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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 464752 matches for " Julie A. Albrecht "
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Effects of Fructooligofructoses Chain Length on the Bifidobacteria of the Human Colon: A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Krista Mendlik, Julie A. Albrecht, Marilynn Schnepf
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.312211
Abstract: Human gastrointestinal health may be improved by the consumption of prebiotic food ingredients such as fructooligo-fructoses. A study was initiated to determine the effect of fructooligofructoses of different chain lengths on gastrointes-tinal parameters. Nineteen healthy subjects aged 20 - 57 y took part in a 10-week cross-over designed study. Subjects consumed either inulin or oligofructose for 3 weeks followed by a 2-week washout period between treatments. Stool samples were collected five times (baseline, 2 treatments, 2 washout) and analyzed for bifidobacteria. Daily records were kept for stool frequency, stool consistency and flatulence frequency. Bifidobacteria counts (cfu/ml) were higher (trending toward significance) during inulin and oligofructose intakes (1.2 × 107 ± 4.8 × 107 and 2.0 × 108 ± 4.7 × 108) and washout periods (2.9 × 106 ± 6.5 × 106 and 1.1 × 107 ± 1.6 × 107) than baseline counts (2.2 × 105 ± 5.1 × 105 and 2.9 × 106 ± 6.5 × 106), respectively. Inulin and oligofructose treatment periods had a significant effect on stool consistency (watery/very hard) and flatulence frequency, but not stool frequency, when compared to baseline (P < 0.05). Further research is needed to confirm these results due to small sample size and the need for a longer washout period between treatments.
Iron and Folate Contents of Tajik Legumes  [PDF]
Shakhlo Negmatjanovna Yarbaeva, David Giraud, Julie Ann Albrecht
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.24048
Abstract: Seven varieties of Tajik legumes and two Tajik snack type ready-to-eat (RTE) whole/split chickpeas were analyzed for iron in raw and cooked legumes and for naturally occurring folate content in cooked legumes. Iron was measured according to AACC method 40 - 41B. Folate contents were determined by microbiological (Lactobacillus casei subsp. Rhamnosus ATCC 7469) and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis utilizing a tri-enzyme treatment (pro-tease, α-amylase and conjugase). Folate derivatives of tetrahydrofolate, 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate and 5-methyl- -tetrahydrofolate were identified and quantified. Iron content for Tajik legumes ranged from 5.52 to 13.27 mg/100 g for raw; 2.81 to 4.12 mg/100 g for cooked and 4.37 and 4.76 mg/100 g for RTE chickpeas. The total folate content of cooked legumes ranged from 53 to 81 µg/100 g for beans; 133 to 203 µg/100 g for peas, and from 39 to 22 µg/100 g for small and large lentils, respectively. The predominant form of folate in legumes was tetrahydrofolate, followed by 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate and 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate.
A. Quirrenbach,S. Albrecht
Revista mexicana de astronomía y astrofísica , 2010,
Abstract: MWC349A es probablemente una estrella masiva joven rodeada por un disco y un fuerte viento ionizado desde la super cie del disco. Las caracter sticas m s espectaculares del disco de MWC349A son l neas m ser y l ser de recombinaci n del hidr geno en longitudes de onda milim trica, sub-milim trica y de IR-medio. Hemos conducido observaciones de MWC349A con el instrumento MIDI del VLTI a 10 um. Las visibilidades en el continuo muestran la rma caracter stica esperada en un disco de polvo. Adem s, las rmas de por lo menos una docena de l neas de emisi n han sido identi cadas en los datos interferom tricos.
PSA - haben wir dazugelernt?
Semjonow A,Albrecht W
Journal für Urologie und Urogyn?kologie , 2007,
A Novel Combined Approach for Metastatic Breast Cancer with Dural and Leptomeningeal Disease with an Impressive Clinical Outcome: A Case Study  [PDF]
Julie Taguchi, Christopher Duma, M. A. Nezami
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2018.93025
Abstract: Concurrent dural and leptomeningeal metastatic carcinomatosis are very rare and have a poor prognosis. Here we present a woman with advanced estrogen receptor (ER) positive and progesterone receptor (PR) positive breast cancer who presented with leptomeningeal disease. Patient underwent multi targeted epigenetic therapies applied in a protocol called MTET. She continued to respond to the interval treatment, which consisted only of the nutraceutical agents. Here we discuss her case in detail and we believe that such an example might be applied to other patients in this situation resulting clinical improvement and less toxicity.
Metric properties of the set of orthogonal projections and their applications to operator perturbation theory
Konstantin A. Makarov,Albrecht Seelmann
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: We prove that the set of orthogonal projections on a Hilbert space equipped with the length metric is $\frac\pi2$-geodesic. As an application, we consider the problem of variation of spectral subspaces for bounded linear self-adjoint operators and obtain a new estimate on the norm of the difference of two spectral projections associated with isolated parts of the spectrum of the perturbed and unpertubed operators, respectively. In particular, recent results by Kostrykin, Makarov and Motovilov from [Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., V. 359, No. 1, 77 -- 89] and [Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 131, 3469 -- 3476] are sharpened.
