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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6823 matches for " Julia Mueller "
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Effects of broccoli extract and various essential oils on intestinal and faecal microflora and on xenobiotic enzymes and the antioxidant system of piglets  [PDF]
Kristin Mueller, Nicole M. Blum, Holger Kluge, Rolf Bauerfeind, Julia Froehlich, Anneluise Mader, Karola R. Wendler, Andreas S. Mueller
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2012.22012
Abstract: Objective: Since the ban of antibiotics as growth promoting feed additives in the EU in 2006 research in alternatives has gained importance. Phytogenic feed additives represent a heterogenous class of different plant derived substances that are discussed to improve the health of farm animals by direct and indirect antioxidant effects and by influencing microbial eubiosis in the gastrointestinal tract. Consequently our study aimed to investigate the influence of broccoli extract and the essential oils of tur- meric, oregano, thyme and rosemary, as selected individual additives, on intestinal and faecal microflora, on xenobiotic enzymes, and on the antioxidant system of piglets. Methods: 48 four weeks old male weaned piglets were assigned to 6 groups of 8. The piglets were housed individually in stainless steel pens with slatted floor. The control group (Con) was fed a diet without an additive for 4 weeks. The diet of group BE contained 0.15 g/kg sulforaphane in form of a broccoli extract. 535, 282, 373 and 476 mg/kg of the essential oils of turmeric (Cuo), oregano (Oo), thyme (To) and rosemary (Ro) were added to the diets of the remaining 4 groups to stan-dardise supplementation to 150 mg/kg of the oils’ key terpene compounds ar-turmerone, carvacrol, thymol and 1,8-cineole. The composition of bacterial microflora was examined by cultivating samples of jejeunal and colonic mucosa and of faeces under specific conditions. The mRNA expression of xenobiotic and antioxidant enzymes was determined by reversing transcrip- tase real time detection PCR (RT-PCR). Total antioxidant status was assayed using the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), and lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring thiobarbioturic acid reactive substances (TBA- RS). Results: Compared to Con piglets all additives positively influenced weight gain and feed conversion in week 1. Over the whole trial period no significant differences in performance parameters existed between the experimental groups. Compared to group Con performance of Ro piglets was, however, slightly impaired. Com- pared to Con piglets Cuo, Oo and To increased the ratio of Lactobacilli:E. coli attached to the jejunal mucosa, whereas BE and Ro impaired this ratio slightly. In contrast in colonic mucosa Ro improved Lactobacilli:E. coli ratio. In faecal samples an improvement of Lactobacilli:E. coli ratio could be analysed for To and Ro. Ro was the only additive that reduced the incidence rate of piglets tested positive for enterotoxic E. coli (ETEC). All additives significantly increased jejunal TEAC and
Reasoning about RoboCup Soccer Narratives
Hannaneh Hajishirzi,Julia Hockenmaier,Erik T. Mueller,Eyal Amir
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: This paper presents an approach for learning to translate simple narratives, i.e., texts (sequences of sentences) describing dynamic systems, into coherent sequences of events without the need for labeled training data. Our approach incorporates domain knowledge in the form of preconditions and effects of events, and we show that it outperforms state-of-the-art supervised learning systems on the task of reconstructing RoboCup soccer games from their commentaries.
Mood Disorders Are Glial Disorders: Evidence from In Vivo Studies
Matthias L. Schroeter,Hashim Abdul-Khaliq,Julia Sacher,Johann Steiner,Ingolf E. Blasig,Karsten Mueller
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/780645
Abstract: It has recently been suggested that mood disorders can be characterized by glial pathology as indicated by histopathological postmortem findings. Here, we review studies investigating the glial marker S100B in serum of patients with mood disorders. This protein might act as a growth and differentiation factor. It is located in, and may actively be released by, astro- and oligodendrocytes. Studies consistently show that S100B is elevated in mood disorders; more strongly in major depressive than bipolar disorder. Successful antidepressive treatment reduces S100B in major depression whereas there is no evidence of treatment effects in mania. In contrast to the glial marker S100B, the neuronal marker protein neuron-specific enolase is unaltered. By indicating glial alterations without neuronal changes, serum S100B studies confirm specific glial pathology in mood disorders in vivo. S100B can be regarded as a potential diagnostic biomarker for mood disorders and as a biomarker for successful antidepressive treatment. 1. The Glial Hypothesis of Mood Disorders Mood disorders—once considered “good prognosis diseases” —have, in fact, a less favorable outcome than previously thought [1, 2]. They are often very severe or even life-threatening illnesses. It has been suggested that impairment of neuroplasticity and cellular resilience may underlie their pathophysiology, and that optimum long-term treatment may only be achieved by the early use of agents with neurotrophic or neuroprotective effects. It has further been proposed that mood disorders are characterized by specific glial pathology [3]. Histopathological post mortem findings [1, 4–6] consistently showed reductions in glial cell density or glial cell numbers in prefrontal brain regions, such as the (subgenual) anterior cingulate cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in association with reduced prefrontal gray matter in patients with mood disorders [3, 7–9]. Furthermore, alterations were described histopathologically for astrocytes [10–13] and oligodendrocytes [14–16] in these disorders. Specific reductions in oligodendrocytes have also been reported for the amygdala in major depressive disorder (MDD) [14], and microglial alterations in bipolar disorder (BD), also including manic episodes [1]. Rajkowska’s hypothesis [3] of glial pathology in mood disorders has been supported by a recent study that specifically ablated astroglial cells in the prefrontal cortex of adult rats pharmacologically with L-alpha-aminoadipic acid (L-AAA) [17]. Indeed, rats treated with L-AAA showed
