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Influence of Expert Video Feedback, Peer Video Feedback, Standard Video Feedback and Oral Feedback on Undergraduate Medical Students’ Performance of Basic Surgical Skills  [PDF]
Marieke Lehmann, Jasmina Sterz, Maria-Christina Stefanescu, Julian Zabel, Kenan Dennis Sakmen, Miriam Ruesseler
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.98091
Abstract: Purpose: In daily clinical practice, sterile working conditions, as well as patient safety and self-protection, are essential. Thus, these skills should be taught appropriately during undergraduate training. Receiving constructive feedback can significantly improve future performance. Furthermore, reviewing one’s performance using video tools is a useful approach. This study investigates the impact of different modes of video feedback on the acquisition of practical surgical skills, including wound management and a bedside test. Methods: Third-year medical students completed a structured training of practical skills as part of their mandatory surgery rotation. All students received the same practical skills training for performing wound management and a bedside test. However, for feedback regarding their performance, students were assigned to one of four study groups: expert video feedback (receiving feedback by an expert after reviewing the recorded performance), peer video feedback (receiving feedback by a fellow student after reviewing the recorded performance), standard video (giving feedback to a standardized video of the skill), or oral feedback (receiving feedback by an expert without a video record). Afterwards, students completed two 5-minute OSCE stations in which they were assessed with respect to their acquired competencies. Effects on long-term retention were measured at two further measurement points. Results: A total of 199 students were included in the study (48 for expert video feedback, 49 for peer video feedback, 52 for standard video feedback, and 50 for oral feedback). All teaching methods were feasible in the given timeframe of 210 minutes for each module. There were nearly no statistically significant differences among the groups with regard to the technical and non-technical ratings for the three measurement points. Conclusion: In the present study, video-assisted feedback in various forms offered no significant benefit over oral feedback
Do imputed education histories provide satisfactory results in fertility analysis in the Western German context?
Cordula Zabel
Demographic Research , 2009,
Abstract: In many surveys, information on respondents' education histories is restricted to the level and sometimes the date they attained their highest degree. We compare estimates of education effects on first birth transitions using imputed histories based on this rudimentary information with estimates drawing on complete histories, using the German Life History Study. We find that imputed histories produce relatively reliable estimates for most but not all education categories, especially when information on the date the highest degree was attained is available. We investigate possible explanations for these findings and indicate contexts in which biases may be stronger.
Garding's Inequality for Elliptic Differential Operator with Infinite Number of Variables
Ahmed Zabel,Maryam Alghamdi
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/352590
Abstract: We formulate the elliptic differential operator with infinite number of variables and investigate that it is well defined on infinite tensor product of spaces of square integrable functions. Under suitable conditions, we prove Garding's inequality for this operator.
Uwe Monkowius,Manfred Zabel
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2008, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536807066299
Abstract: In the crystal structure of the title compound, [AuCl(C20H17OP)], the phosphine acts as a monodentate ligand. The Au atoms are attached solely to the P and Cl atoms. The coordination is linear without any tendency to aggregate via aurophilic interactions.
Tricarbonylchlorido{N-[2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene]benzylamine-κ2N,P}rhenium(I) dichloromethane solvate
Uwe Monkowius,Manfred Zabel
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2008, DOI: 10.1107/s160053680706802x
Abstract: In the crystal structure of the title compound, [ReCl(C26H22NP)(CO)3]·CH2Cl2, the ReI atom exhibits a distorted octahedral environment defined by a facial arrangement of three carbonyl groups, a Cl atom and an N-[2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene]benzylamine ligand. The compound crystallizes with one CH2Cl2 molecule per asymmetric unit. The benzylamine ligand and the ReI centre form a non-planar six-membered chelate ring.
Analysis of feedback effects and atmosphere responses when 2-way coupling a hydrological land surface model with a regional climate model – a case study for the Upper-Danube catchment
F. Zabel,W. Mauser
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-9-7543-2012
Abstract: Most land surface hydrological models (LSHMs) take land surface processes (e.g. soil-plant-atmosphere interactions, lateral water flows, snow and ice) into detailed spatial account. On the other hand, they usually consider the atmosphere as exogenous driver only, thereby neglecting feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere. Regional climate models (RCMs), on the other hand, generally describe land surface processes much coarser but naturally include land-atmosphere interactions. What is the impact on RCMs performance of the differently applied model physics and spatial resolution of LSHMs? In order to investigate this question, this study analyses the impact of replacing the land surface model (LSM) within a RCM by a LSHM. Therefore, a 2-way coupling approach was applied for a full integration of the LSHM PROMET (1×1 km2) and the atmospheric part of the RCM MM5 (45×45 km2). The scaling interface SCALMET is used for down- and upscaling the linear and non-linear fluxes between the model scales. The response of the MM5 atmosphere to the replacement is investigated and validated for temperature and precipitation for a 4 yr period from 1996 to 1999 for the Upper-Danube catchment. By substituting the NOAH-LSM with PROMET, simulated non-bias-corrected near surface air temperature significantly improves for annual, monthly and daily courses, when compared to measurements from 277 meteorological weather stations within the Upper-Danube catchment. The mean annual bias was improved from 0.85 K to 0.13 K. In particular, the improved afternoon heating from May to September is caused by increased sensible heat flux and decreased latent heat flux as well as more incoming solar radiation in the fully coupled PROMET/MM5 in comparison to the NOAH/MM5 simulation. Triggered by the LSM replacement, precipitation overall is reduced, however simulated precipitation amounts are still of high uncertainty, both spatially and temporally. The distribution of precipitation follows the coarse topography representation in MM5, resulting in a spatial shift of maximum precipitation northwards the Alps. Consequently, simulation of river runoff inherits precipitation biases from MM5. However, by comparing the water balance, the bias of annual average runoff was improved from 21.2% (NOAH/MM5) to 4.4% (PROMET/MM5) when compared to measurements at the outlet gauge of the Upper-Danube watershed in Achleiten.
