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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 467953 matches for " Julie A. Johnson "
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The Role of Phytonutrients in Skin Health
Julie A. Evans,Elizabeth J. Johnson
Nutrients , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/nu2080903
Abstract: Photodamage is known to occur in skin with exposure to sunlight, specifically ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Such damage includes inflammation, oxidative stress, breakdown of the extracellular matrix, and development of cancer in the skin. Sun exposure is considered to be one of the most important risk factors for both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Many phytonutrients have shown promise as photoprotectants in clinical, animal and cell culture studies. In part, the actions of these phytonutrients are thought to be through their actions as antioxidants. In regard to skin health, phytonutrients of interest include vitamin E, certain flavonoids, and the carotenoids, b-carotene, lycopene and lutein.
Beta-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms: A basis for pharmacogenetics  [PDF]
Efstratios K. Theofilogiannakos, Konstantinos Dean Boudoulas, Brian E. Gawronski, Taimour Y. Langaee, Timotheos G. Kelpis, Antonios A. Pitsis, Julie A. Johnson, Harisios Boudoulas
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.36063
Abstract: Aims: Polymorphisms of the β-adrenergic receptor, the frequency of which may differ in ethnic groups, alters β-receptor function. The aim of this study was to elucidate the frequency of β1 and β2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms in healthy Greeks and to compare with those of Caucasian European (Euro) and African American (AA) origin. Methods: Ninety-nine individuals with a median age of 63 without clinical evidence of any disease were studied. Blood samples were obtained and common β1 and β2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms that change the en-coded amino acid were determined by pyrosequencing. Results: The most common β1-adrenergic receptor polymorphism in Greeks is nucleotide substitution cytosine for guanine at position 1165 (1165 C/G) resulting in amino acid substitution arginine for glycine at position 389 (389 Arg/Gly) with a minor allele frequency of 28% (Euro 27%, AA 42%); this polymorphism increases the sensitivity of the β1-receptor. The most common
SRA-Domain Proteins Required for DRM2-Mediated De Novo DNA Methylation
Lianna M. Johnson,Julie A. Law,Anuj Khattar,Ian R. Henderson,Steven E. Jacobsen
PLOS Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000280
Abstract: De novo DNA methylation and the maintenance of DNA methylation in asymmetrical sequence contexts is catalyzed by homologous proteins in plants (DRM2) and animals (DNMT3a/b). In plants, targeting of DRM2 depends on small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), although the molecular details are still unclear. Here, we show that two SRA-domain proteins (SUVH9 and SUVH2) are also essential for DRM2-mediated de novo and maintenance DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana. At some loci, SUVH9 and SUVH2 act redundantly, while at other loci only SUVH2 is required, and this locus specificity correlates with the differing DNA-binding affinity of the SRA domains within SUVH9 and SUVH2. Specifically, SUVH9 preferentially binds methylated asymmetric sites, while SUVH2 preferentially binds methylated CG sites. The suvh9 and suvh2 mutations do not eliminate siRNAs, suggesting a role for SUVH9 and SUVH2 late in the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. With these new results, it is clear that SRA-domain proteins are involved in each of the three pathways leading to DNA methylation in Arabidopsis.
