Abstract:
Human gastrointestinal health may be improved by the consumption of prebiotic food ingredients such as fructooligo-fructoses. A study was initiated to determine the effect of fructooligofructoses of different chain lengths on gastrointes-tinal parameters. Nineteen healthy subjects aged 20 - 57 y took part in a 10-week cross-over designed study. Subjects consumed either inulin or oligofructose for 3 weeks followed by a 2-week washout period between treatments. Stool samples were collected five times (baseline, 2 treatments, 2 washout) and analyzed for bifidobacteria. Daily records were kept for stool frequency, stool consistency and flatulence frequency. Bifidobacteria counts (cfu/ml) were higher (trending toward significance) during inulin and oligofructose intakes (1.2 × 10^{7} ± 4.8 × 10^{7} and 2.0 × 10^{8} ± 4.7 × 10^{8}) and washout periods (2.9 × 10^{6} ± 6.5 × 10^{6} and 1.1 × 10^{7} ± 1.6 × 10^{7}) than baseline counts (2.2 × 10^{5} ± 5.1 × 10^{5} and 2.9 × 10^{6} ± 6.5 × 10^{6}), respectively. Inulin and oligofructose treatment periods had a significant effect on stool consistency (watery/very hard) and flatulence frequency, but not stool frequency, when compared to baseline (P < 0.05). Further research is needed to confirm these results due to small sample size and the need for a longer washout period between treatments.

Abstract:
Seven varieties of Tajik legumes and two Tajik snack type ready-to-eat (RTE) whole/split chickpeas were analyzed for iron in raw and cooked legumes and for naturally occurring folate content in cooked legumes. Iron was measured according to AACC method 40 - 41B. Folate contents were determined by microbiological (Lactobacillus casei subsp. Rhamnosus ATCC 7469) and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis utilizing a tri-enzyme treatment (pro-tease, α-amylase and conjugase). Folate derivatives of tetrahydrofolate, 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate and 5-methyl- -tetrahydrofolate were identified and quantified. Iron content for Tajik legumes ranged from 5.52 to 13.27 mg/100 g for raw; 2.81 to 4.12 mg/100 g for cooked and 4.37 and 4.76 mg/100 g for RTE chickpeas. The total folate content of cooked legumes ranged from 53 to 81 µg/100 g for beans; 133 to 203 µg/100 g for peas, and from 39 to 22 µg/100 g for small and large lentils, respectively. The predominant form of folate in legumes was tetrahydrofolate, followed by 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate and 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate.

Abstract:
MWC349A es probablemente una estrella masiva joven rodeada por un disco y un fuerte viento ionizado desde la super cie del disco. Las caracter sticas m s espectaculares del disco de MWC349A son l neas m ser y l ser de recombinaci n del hidr geno en longitudes de onda milim trica, sub-milim trica y de IR-medio. Hemos conducido observaciones de MWC349A con el instrumento MIDI del VLTI a 10 um. Las visibilidades en el continuo muestran la rma caracter stica esperada en un disco de polvo. Adem s, las rmas de por lo menos una docena de l neas de emisi n han sido identi cadas en los datos interferom tricos.

Abstract:
Concurrentdural and leptomeningeal metastatic carcinomatosis
are very rare and have a poor prognosis. Here we present a woman with advanced
estrogen receptor (ER) positive and progesterone receptor (PR) positive breast
cancer who presented with leptomeningeal disease. Patient underwent multi
targeted epigenetic therapies applied in a protocol called MTET. She continued
to respond to the interval treatment, which consisted only of the nutraceutical
agents. Here we discuss her case in detail and we believe that such an example
might be applied to other patients in this situation resulting clinical improvement
and less toxicity.

Abstract:
We prove that the set of orthogonal projections on a Hilbert space equipped with the length metric is $\frac\pi2$-geodesic. As an application, we consider the problem of variation of spectral subspaces for bounded linear self-adjoint operators and obtain a new estimate on the norm of the difference of two spectral projections associated with isolated parts of the spectrum of the perturbed and unpertubed operators, respectively. In particular, recent results by Kostrykin, Makarov and Motovilov from [Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., V. 359, No. 1, 77 -- 89] and [Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 131, 3469 -- 3476] are sharpened.

