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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 191801 matches for " Juliet D French "
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Androgen receptor expression predicts breast cancer survival: the role of genetic and epigenetic events
Kate M Peters, Stacey L Edwards, Shalima S Nair, Juliet D French, Peter J Bailey, Kathryn Salkield, Sandra Stein, Sarah Wagner, Glenn D Francis, Susan J Clark, Melissa A Brown
BMC Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-132
Abstract: The levels of Androgen receptor protein in a cohort of breast tumour samples was determined by immunohistochemistry and the results were compared with clinical characteristics, including survival. The role of defects in the regulation of Androgen receptor gene expression were examined by mutation and methylation screening of the 5' end of the gene, reporter assays of the 5' and 3' end of the AR gene, and searching for miRNAs that may regulate AR gene expression.AR was expressed in 56% of tumours and expression was significantly inversely associated with 10-year survival (P = 0.004). An investigation into the mechanisms responsible for the loss of AR expression revealed that hypermethylation of the AR promoter is associated with loss of AR expression in breast cancer cells but not in primary breast tumours. In AR negative breast tumours, mutation screening identified the same mutation (T105A) in the 5'UTR of two AR negative breast cancer patients but not reported in the normal human population. Reporter assay analysis of this mutation however found no evidence for a negative impact on AR 5'UTR activity. The role of miR-124 in regulating AR expression was also investigated, however no evidence for this was found.This study highlights the potential for AR expression to be an informative biomarker for breast cancer survival and sets the scene for a more comprehensive investigation of the molecular basis of this phenomenon.Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease comprising tumour subtypes associated with variable clinical characteristics [1]. Variables including tumour size, histological subtype and grade, lymph node status and the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) currently assist routine clinical management [2]. However, these factors are limited in their ability to predict individual survival and response to therapy [2]. This is particularly apparent for patients with advanced b
To Inherit the Earth: The Landless Movement and the Struggle for a New Brazil.
John D. French
Revista Mundos do Trabalho , 2009, DOI: 10.5007/1984-9222.2009v1n2p282
Abstract: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-9222.2009v1n2p282
O Brasil de Lula: A Gest o da Esperan a
John D. French
Revista Mundos do Trabalho , 2009, DOI: 10.5007/1984-9222.2009v1n1p293
Abstract: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-9222.2009v1n1p293
A Poverty of Rights
John D. French
Revista Mundos do Trabalho , 2011, DOI: 10.5007/1984-9222.2011v3n6p222
Abstract: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-9222.2011v3n6p222 FISCHER, Brodwyn. A Poverty of Rights: Citizenship and Inequality in Twentieth Century Rio de Janeiro. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2008. 464 2008. 464 p.
Expression and Function of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor J (PTPRJ) in Normal Mammary Epithelial Cells and Breast Tumors
Chanel E. Smart, Marjan E. Askarian Amiri, Ania Wronski, Marcel E. Dinger, Joanna Crawford, Dmitry A. Ovchinnikov, Ana Cristina Vargas, Lynne Reid, Peter T. Simpson, Sarah Song, Christiane Wiesner, Juliet D. French, Richa K. Dave, Leonard da Silva, Amy Purdon, Megan Andrew, John S. Mattick, Sunil R. Lakhani, Melissa A. Brown, Stuart Kellie
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040742
Abstract: The protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor J, PTPRJ, is a tumor suppressor gene that has been implicated in a range of cancers, including breast cancer, yet little is known about its role in normal breast physiology or in mammary gland tumorigenesis. In this paper we show that PTPRJ mRNA is expressed in normal breast tissue and reduced in corresponding tumors. Meta-analysis revealed that the gene encoding PTPRJ is frequently lost in breast tumors and that low expression of the transcript associated with poorer overall survival at 20 years. Immunohistochemistry of PTPRJ protein in normal human breast tissue revealed a distinctive apical localisation in the luminal cells of alveoli and ducts. Qualitative analysis of a cohort of invasive ductal carcinomas revealed retention of normal apical PTPRJ localization where tubule formation was maintained but that tumors mostly exhibited diffuse cytoplasmic staining, indicating that dysregulation of localisation associated with loss of tissue architecture in tumorigenesis. The murine ortholog, Ptprj, exhibited a similar localisation in normal mammary gland, and was differentially regulated throughout lactational development, and in an in vitro model of mammary epithelial differentiation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of human PTPRJ in HC11 murine mammary epithelial cells inhibited dome formation. These data indicate that PTPRJ may regulate differentiation of normal mammary epithelia and that dysregulation of protein localisation may be associated with tumorigenesis.