Parental and infant characteristics and childhood leukemia in Minnesota
Kimberly J Johnson, John T Soler, Susan E Puumala, Julie A Ross, Logan G Spector
BMC Pediatrics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-8-7
Abstract: We investigated the association between birth characteristics and childhood leukemia through linkage of the Minnesota birth and cancer registries using a case-cohort study design. Cases included 560 children with ALL and 87 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) diagnoses from 28 days to 14 years. The comparison group was comprised of 8,750 individuals selected through random sampling of the birth cohort from 1976–2004. Cox proportional hazards regression specific for case-cohort studies was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Male sex (HR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.16–1.70), white race (HR = 2.32, 95% CI 1.13–4.76), and maternal birth interval ≥ 3 years (HR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.01–1.70) increased ALL risk, while maternal age increased AML risk (HR = 1.21/5 year age increase, 95% CI 1.0–1.47). Higher birth weights (>3798 grams) (HRALL = 1.46, 1.08–1.98; HRAML = 1.97, 95% CI 1.07–3.65), and one minute Apgar scores ≤ 7 (HRALL = 1.30, 95% CI 1.05–1.61; HRAML = 1.62, 95% CI 1.01–2.60) increased risk for both types of leukemia. Sex was not a significant modifier of the association between ALL and other covariates, with the exception of maternal education.We confirmed known risk factors for ALL: male sex, high birth weight, and white race. We have also provided data that supports an increased risk for AML following higher birth weights, and demonstrated an association with low Apgar scores.Leukemia is the most common cancer occurring in children under age 15 in the United States with an annual incidence of 45.5 cases per million [1]. Most cases occur in children less than 5 years with a peak incidence at 2–3 years [2]. Translocations commonly found in childhood leukemia have been detected in neonatal blood spots, in some cases more than 10 years before the onset of disease [3]. The early age at which leukemia diagnoses occur together with the presence of leukemic translocations detected at birth implicates a role for prenatal exposures in childhood leukemia
Distinct Structural Features of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5 (GRK5) Regulate Its Nuclear Localization and DNA-Binding Ability
Laura R. Johnson, James D. Robinson, Katrina N. Lester, Julie A. Pitcher
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062508
Abstract: G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) act to desensitize G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In addition to this role at the plasma membrane, a nuclear function for GRK5, a member of the GRK4 subfamily of GRKs, has been reported. GRK5 phosphorylates and promotes the nuclear export of the histone deacetylase, HDAC5. Here we demonstrate that the possession of a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) is a common feature of GRK4 subfamily members (GRKs 4, 5 and 6). However, the location of the NLS and the ability of these GRKs to bind DNA in vitro are different. The NLSs of GRK5 and 6 bind DNA in vitro, whilst the NLS of GRK4 does not. Using mutants of GRK5 we identify the regions of GRK5 required for DNA-binding in vitro and nuclear localization in cells. The DNA-binding ability of GRK5 requires both the NLS and an N-terminal calmodulin (CaM)-binding site. A functional nuclear export sequence (NES), required for CaM-dependent nuclear export of the kinase, is also identified. Based on our observations we propose a model to explain how nuclear localization of GRK5 may be regulated. Notably, the nuclear localization of GRK5 and 6 is differentially regulated. These results suggest subfamily specific nuclear functions for the GRK4 subfamily members. Identification of GRK specific small molecule inhibitors of nuclear localization and/or function for the GRK4 subfamily may thus be an achievable goal.
Intimate Partner Violence Among Men Presenting to a University Emergency Department
Johnson, Cherlin,Gorchynski, Julie
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine : Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health , 2004,
Abstract: Objective: We sought to investigate the one-year point prevalence for male intimate partner violence (IPV) in men presenting to a university emergency department, to identify types of violence, to examine differences in male IPV rates based on patient demographics, and to identify any differences in prevalence based on types of partnership. Methods: This survey study was conducted from September 2001 until January 2002 at a tertiary, academic, Level I Trauma Center with an emergency department (ED) that has 40,000 visits per year. The anonymous written survey consisted of 16 questions previously validated in the Colorado Partner Violence Study, Index of Spouse Abuse and the Conflict Tactics Scale. This survey was administered to all consenting adult men who presented to the ED. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI were calculated when appropriate and a p-value of 0.05 was set for significance. Results: The oneyear point prevalence rate of male IPV was 24% in our study population (82/346). Among the men who experienced some form of abuse specified as either physical, emotional, or sexual, the prevalence was calculated to be 15.6% (54/346), 13.6% (47/346), and 2.6% (9/346), respectively. Education, income, age, and race did not demonstrate an association for any one variable to be associated with intimate partner abuse (p>0.05) with the exception of increased risk of IPV among unemployed men in the relationship (p<0.04, OR 0.592). IPV towards men was found to affect both heterosexual as well as homosexual relationships. Overall, 2% (8/346) of the men surveyed had received medical treatment as a result of IPV by their intimate partner within the past year. Three percent (11/344) of those men reporting abuse were abusers themselves. Conclusion: The point prevalence of IPV among our study population was 24%. In our study of 346 men, male IPV crossed all socioeconomic boundaries, racial differences, and educational levels regardless of the sex of the partner.
