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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 410669 matches for " Julia M. Green-Johnson "
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Spaceflight Influences both Mucosal and Peripheral Cytokine Production in PTN-Tg and Wild Type Mice
Justin L. McCarville, Sandra T. Clarke, Padmaja Shastri, Yi Liu, Martin Kalmokoff, Stephen P. J. Brooks, Julia M. Green-Johnson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068961
Abstract: Spaceflight is associated with several health issues including diminished immune efficiency. Effects of long-term spaceflight on selected immune parameters of wild type (Wt) and transgenic mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the human bone-specific osteocalcin promoter (PTN-Tg) were examined using the novel Mouse Drawer System (MDS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) over a 91 day period. Effects of this long duration flight on PTN-Tg and Wt mice were determined in comparison to ground controls and vivarium-housed PTN-Tg and Wt mice. Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) were measured in mucosal and systemic tissues of Wt and PTN-Tg mice. Colonic contents were also analyzed to assess potential effects on the gut microbiota, although no firm conclusions could be made due to constraints imposed by the MDS payload and the time of sampling. Spaceflight-associated differences were observed in colonic tissue and systemic lymph node levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 relative to ground controls. Total colonic TGF-β1 levels were lower in Wt and PTN-Tg flight mice in comparison to ground controls. The Wt flight mouse had lower levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 compared to the Wt ground control in both the inguinal and brachial lymph nodes, however this pattern was not consistently observed in PTN-Tg mice. Vivarium-housed Wt controls had higher levels of active TGF-β1 and IL-2 in inguinal lymph nodes relative to PTN-Tg mice. The results of this study suggest compartmentalized effects of spaceflight and on immune parameters in mice.
Depression Screenings during Routine Visits in a Reproductive Healthcare Setting: Identifying Depressive Symptoms in African American Adolescent Males  [PDF]
Kenia Johnson, Karia Kelch-Oliver, Chaundrissa Oyeshiku Smith, Sophia Edukere Green, Triphinia M. Wallace, Melissa Kottke, Marietta H. Collins
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.310131
Abstract: Depression is a disorder which affects many youth, and only one third of adolescents receive mental health treatment for their depression. Yet, approximately 90% of adolescents visit their primary care providers on average 2 - 3 times per year. This number suggests the important role that primary care settings can play regarding the early diagnosis and treatment of depression during adolescence. This paper presents findings of clinically significant depressive symptoms in African American male adolescents receiving routine health care services within an adolescent reproductive health clinic. The adolescent reproductive health clinic is housed within a large urban, university-affiliated teaching hospital. 49 African American male adolescents (ages 13 to 19) completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) (Radloff, 1977), a brief depression screening questionnaire, as a part of their clinic visit. Results revealed higher rates of depressive symptoms in this subsample of African American male adolescents when compared to estimated prevalence rates of depression for adolescents as reported by large-scale studies and meta-analysis data. This supports the notion that primary and reproductive healthcare settings are viable settings for the identification of depressive symptoms, particularly among low-income, African American male adolescents. Risk factors, symptom presentation, and mental health stigma associated with this population are discussed. Psychosocial interventions and recommendations for the integration of primary healthcare and behavioral health consultation services are presented.
Reading a book can change your mind, but only some changes last for a year: food attitude changes in readers of The Omnivore's Dilemma
Julia M. Hormes,Paul Rozin,Melanie C. Green
Frontiers in Psychology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00778
Abstract: Attitude change is a critical component of health behavior change, but has rarely been studied longitudinally following extensive exposures to persuasive materials such as full-length movies, books, or plays. We examined changes in attitudes related to food production and consumption in college students who had read Michael Pollan's book The Omnivore's Dilemma as part of a University-wide reading project. Composite attitudes toward organic foods, local produce, meat, and the quality of the American food supply, as well as opposition to government subsidies, distrust in corporations, and commitment to the environmental movement were significantly and substantially impacted, in comparison to students who had not read the book. Much of the attitude change disappeared after 1 year; however, over the course of 12 months self-reported opposition to government subsidies and belief that the quality of the food supply is declining remained elevated in readers of the book, compared to non-readers. Findings have implications for our understanding of the nature of changes in attitudes to food and eating in response to extensive exposure to coherent and engaging messages targeting health behaviors.
The relationship between star formation rate and radio synchrotron luminosity at 0 < z < 2
Timothy Garn,David A. Green,Julia M. Riley,Paul Alexander
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15073.x
Abstract: We probe the relationship between star formation rate (SFR) and radio synchrotron luminosity in galaxies at 0 < z < 2 within the northern Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic survey (SWIRE) fields, in order to investigate some of the assumptions that go into calculating the star formation history of the Universe from deep radio observations. We present new 610-MHz Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations of the European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS)-N2 field, and using this data, along with previous GMRT surveys carried out in the ELAIS-N1 and Lockman Hole regions, we construct a sample of galaxies which have redshift and SFR information available from the SWIRE survey. We test whether the local relationship between SFR and radio luminosity is applicable to z = 2 galaxies, and look for evolution in this relationship with both redshift and SFR in order to examine whether the physical processes which lead to synchrotron radiation have remained the same since the peak of star formation in the Universe. We find that the local calibration between radio luminosity and star formation can be successfully applied to radio-selected high-redshift, high-SFR galaxies, although we identify a small number of sources where this may not be the case; these sources show evidence for inaccurate estimations of their SFR, but there may also be some contribution from physical effects such as the recent onset of starburst activity, or suppression of the radio luminosity within these galaxies.
