lowest weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200 g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.
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