Exchange bias effect of ferro-/antiferromagnetic heterostructures
Florin Radu,Hartmut Zabel
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-73462-8_3
Abstract: The exchange bias (EB) effect was discovered 60 years ago by Meiklejohn and Bean. Meanwhile the EB effect has become an integral part of modern magnetism with implications for basic research and for numerous device applications. The EB effect was the first of its kind which relates to an interface effect between two different classes of materials, here between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet. Here we review fundamental aspects of the exchange bias effect.
Quantum State of Neutrons in Magnetic Thin Films and Superlattices
Florin Radu,Hartmut Zabel
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1080/10448630600668779
Abstract: An experiment which describes the quantum states of neutrons in magnetic thin films and superlattices is reviewed.
PAS staining of bronchoalveolar lavage cells for differential diagnosis of interstital lung disease
Hans P Hauber, Peter Zabel
Diagnostic Pathology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-4-13
Abstract: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) provides an important diagnostic tool that can facilitate the diagnosis of various diffuse lung diseases. It can be used to determine inflammatory cell profiles and detect pathogens [1]. BAL cytology and differential cell counts can even replace histology from lung biopsies in some of the rarer lung diseases (eg. histiocytosis X) [2]. However, in more common interstitial lung disease (ILD) such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), sarcoidosis, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) BAL differential cell counts often cannot clearly differentiate between the different disorders. Immuncytochemistry can provide additional information but is time consuming. Moreover, specific antibodies are expensive and are not available at all places.PAS (periodic-acid-Schiff) staining is used for detection of structures that contain high concentrations of carbohydrate macromolecules (eg. glycogen, glycoprotein, proteoglycan) typically found in connective tissue, mucus, and basal laminae. In BAL PAS staining is mostly used to diagnose alveolar proteinosis [2]. In ILD increased BAL fluid levels of the glycoprotein fibronectin have been reported [3]. Elevated levels of vitronectin another glycoprotein have also been shown in BAL fluid of patients with interstitial lung disease compared to healthy volunteers [4]. Since PAL stain is an easy method to detect glycoproteins we hypothesized that PAS stain may add additional information for differential diagnosis of ILD from BAL.BAL samples of patients with proven idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 8), with sarcoidosis (n = 9), and with extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 2) were obtained with the help of flexible bronchoscopy. Table 1 shows the demographics of the patient groups.In short, a total of 200 ml of sterile saline solution was instilled in 20 ml-aliquots into the middle lobe and aspirated thereafter. Following standard techniques [5] cytospins were made from BAL cells and cells were stained
Anti-Asialo GM1 NK Cell Depleting Antibody Does Not Alter the Development of Bleomycin Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis
Justin Monnier, Brian A. Zabel
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099350
Abstract: Despite circumstantial evidence postulating a protective role for NK cells in many fibrotic conditions, their contribution to the development of pulmonary fibrosis has yet to be tested. Lung-migrating NK cells are thought to attenuate the development of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis (BIPF) by providing anti-fibrotic mediators and cytokines, such as IFN-γ. If true, we reasoned that depletion of NK cells during experimentally-induced fibrotic disease would lead to exacerbated fibrosis. To test this, we treated mice with NK cell-depleting antisera (anti-asialo GM1) and evaluated lung inflammation and fibrosis in the BIPF model. While NK cell infiltration into the airways was maximal at day 10 after bleomycin injection, NK cells represented a minor portion (1–3%) of the total leukocytes in BAL fluid. Anti-asialo GM1 significantly abrogated NK cell numbers over the course of the disease. Depletion of NK cells with anti-asialo GM1 before and throughout the BIPF model, or during just the fibrotic phase did not alter fibrosis development or affect the levels of any of the pro-inflammatory/pro-fibrotic cytokines measured (IL-1β, IL-17, IFN-γ, TGF-β and TNF-α). In addition, adoptively transferred NK cells, which were detectable systemically and in the airways throughout BIPF, failed to impact lung fibrosis. These findings indicate that NK cells likely do not play an essential protective role in controlling pulmonary fibrosis development.
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