A Grounded Theory Analysis of Introductory Computer Science Pedagogy
Jonathan Wellons,Julie Johnson
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2011,
Abstract: Planning is a critical, early step on the path to successful program writing and a skill that is often lacking in novice programmers. As practitioners we are continually searching for or creating interventions to help our students, particularly those who struggle in the early stages of their computer science education. In this paper we report on our ongoing research of novice programming skills that utilizes the qualitative research method of grounded theory to develop theories and inform the construction of these interventions. We describe how grounded theory, a popular research method in the social sciences since the 1960’s, can lend formality and structure to the common practice of simply asking students what they did and why they did it. Further, we aim to inform the reader not only about our emerging theories on interventions for planning but also how they might collect and analyze their own data in this and other areas that trouble novice programmers. In this way those who lecture and design CS1 interventions can do so from a more informed perspective.
Chromosome 7 and 19 Trisomy in Cultured Human Neural Progenitor Cells
Dhruv Sareen,Erin McMillan,Allison D. Ebert,Brandon C. Shelley,Julie A. Johnson,Lorraine F. Meisner,Clive N. Svendsen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007630
Abstract: Stem cell expansion and differentiation is the foundation of emerging cell therapy technologies. The potential applications of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) are wide ranging, but a normal cytogenetic profile is important to avoid the risk of tumor formation in clinical trials. FDA approved clinical trials are being planned and conducted for hNPC transplantation into the brain or spinal cord for various neurodegenerative disorders. Although human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are known to show recurrent chromosomal abnormalities involving 12 and 17, no studies have revealed chromosomal abnormalities in cultured hNPCs. Therefore, we investigated frequently occurring chromosomal abnormalities in 21 independent fetal-derived hNPC lines and the possible mechanisms triggering such aberrations.
Adrenergic gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular risk in the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation
Michael A Pacanowski, Issam Zineh, Haihong Li, B Delia Johnson, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Vera Bittner, Dennis M McNamara, Barry L Sharaf, C Noel Merz, Carl J Pepine, Julie A Johnson
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-6-11
Abstract: We genotyped 628 women referred for coronary angiography for eight polymorphisms in the α1A-, β1-, β2- and β3-adrenergic receptors (ADRA1A, ADRB1, ADRB2, ADRB3, respectively), and their signaling proteins, G-protein β 3 subunit (GNB3) and G-protein α subunit (GNAS). We compared the incidence of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure between genotype groups in all women and women without obstructive coronary stenoses.After a median of 5.8 years of follow-up, 115 women had an event. Patients with the ADRB1 Gly389 polymorphism were at higher risk for the composite outcome due to higher rates of myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.63, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.17–11.28; Gly/Gly vs. Arg/Arg HR 4.14, 95%CI 0.88–19.6). The risk associated with ADRB1 Gly389 was limited to those without obstructive CAD (n = 400, Pinteraction = 0.03), albeit marginally significant in this subset (HR 1.71, 95%CI 0.91–3.19). Additionally, women without obstructive CAD carrying the ADRB3 Arg64 variant were at higher risk for the composite endpoint (HR 2.10, 95%CI 1.05–4.24) due to subtle increases in risk for all of the individual endpoints. No genetic associations were present in women with obstructive CAD.In this exploratory analysis, common coding polymorphisms in the β1- and β3-adrenergic receptors increased cardiovascular risk in women referred for diagnostic angiography, and could improve risk assessment, particularly for women without evidence of obstructive CAD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00000554.Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women in the United States [1]. More than half of women presenting with chest pain or suspected myocardial ischemia do not have angiographic evidence of stenosis [2]. Despite the absence of obstructive lesions, many of these women have been shown to have myocardial ischemia due to microvascular disease [3,4] and are at high risk for cardiovascular events [5,6]. Diagnosing CAD an
Polyfunctional T-Cell Responses Are Disrupted by the Ovarian Cancer Ascites Environment and Only Partially Restored by Clinically Relevant Cytokines
Eric Tran,Julie S. Nielsen,Darin A. Wick,Alvin V. Ng,Lisa D. S. Johnson,Nancy J. Nesslinger,Elissa McMurtrie,John R. Webb,Brad H. Nelson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015625
Abstract: Host T-cell responses are associated with favorable outcomes in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but it remains unclear how best to promote these responses in patients. Toward this goal, we evaluated a panel of clinically relevant cytokines for the ability to enhance multiple T-cell effector functions (polyfunctionality) in the native tumor environment.
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