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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 31849 matches for " Judy Z Louie "
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Analysis of 17,576 Potentially Functional SNPs in Three Case–Control Studies of Myocardial Infarction
Dov Shiffman, John P. Kane, Judy Z. Louie, Andre R. Arellano, David A. Ross, Joseph J. Catanese, Mary J. Malloy, Stephen G. Ellis, James J. Devlin
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002895
Abstract: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common complex disease with a genetic component. While several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to be associated with risk of MI, they do not fully explain the observed genetic component of MI. We have been investigating the association between MI and SNPs that are located in genes and have the potential to affect gene function or expression. We have previously published studies that tested about 12,000 SNPs for association with risk of MI, early-onset MI, or coronary stenosis. In the current study we tested 17,576 SNPs that could affect gene function or expression. In order to use genotyping resources efficiently, we staged the testing of these SNPs in three case–control studies of MI. In the first study (762 cases, 857 controls) we tested 17,576 SNPs and found 1,949 SNPs that were associated with MI (P<0.05). We tested these 1,949 SNPs in a second study (579 cases and 1159 controls) and found that 24 SNPs were associated with MI (1-sided P<0.05) and had the same risk alleles in the first and second study. Finally, we tested these 24 SNPs in a third study (475 cases and 619 controls) and found that 5 SNPs in 4 genes (ENO1, FXN (2 SNPs), HLA-DPB2, and LPA) were associated with MI in the third study (1-sided P<0.05), and had the same risk alleles in all three studies. The false discovery rate for this group of 5 SNPs was 0.23. Thus, we have identified 5 SNPs that merit further examination for their potential association with MI. One of these SNPs (in LPA), has been previously shown to be associated with risk of cardiovascular disease in other studies.
The contribution of a 9p21.3 variant, a KIF6 variant, and C-reactive protein to predicting risk of myocardial infarction in a prospective study
Dov Shiffman, Ellen S O'Meara, Charles M Rowland, Judy Z Louie, Mary Cushman, Russell P Tracy, James J Devlin, Bruce M Psaty
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-11-10
Abstract: Improvement of risk prediction was assessed by change in the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) and by net reclassification improvement (NRI).Among white participants the FRS was improved by addition of KIF6 719Arg carrier status among men as assessed by the AUC (from 0.581 to 0.596, P = 0.03) but not by NRI (NRI = 0.027, P = 0.32). Adding both CRP and 719Arg carrier status to the FRS improved risk prediction by the AUC (0.608, P = 0.02) and NRI (0.093, P = 0.008) in men, but not women (P ≥ 0.24).While none of these risk markers individually or in combination improved risk prediction among women, a combination of KIF6 719Arg carrier status and CRP levels modestly improved risk prediction among white men; although this improvement is not significant after multiple-testing correction. These observations should be investigated in other prospective studies.The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) is a risk prediction model developed by the Framingham investigators to predict the probability of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) [1]. This risk prediction model calculates the probability of a CHD event over a given time period for men and women separately by integrating information about traditional risk factors for CHD, including age, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), smoking behavior, and diabetes status. The FRS has been evaluated in a number of large population studies and has been shown to predict CHD risk among individuals from different populations and a variety of ethnicities [2]. Because the FRS models were developed as sex-specific scores, the validity of FRS was typically evaluated separately in men and women [2].Several groups have sought to improve or simplify CHD risk prediction by the FRS [3-6] by developing models that include emerging risk factors. More recently, several studies have investigated whether genetic variants associated with CHD could improve CHD risk
Genome-Wide Study of Gene Variants Associated with Differential Cardiovascular Event Reduction by Pravastatin Therapy
Dov Shiffman, Stella Trompet, Judy Z. Louie, Charles M. Rowland, Joseph J. Catanese, Olga A. Iakoubova, Todd G. Kirchgessner, Rudi G. J. Westendorp, Anton J. M. de Craen, P. Eline Slagboom, Brendan M. Buckley, David J. Stott, Naveed Sattar, James J. Devlin, Christopher J. Packard, Ian Ford, Frank M. Sacks, J. Wouter Jukema