Mental health of asylum seekers: a cross-sectional study of psychiatric disorders
Martina Heeren, Julia Mueller, Ulrike Ehlert, Ulrich Schnyder, Nadia Copiery, Thomas Maier
BMC Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-12-114
Abstract: The mental health status of two groups of asylum seekers was assessed: Group 1 (n?=?43) had arrived in Switzerland 2.9 (SD 1.1) months prior to assessment, while Group 2 (n?=?43) had arrived 15.5 (SD 3.2) months prior to assessment. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Symptom severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale), anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist), depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist), and pain (Verbal Rating Scale) were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Postmigratory factors such as German language proficiency and social contacts were also assessed. Interviews were conducted with the assistance of trained interpreters.Four out of ten participants met diagnostic criteria for at least one DSM-IV disorder. Groups did not differ with respect to psychiatric morbidity or symptom levels. Major depression (31.4%) and PTSD (23.3%) were diagnosed most frequently. The number of experienced traumatic event types was highly correlated with psychiatric morbidity.Psychiatric morbidity in asylum seekers in the first two years after arrival is high, with no indication of a decrease in mental distress over time. Traumatic experiences seem to play a major role in morbidity during this time. Considering the magnitude of clinically relevant distress, a short psychological screening upon arrival with a focus on traumatic experiences may be warranted.Heightened international research in the area of refugee mental health has highlighted the particular vulnerability of asylum seekers. Distress and psychiatric morbidity are known to be high in this population, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates ranging from 20% to 40% and anxiety and depression rates from 30% to 70% having been reported [1-3].In most countries, asylum seekers are not screened for mental health problems at any point during the asylum procedure. Consequently, it is not surprising that recent findings
The cytokine hypothesis: A neurodevelopmental explanation for the emergence of schizophrenia later in life  [PDF]
Julia Howard
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.48A2011
Abstract:

There is increasing evidence for the cytokine hypothesis, which states that exposure to elevated cytokines in utero due to maternal immune activation is a major risk factor for the development of schizophrenia later in life. This is supported by numerous epidemicologic studies that connect multiple infections with schizophrenia emergence. Furthermore, cytokines are critically involved in early neurodevelopment and deviations from the norm can result in abnormal neuroanatomy and brain chemistry. Animal models of schizophrenia also support the critical role of developmental neuroinflammation in predisposing the brain to anatomical and behavioral abnormalities. Although there is strong evidence for the critical role of cytokines, they most likely work with other contributing risk factors such as genetic predisposition. New evidence indicates that cytokine exposure in utero may prime the brain and that a second stressor during adolescence, referred to as a second hit, may activate existing developmental vulnerabilities resulting in the emergence of clinical schizophrenia. Further knowledge of these pathogenic processes and risk factors could be very instrumental in reducing risk and slowing emergence of schizophrenia.

Predicting Use of Lights and Siren for Patient Illnesses  [PDF]
Jessica Mueller, Laura Stanley
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2013.33008
Abstract:

Lights and siren are frequently used by Emergency Medical Service (EMS) groups to reduce response times and increase a patient’s chance for survival. However, the use of lights and siren in EMS patient transport has been associated with occasional inappropriate use, higher crash rates involving the ambulance, and a potential “wake effect” increasing crash rates in ambient traffic. This study examines types of patient illnesses and their involvement with either emergency (lights and siren engaged) or non-emergency transport. Patient care records were analyzed from a five-year period from a private medical transportation company. A binary logistic regression model was built to predict the transportation mode (lights and siren or non-emergency-mode) most likely to accompany each unique primary patient illness. Patient illnesses were identified that showed a higher probability of transport using lights and siren. Fifteen illness descriptions were identified from the records as being more likely to result in emergency mode travel, including airway obstruction, altered level of consciousness, breathing problems, cardiac arrest, cardiac symptoms, chest pain, congestive heart failure/pulmonary embolism, heart/cardiac, obstetrics, respiratory arrest, respiratory distress, stroke/cerebrovascular accident, trauma, unconscious, and patients where data was not entered. The patient illnesses associated with lights and siren were not limited to cardiac conditions and symptoms, which suggest that response-time goals based solely on cardiac arrest patients may need to be expanded to include other illnesses such as respiratory conditions. Expanded studies could assess whether or not lights and sirens result in a clinically significant time savings across the spectrum of illnesses that are currently being transported using lights and siren. The list of illnesses identified here as more commonly utilizing lights and siren could be useful to untrained EMS or dispatch workers to assist in minimizing unnecessary emergency mode travel, thereby increasing safety for EMS workers, patients, and the general public.