Understanding Permutation Symmetry
S. R. D. French,D. P. Rickles
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: \noindent In our contribution to this volume we deal with \emph{discrete} symmetries: these are symmetries based upon groups with a discrete set of elements (generally a set of elements that can be enumerated by the positive integers). In physics we find that discrete symmetries frequently arise as `internal', non-spacetime symmetries. Permutation symmetry is such a discrete symmetry arising as the mathematical basis underlying the statistical behaviour of ensembles of certain types of indistinguishable quantum particle (e.g., fermions and bosons). Roughly speaking, if such an ensemble is invariant under a permutation of its constituent particles (i.e., permutation symmetric) then one doesn't `count' those permutations which merely `exchange' indistinguishable particles; rather, the exchanged state is identified with the original state. This principle of invariance is generally called the `indistinguishability postulate' [IP], but we prefer to use the term `permutation invariance' [PI]. It is this symmetry principle that is typically taken to underpin and explain the nature of (fermionic and bosonic) quantum statistics (although, as we shall see, this characterisation is not uncontentious), and it is this principle that has important consequences regarding the metaphysics of identity and individuality for particles exhibiting such statistical behaviour.
Atypical Presentation of Constrictive Pericarditis in a Holstein Heifer
Mohamed M. Elhanafy,Dennis D. French
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/604098
Abstract: The field diagnosis of constrictive pericardial effusion is often established on the pertinent pathognomonic physical examination findings, but the condition cannot be ruled out based on absence of these cardinal signs. Constrictive pericardial effusion is not always manifested by bilateral jugular venous distention and pulsation, brisket edema, and muffled heart sounds, all of which are considered the key points in the field diagnosis of pericardial effusion and hardware disease. This case will also document that the outcomes of hematology, serum biochemistry panels, and blood gas analysis can be totally inconsistent with passive venous congestion and constrictive pericardial effusion in cattle. Chest radiographic findings revealed radio dense, wire-like objects; the findings were suggestive but not conclusive for pericardial or pleural effusions, due to indistinguishable diaphragmatic outline and cardiopulmonary silhouette. Cardiac ultrasonography was found to be an excellent paraclinical diagnostic procedure for cases that potentially have traumatic pericarditis and constrictive pericardial effusion. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis was also a valuable diagnostic aid in establishing a definitive diagnosis.
Stress-Induced Tradeoffs in a Free-Living Lizard across a Variable Landscape: Consequences for Individuals and Populations
LeiLani D. Lucas, Susannah S. French
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049895
Abstract: Current life history theory suggests that the allocation of energetic resources between competing physiological needs should be dictated by an individual’s longevity and pace of life. One key physiological pathway likely to contribute to the partitioning of resources is the vertebrate stress response. By increasing circulating glucocorticoids the stress response can exert a suite of physiological effects, such as altering immune function. We investigated the effects of stress physiology on individual immunity, reproduction and oxidative stress, across an urban landscape. We sampled populations in and around St. George, Utah, examining corticosterone in response to restraint stress, two innate immune measures, reproductive output, and the presence of both reactive oxygen metabolites and antioxidant binding capacity, in populations of common side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) experiencing variable levels of environmental stress. Additionally, using capture-mark-recapture techniques, we examined the relationships between these physiological parameters and population-level differences. Our results reveal elevated physiological stress corresponds with suppressed immunity and increased oxidative stress. Interestingly, urban populations experiencing the most physiological stress also exhibited greater reproductive output and decreased survival relative to rural populations experiencing less physiological stress, demonstrating a tradeoff between reproduction and life maintenance processes. Our results suggest that environmental stress may augment life history strategy in this fast-paced species, and that shifts in life history strategy can in turn affect the population at large. Finally, the urban environment poses definite challenges for organisms, and while it appears that side-blotched lizards are adjusting physiologically, it is unknown what fitness costs these physiological adjustments accrue.
