Abstract:
Design: Clinical effectiveness analysis using a Markov Model. Outcome measure: quality weighted detected child months (QCM).Both hospital and community programmes yielded 794 QCM at the age of 6 months with total costs of ￡3,690,000 per 100,000 screened children in hospital and ￡3,340,000 in community. Simulated costs would be lower in hospital in 48% of the trials. Any statistically significant difference between hospital and community in prevalence, test sensitivity, test specificity and costs would result in significant differences in cost-effectiveness between hospital and community.This modelling exercise informs decision makers by a quantitative projection of available data and the explicit and transparent statements about assumptions and the degree of uncertainty. Further evaluation of the cost-effectiveness should focus on the potential differences in test parameters and prevalence in these two settings.Between one and two children per 1000 live births have a moderate or greater bilateral permanent hearing loss [1-3]. Children with congenital hearing impairment benefit from early detection and management of their hearing loss [4,5]. The neurological development of auditory pathways requires acoustic stimulation in the first 18 months of life [6,7]. Communication deficits due to hearing impairment not discovered within the first two years are not easily recovered by later rehabilitation. The consequence may be delayed development of speech and language as well as of other cognitive and social functions. This delay is already measurable in the first 3 years of life [8].These and related considerations led to a comprehensive review of the possible role of newborn hearing screening in the UK [9]. The review recommended the introduction of newborn hearing screening and in 2001 the first phase of a national Newborn Hearing Screening Programme (NHSP) was implemented in England; all areas of the country are expected to be covered by 2005/6.The first implementation p

Abstract:
The nucleon magnetic moment is calculated in the epsilon-regime of Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory to order epsilon^3, using the method of collective variables to integrate nonperturbative pion zero modes. Contributions containing multiple sources of zero modes enter, allowing for charge-carrying zero mode pion fields that connect the sources. The result of this calculation will allow for lattice QCD calculations involving nucleons to systematically extract the leading low energy coefficients of Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory with electromagnetic interactions.

Abstract:
We present the first lattice QCD calculation of the leading-order momentum-independent parity violating coupling between pions and nucleons, $h_{\pi{NN}}^1$. The calculation performs measurements on dynamical anisotropic clover gauge configurations, with a spatial extent of $L\sim2.5$ fm, a spatial lattice spacing of $a_s\sim0.123$ fm, and a pion mass of $m_{\pi}\sim389$ MeV. While this first calculation does not include non-perturbative renormalization of the bare parity-violating operators, a chiral extrapolation to the physical pion mass, or contributions from disconnected (quark-loop) diagrams, these are expected to result in systematic errors within the quoted statistical error. We find a contribution from the `connected' diagrams of $h_{\pi{NN}}^{1,con}=(1.099\pm0.505^{+0.058}_{-0.064})\times10^{-7}$, consistent with current experimental bounds and previous model-dependent theoretical predictions.

Abstract:
We prove that every immersed $C^2$-curve $\gamma$ in $\mathbb R^n$, $n\geqslant 3$ with curvature $k_{\gamma}$ can be $C^1$-approximated by immersed $C^2$-curves having prescribed curvature $k>k_{\gamma}$. The approximating curves satisfy a $C^1$-dense $h$-principle. As an application we obtain the existence of $C^2$-knots of arbitrary positive curvature in each isotopy class, which generalizes a similar result by McAtee for $C^2$-knots of constant curvature.

Abstract:
Let $\Sigma$ be a hypersurface in an $n$-dimensional Riemannian manifold $M$, $n\geqslant 2$. We study the isometric extension problem for isometric immersions $f:\Sigma\to\mathbb R^n$, where $\mathbb R^n$ is equipped with the Euclidean standard metric. Using a weak form of convex integration suggested by Sz\'ekelyhidi, we construct "one-sided" isometric Lipschitz-extensions and obtain an accompanying density result.

Abstract:
The ground state energy of a collection of n pions and m kaons with short range interactions is calculated for a volume with finite spatial extent L and periodic boundary conditions. This calculation is accomplished to order L^-6 in the large volume expansion. With this result one can extract the various two- and three-body interactions between pions and kaons from lattice QCD data.

Abstract:
The axial charge g_A is calculated in the epsilon regime of Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory to order epsilon^3. To perform this calculation, we develop a technique to compute baryon properties in the epsilon regime of Chiral Perturbation Theory. This technique includes contributions from pion zero momentum modes and can be used at arbitrary order, diagram by diagram, in the $\epsilon$ regime to calculate any matrix element. Also, a calculation of g_A in the epsilon' regime to order epsilon'^3 is performed. A discussion of the domain of applicability for both the epsilon and epsilon' regimes is also included.

Abstract:
Let $\Sigma$ be a codimension one submanifold of an $n$-dimensional Riemannian manifold $M$, $n\geqslant 2$. We give a necessary condition for an isometric immersion of $\Sigma$ into $\mathbb R^q$ equipped with the standard Euclidean metric, $q\geqslant n+1$, to be locally isometrically $C^1$-extendable to $M$. Even if this condition is not met, "one-sided" isometric $C^1$-extensions may exist and turn out to satisfy a $C^0$-dense parametric $h$-principle in the sense of Gromov.

The aim of this study was to investigate,
if anhedonia, a salient component of depression, shows similar response
patterns to neurotransmitter challenge tests as depression, and if the two
questionnaire based components Physical (PA) and Social (SA) Anhedonia can be
discriminated by differences in drug related size and time of cortisol
responses elicited by the specific serotonin (5- HT) and noradrenaline (NA)
reuptake inhibitors citalopram and reboxetine and prolactin responses to the
dopamine (DA) agonist bromocriptine orally applied to 36 male volunteers in a
double blind balanced cross-over design. Analyses of variance applied to
placebo corrected hormone responses revealed that low and late DA responses
were characteristics of global Depression and of Physical Anhedonia, and that
low DA responses were associated with high NA responses in PA, and with low
5-HT responses in SA. These patterns were explained by differences in
transmitter production and receptor sensitivities and proved to be suitable to
discriminate PA from SA and from global depression by analysing neurochemical
response patterns rather than single means of variables.

Abstract:
Recent observations of young volcanism on the near-Earth terrestrial planets require a new understanding. Magmatic/volcanic episodes on Venus, Mars and Mercury, as well as on Earth’s Moon, are apparently contemporaneous thermal events that accompanied increased magmatic/volcanic activity on Earth, following a 300-Myr cycle. A collateral galactic thermal source in the Milky Way appears to be needed that would predominantly affect the interior of the planets and, perhaps indirectly, Earth’s biosphere, compared to other galactic sources, such as intense cosmic rays or large, rocky bolides. The search for such a source leads to near-Earth supernovae, with their neutrino output, and to the question of whether those neutrinos could act as energy transmitters to heat up the body of Earth, and also enhance its short-term magmatic processes; for example, Cenozoic anorogenic volcanism. This observation challenges present assumptions and paradigms about Earth’s history, and requires the following reconsiderations: 1) the real origin of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction; 2) the general radioactive age determinations of rocks; and 3) geodynamic modelling using additional, external heat sources.