Prevalence of Wild-Type Butyrylcholinesterase Genotype in Patients with Alzheimer’s Dementia  [PDF]
Beate Mueller, Georg Adler
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2015.53019
Abstract: Approximately, two-thirds patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are reported to have homozygous wild-type butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) gene expression. It is associated with a higher rate of hydrolysis of acetylcholine, which ultimately leads to increase in the levels of BuChE in advanced stages of the disease. Rivastigmine, a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BuChE, might be of additional benefit in patients with AD with wild-type BuChE allele.
Regularized determinants of Laplace type operators, analytic surgery and relative determinants
Joern Mueller,Werner Mueller
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: We study the asymptotic behaviour of regularized determinants of certain Laplace type operators with respect to singular deformations of the underlying manifold which are obtained by stretching a tubular neighborhood of an embedded separating hypersurface to a cylinder of infinite length. Using the asymptotic expansions, we derive adiabatic splitting formulas for regularized determinants of Laplace type operators.
Cardiac Glycosides Induce Cell Death in Human Cells by Inhibiting General Protein Synthesis
Andrea Perne,Markus K. Muellner,Magdalena Steinrueck,Nils Craig-Mueller,Julia Mayerhofer,Ilse Schwarzinger,Mathew Sloane,Iris Z. Uras,Gregor Hoermann,Sebastian M. B. Nijman,Matthias Mayerhofer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008292
Abstract: Cardiac glycosides are Na+/K+-pump inhibitors widely used to treat heart failure. They are also highly cytotoxic, and studies have suggested specific anti-tumor activity leading to current clinical trials in cancer patients. However, a definitive demonstration of this putative anti-cancer activity and the underlying molecular mechanism has remained elusive.
Direct comparison of serial B-type natriuretic peptide and NT-proBNP levels for prediction of short- and long-term outcome in acute decompensated heart failure
Markus Noveanu, Tobias Breidthardt, Mihael Potocki, Tobias Reichlin, Raphael Twerenbold, Heiko Uthoff, Thenral Socrates, Nisha Arenja, Miriam Reiter, Julia Meissner, Corinna Heinisch, Sybille Stalder, Christian Mueller
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc9398
Abstract: This was a prospective multi-center study of 171 consecutive patients (mean age 80 73-85 years) presenting to the emergency department with ADHF. Measurement of BNP and NT-proBNP was performed at presentation, 24 hours, 48 hours and at discharge. The primary endpoint was one-year all-cause mortality; secondary endpoints were 30-days all-cause mortality and one-year heart failure (HF) readmission.During one-year follow-up, a total of 60 (35%) patients died. BNP and NT-proBNP levels were higher in non-survivors at all time points (all P < 0.001). In survivors, treatment reduced BNP and NT-proBNP levels by more than 50% (P < 0.001), while in non-survivors treatment did not lower BNP and NT-proBNP levels. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the prediction of one-year mortality increased during the course of hospitalization for BNP (AUC presentation: 0.67; AUC 24 h: 0.77; AUC 48 h: 0.78; AUC discharge: 0.78) and NT-proBNP (AUC presentation: 0.67; AUC 24 h: 0.73; AUC 48 h: 0.75; AUC discharge: 0.77). In multivariate analysis, BNP at 24 h (1.02 [1.01-1.04], P = 0.003), 48 h (1.04 [1.02-1.06], P < 0.001) and discharge (1.02 [1.01-1.03], P < 0.001) independently predicted one-year mortality, while only pre-discharge NT-proBNP was predictive (1.07 [1.01-1.13], P = 0.016). Comparable results could be obtained for the secondary endpoint 30-days mortality but not for one-year HF readmissions.BNP and NT-proBNP reliably predict one-year mortality in patients with ADHF. Prognostic accuracy of both biomarker increases during the course of hospitalization. In survivors BNP levels decline more rapidly than NT-proBNP levels and thus seem to allow earlier assessment of treatment efficacy. Ability to predict one-year HF readmission was poor for BNP and NT-proBNP.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00514384.Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is the leading cause of hospitalization in adults over 65 years [1]. Despite medical progress, ADHF is still the most costly cardiovascular di
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