Spinal manipulative therapy versus Graston Technique in the treatment of non-specific thoracic spine pain: Design of a randomised controlled trial
Amy Crothers, Bruce Walker, Simon D French
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1340-16-12
Abstract: Eighty four eligible people with non specific thoracic pain mid back pain of six weeks or more will be randomised to one of three groups, either SMT, GT, or a placebo (de-tuned ultrasound). Each group will receive up to 10 supervised treatment sessions at the Murdoch University Chiropractic student clinic over a 4-week period. Treatment outcomes will be measured at baseline, one week after their first treatment, upon completion of the 4-week intervention period and at three, six and twelve months post randomisation. Outcome measures will include the Oswestry Back Pain Disability Index and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Intention to treat analysis will be utilised in the statistical analysis of any group treatment effects.This trial was registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on the 7th February 2008. Trial number: ACTRN12608000070336Published studies of the epidemiology of non-specific thoracic pain are uncommon. Niemelainen found that the one year prevalence of mid back pain in Finnish men was 17%, compared to 64% with neck pain and 66.8% who reported low back pain [1]. When upper or mid back pain was present, disability tended to occur less than if the pain was reported in the neck or low back. However, when disability was reported, the number of days of disability was similar when the pain involved the upper or mid back compared to other regions.Commonly used treatment options for non specific thoracic spine pain include massage, mobilisation, manipulation, acupuncture, and other physical therapies such as heat, electro-therapies, ultrasound and also non steroidal anti-inflammatories. A search of the literature concerning thoracic spinal pain established that there are no high quality studies for any of these modalities. There are some individual studies, however none show unequivocal proof of efficacy or effectiveness.To date we are only aware of one published randomised controlled trial performed assessing the effectiveness of s
Atypical Presentation of Constrictive Pericarditis in a Holstein Heifer
Mohamed M. Elhanafy,Dennis D. French
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/604098
Abstract: The field diagnosis of constrictive pericardial effusion is often established on the pertinent pathognomonic physical examination findings, but the condition cannot be ruled out based on absence of these cardinal signs. Constrictive pericardial effusion is not always manifested by bilateral jugular venous distention and pulsation, brisket edema, and muffled heart sounds, all of which are considered the key points in the field diagnosis of pericardial effusion and hardware disease. This case will also document that the outcomes of hematology, serum biochemistry panels, and blood gas analysis can be totally inconsistent with passive venous congestion and constrictive pericardial effusion in cattle. Chest radiographic findings revealed radio dense, wire-like objects; the findings were suggestive but not conclusive for pericardial or pleural effusions, due to indistinguishable diaphragmatic outline and cardiopulmonary silhouette. Cardiac ultrasonography was found to be an excellent paraclinical diagnostic procedure for cases that potentially have traumatic pericarditis and constrictive pericardial effusion. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis was also a valuable diagnostic aid in establishing a definitive diagnosis. 1. Introduction The fundamental task of a veterinarian is making a diagnosis and planning the most effective therapeutic approach. Veterinarians face three challenges on a daily basis: establishing a correct diagnosis, selecting appropriate clinical management, and keeping up to date with useful technological advances [1]. In some instances, routine physical examination fails to detect the clinically significant abnormalities of the body system(s) involved even when conducted by highly skilled practitioners. Additionally, hematology and serum biochemistry are not always effective in determining the disease process, and this lack of specificity renders the diagnosis tentative rather than conclusive. Diagnostic imaging procedures such as thoracic radiographs or cardiac ultrasonography are not frequently applied in large animal practice due to lack of equipment, time, or economic constraints. These factors limit diagnostic capabilities and may lead to incorrect diagnosis, unnecessary treatments, and the potential for a negative impact on the veterinary-client-patient relationship and unneeded animal suffering. In large animal patients, this scenario could easily happen with diseases such as constrictive pericarditis or cardiac tamponade. Pericarditis is the most commonly encountered consequence of traumatic reticuloperitonitis in cattle [2] and
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