Abstract:
Two-phase fluid properties such as entropy, internal energy, and heat capacity are given by thermodynamically defined fit functions. Each fit function is expressed as a temperature function in terms of a power series expansion about the critical point. The leading term with the critical exponent dominates the temperature variation between the critical and triple points. With β being introduced as the critical exponent for the difference between liquid and vapor densities, it is shown that the critical exponent of each fit function depends (if at all) on β. In particular, the critical exponent of the reciprocal heat capacity c^{﹣1} is α=1－2β and those of the entropy s and internal energy u are 2β, while that of the reciprocal isothermal compressibility κ^{﹣1}_{T} is γ=1. It is thus found that in the case of the two-phase fluid the Rushbrooke equation conjectured α + 2β + γ=2 combines the scaling laws resulting from the two relations c=du/dT and κ_{T}=dlnρ/dp. In the context with c, the second temperature derivatives of the chemical potential μ and vapor pressure p are investigated. As the critical point is approached, ﹣d^{2}μ/dT^{2} diverges as c, while d^{2}p/dT^{2} converges to a finite limit. This is explicitly pointed out for the two-phase fluid, water (with β=0.3155). The positive and almost vanishing internal energy of the one-phase fluid at temperatures above and close to the critical point causes conditions for large long-wavelength density fluctuations, which are observed as critical opalescence. For negative values of the internal energy, i.e. the two-phase fluid below the critical point, there are only microscopic density fluctuations. Similar critical phenomena occur when cooling a dilute gas to its Bose-Einstein condensate.

Abstract:
This study is concerned with describing the thermodynamic equilibrium of the saturated fluid with and without a free surface area A. Discussion of the role of A as system variable of the interface phase and an estimate of the ratio of the respective free energies of systems with and without A show that the system variables given by Gibbs suffice to describe the volumetric properties of the fluid. The well-known Gibbsian expressions for the internal energies of the two-phase fluid, namely for the vapor and
for the condensate (liquid or solid), only differ with respect to the phase-specific volumes and . The saturation temperature T, vapor presssure p, and chemical potential are intensive parameters, each of which has the same value everywhere within the fluid, and hence are phase-independent quantities. If one succeeds in representing as a function of and , then the internal energies can also be described by expressions that only differ from one another with respect to their dependence on and . Here it is shown that can be uniquely expressed by the volume function . Therefore, the internal energies can be represented explicitly as functions of the vapor pressure and volumes of the saturated vapor and condensate and are absolutely determined. The hitherto existing problem of applied thermodynamics, calculating the internal energy from the measurable quantities T, p, , and , is thus solved. The same method applies to the calculation of the entropy,

Abstract:
The internal energy U of the real, neutral-gas particles of total mass M in the volume V can have positive and negative values, whose regions are identified in the state chart of the gas. Depending on the relations among gas temperature T, pressure pand mass-specific volume v=V/M, the mass exists as a uniform gas of freely-moving particles having positive values U or as more or less structured matter with negative values U. In the regions U>0？above the critical point [T_{c} , p_{c} , v_{c}] it holds that p(T,v)>p_{c} and v>v_{c}, and below the critical point it holds that p(T,v)

_{c} and v>v_{v} , where vv is the mass-specific volume of saturated vapor. In the adjacent regions with negative internal energy values U<0 the mean distances between particles are short enough to yield negative energy contributions to U？due to interparticle attraction that exceeds the thermal, positive energy contributions due to particle motion. The critical isochor v_{c }is the line of equal positive and negative energy contributions and thus represents a line of vanishing internal energy ？U=0. At this level along the critical isochor the ever present microscopic fluctuations in energy and density become macroscopic fluctuations as the pressure decreases on approaching the critical point; these are to be observed in experiments on the critical opalescence. Crossing the isochor v_{c} from U>0 to U<0, the change in energy ΔU>0 happens without any discontinuity. The saturation line v_{v} also separates the regions between U>0 and U<0 , but does not represent a line U=0. The internal-energy values of saturated vapor U_{v }and condensate U_{i} can be determined absolutely as functions of vapor pressure p and densities (M/V)_{v} and (M/V)i , repectively,