Milli-arcsecond properties of 10C sources in the Lockman Hole
Imogen H. Whittam,Julia M. Riley,David A. Green
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu290
Abstract: We have used recent Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations by Middelberg et al. with a resolution of $\approx 10$ mas to investigate the properties of faint sources selected from the Tenth Cambridge (10C) survey in the Lockman Hole. The 10C survey is complete to 0.5 mJy at 15.7 GHz and has a resolution of 30 arcsec. We have previously shown that this population is dominated by flat-spectrum sources below $\approx 1$ mJy, in disagreement with several models of the faint, high-frequency sky. We find that 33 out of the 51 10C sources in the VLBI field (65 percent) are detected by the VLBI observations. The sources detected by the VLBI observations must have a high brightness temperature, thus ruling out the possibility that this faint, high frequency population is dominated by starbursting or starforming sources and indicating that they must be Active Galactic Nuclei.
A note on Elkin's improvement of Behrend's construction
Ben Green,Julia Wolf
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: We provide a short proof of a recent result of Elkin in which large subsets of the integers 1 up to N free of 3-term progressions are constructed.
Photometric Survey to Search for Field sdO Pulsators
Christopher B. Johnson,E. M. Green,S. Wallace,C. J. O'Malley,H. Amaya,L. Biddle,G. Fontaine
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: We present the results of a campaign to search for subdwarf O (sdO) star pulsators among bright field stars. The motivation for this project is the recent discovery by Randall et al. (2011), of four rapidly pulsating sdO stars in the globular cluster Omega Cen, with Teff near 50,000 K, 5.4 < log g < 6.0, and hydrogen-rich atmospheres. The only previously known sdO pulsator is significantly hotter at 68,500 K and log g = 6.1. All of the sdO pulsators identified so far are fainter than 17.4 in the V band and, thus, are poor candidates for an in-depth follow-up with asteroseismology. We therefore obtained high S/N light curves and spectroscopy for a number of field sdO stars to attempt to discover bright counterparts to these stars, particularly the Omega Cen pulsators. Our primary sample consisted of 19 sdO stars with hydrogen-rich atmospheres, log N(He)/N(H) < -1.0, effective temperatures in the range 40,000 K < Teff < 67,000 K, and surface gravities 5.3 < log g < 6.1. We also observed 17 additional helium-rich sdO stars with log N(He)/N(H) > -0.1 and similar temperatures and gravities. To date, we have found no detectable pulsations at amplitudes above 0.08% (4 times the mean noise level) in any of the 36 field sdO stars that we observed. The presence of pulsations in Omega Cen sdO stars and their apparent absence in seemingly comparable field sdO stars is perplexing. While very suggestive, the significance of this result is difficult to assess more completely right now due to remaining uncertainties about the temperature width and purity of the Omega Cen instability strip and the existence of any sdO pulsators with weaker amplitudes than the current detection limit in globular clusters.
Sensitivity of inferences in forensic genetics to assumptions about founding genes
Peter J. Green,Julia Mortera
Statistics , 2009, DOI: 10.1214/09-AOAS235
Abstract: Many forensic genetics problems can be handled using structured systems of discrete variables, for which Bayesian networks offer an appealing practical modeling framework, and allow inferences to be computed by probability propagation methods. However, when standard assumptions are violated--for example, when allele frequencies are unknown, there is identity by descent or the population is heterogeneous--dependence is generated among founding genes, that makes exact calculation of conditional probabilities by propagation methods less straightforward. Here we illustrate different methodologies for assessing sensitivity to assumptions about founders in forensic genetics problems. These include constrained steepest descent, linear fractional programming and representing dependence by structure. We illustrate these methods on several forensic genetics examples involving criminal identification, simple and complex disputed paternity and DNA mixtures.
Kinematic Distances to Molecular Clouds identified in the Galactic Ring Survey
Julia Roman-Duval,James M. Jackson,Mark Heyer,Alexis Johnson,Jill Rathborne,Ronak Shah,Robert Simon
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/699/2/1153
Abstract: Kinematic distances to 750 molecular clouds identified in the 13CO J=1-0 Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey (BU-FCRAO GRS) are derived assuming the Clemens rotation curve of the Galaxy. The kinematic distance ambiguity is resolved by examining the presence of HI self-absorption toward the 13CO emission peak of each cloud using the Very Large Array Galactic Plane Survey (VGPS). We also identify 21 cm continuum sources embedded in the GRS clouds in order to use absorption features in the HI 21 cm continuum to distinguish between near and far kinematic distances. The Galactic distribution of GRS clouds is consistent with a four-arm model of the Milky Way. The locations of the Scutum-Crux and Perseus arms traced by GRS clouds match star count data from the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) star-count data. We conclude that molecular clouds must form in spiral arms and be short-lived (lifetimes < 10 Myr) in order to explain the absence of massive, 13CO bright molecular clouds in the inter-arm space.
Antimalarial drug resistance and the importance of drug quality monitoring
Green M
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2006,
Abstract: The availability of counterfeit and poor quality drugs contribute to resistance and erroneous efficacy study results as well as directly affecting the health of individuals. This report describes the importance of drug quality monitoring as part of a comprehensive disease surveillance program.
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