The Dominant Role of the Chemical Potential for Driving Currents in Oceans and Air  [PDF]
Albrecht Elsner
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2014.23016

Applying the thermodynamic zeros of the entropy  and internal energy  of the gas mass  in the volume

Thermodynamic Fit Functions of the Two-Phase Fluid and Critical Exponents  [PDF]
Albrecht Elsner
Engineering (ENG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2014.612076
Abstract: Two-phase fluid properties such as entropy, internal energy, and heat capacity are given by thermodynamically defined fit functions. Each fit function is expressed as a temperature function in terms of a power series expansion about the critical point. The leading term with the critical exponent dominates the temperature variation between the critical and triple points. With β being introduced as the critical exponent for the difference between liquid and vapor densities, it is shown that the critical exponent of each fit function depends (if at all) on β. In particular, the critical exponent of the reciprocal heat capacity c﹣1 is α=1-2β and those of the entropy s and internal energy u are 2β, while that of the reciprocal isothermal compressibility κ﹣1T is γ=1. It is thus found that in the case of the two-phase fluid the Rushbrooke equation conjectured α + 2β + γ=2 combines the scaling laws resulting from the two relations c=du/dT and κT=dlnρ/dp. In the context with c, the second temperature derivatives of the chemical potential μ and vapor pressure p are investigated. As the critical point is approached, ﹣d2μ/dT2 diverges as c, while d2p/dT2 converges to a finite limit. This is explicitly pointed out for the two-phase fluid, water (with β=0.3155). The positive and almost vanishing internal energy of the one-phase fluid at temperatures above and close to the critical point causes conditions for large long-wavelength density fluctuations, which are observed as critical opalescence. For negative values of the internal energy, i.e. the two-phase fluid below the critical point, there are only microscopic density fluctuations. Similar critical phenomena occur when cooling a dilute gas to its Bose-Einstein condensate.
Thermodynamic Equilibrium of the Saturated Fluid with a Free Surface Area and the Internal Energy as a Function of the Phase-Specific Volumes and Vapor Pressure  [PDF]
Albrecht Elsner
Engineering (ENG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2015.79053
Abstract: This study is concerned with describing the thermodynamic equilibrium of the saturated fluid with and without a free surface area A. Discussion of the role of A as system variable of the interface phase and an estimate of the ratio of the respective free energies of systems with and without A show that the system variables\"\" given by Gibbs suffice to describe the volumetric properties of the fluid. The well-known Gibbsian expressions for the internal energies of the two-phase fluid, namely \"\" for the vapor\"\" and for the condensate (liquid or solid), only differ with respect to the phase-specific volumes\"\" and \"\". The saturation temperature T, vapor presssure p, and chemical potential\"\" are intensive parameters, each of which has the same value everywhere within the fluid, and hence are phase-independent quantities. If one succeeds in representing \"\" as a function of \"\" and \"\" , then the internal energies can also be described by expressions that only differ from one another with respect to their dependence on\"\" and \"\". Here it is shown that \"\" can be uniquely expressed by the volume function\"\" . Therefore, the internal energies can be represented explicitly as functions of the vapor pressure and volumes of the saturated vapor and condensate and are absolutely determined. The hitherto existing problem of applied thermodynamics, calculating the internal energy from the measurable quantities T, p,\"\" , and \"\" , is thus solved. The same method applies to the calculation of the entropy,
Absolute Internal Energy of the Real Gas  [PDF]
Albrecht Elsner
Engineering (ENG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2017.94020
Abstract: The internal energy U of the real, neutral-gas particles of total mass M in the volume V can have positive and negative values, whose regions are identified in the state chart of the gas. Depending on the relations among gas temperature T, pressure p and mass-specific volume v=V/M, the mass exists as a uniform gas of freely-moving particles having positive values U or as more or less structured matter with negative values U. In the regions U>0?above the critical point [Tc , pc , vc] it holds that p(T,v)>pc and v>vc, and below the critical point it holds that p(T,v)c and v>vv , where vv is the mass-specific volume of saturated vapor. In the adjacent regions with negative internal energy values U<0 the mean distances between particles are short enough to yield negative energy contributions to U?due to interparticle attraction that exceeds the thermal, positive energy contributions due to particle motion. The critical isochor vc is the line of equal positive and negative energy contributions and thus represents a line of vanishing internal energy ?U=0. At this level along the critical isochor the ever present microscopic fluctuations in energy and density become macroscopic fluctuations as the pressure decreases on approaching the critical point; these are to be observed in experiments on the critical opalescence. Crossing the isochor vc from U>0 to U<0, the change in energy ΔU>0 happens without any discontinuity. The saturation line vv also separates the regions between U>0 and U<0 , but does not represent a line U=0. The internal-energy values of saturated vapor Uv and condensate Ui can be determined absolutely as functions of vapor pressure p and densities (M/V)v and (M/V)i , repectively,
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