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038240
Abstract: Statin therapy reduces the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), however, the person-to-person variability in response to statin therapy is not well understood.?We have investigated the effect of genetic variation on the reduction of CHD events by pravastatin. First, we conducted a genome-wide association study of 682 CHD cases from the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) trial and 383 CHD cases from the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS), two randomized, placebo-controlled studies of pravastatin. In a combined case-only analysis, 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with differential CHD event reduction by pravastatin according to genotype (P<0.0001), and these SNPs were analyzed in a second stage that included cases as well as non-cases from CARE and WOSCOPS and patients from the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk/PHArmacogenomic study of Statins in the Elderly at risk for cardiovascular disease (PROSPER/PHASE), a randomized placebo controlled study of pravastatin in the elderly. We found that one of these SNPs (rs13279522) was associated with differential CHD event reduction by pravastatin therapy in all 3 studies: P = 0.002 in CARE, P = 0.01 in WOSCOPS, P = 0.002 in PROSPER/PHASE. In a combined analysis of CARE, WOSCOPS, and PROSPER/PHASE, the hazard ratio for CHD when comparing pravastatin with placebo decreased by a factor of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.52 to 0.75) for each extra copy of the minor allele (P = 4.8×10?7). This SNP is located in DnaJ homolog subfamily C member 5B (DNAJC5B) and merits investigation in additional randomized studies of pravastatin and other statins.
Realms of Rhetoric in Health and Medicine
Colleen Derkatch,Judy Z. Segal
University of Toronto Medical Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.5015/utmj.v82i2.431
Drosophila Regulate Yeast Density and Increase Yeast Community Similarity in a Natural Substrate
Judy A. Stamps, Louie H. Yang, Vanessa M. Morales, Kyria L. Boundy-Mills
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042238
Abstract: Drosophila melanogaster adults and larvae, but especially larvae, had profound effects on the densities and community structure of yeasts that developed in banana fruits. Pieces of fruit exposed to adult female flies previously fed fly-conditioned bananas developed higher yeast densities than pieces of the same fruits that were not exposed to flies, supporting previous suggestions that adult Drosophila vector yeasts to new substrates. However, larvae alone had dramatic effects on yeast density and species composition. When yeast densities were compared in pieces of the same fruits assigned to different treatments, fruits that developed low yeast densities in the absence of flies developed significantly higher yeast densities when exposed to larvae. Across all of the fruits, larvae regulated yeast densities within narrow limits, as compared to a much wider range of yeast densities that developed in pieces of the same fruits not exposed to flies. Larvae also affected yeast species composition, dramatically reducing species diversity across fruits, reducing variation in yeast communities from one fruit to the next (beta diversity), and encouraging the consistent development of a yeast community composed of three species of yeast (Candida californica, C. zemplinina, and Pichia kluvyeri), all of which were palatable to larvae. Larvae excreted viable cells of these three yeast species in their fecal pools, and discouraged the growth of filamentous fungi, processes which may have contributed to their effects on the yeast communities in banana fruits. These and other findings suggest that D. melanogaster adults and their larval offspring together engage in ‘niche construction’, facilitating a predictable microbial environment in the fruit substrates in which the larvae live and develop.
Transition of Impurity Nanorod Orientation in Epitaxial YBCO Films on Vicinal Substrates
Jack J. Shi,Judy Z. Wu
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: A theoretical study of the structural transition of impurity nanorod array in epitaxial YBCO films on vicinal STO substrates is presented. Two possible types of film/substrate interface were considered with one assuming a complete coherence while the other, defective as manifested in presence of anti-phase grain boundaries. Only in the former case, the increase of the vicinal angle of the substrate leads to a substantial change of the strain field in the film, resulting in a transition of the nanorod orientation from the normal to in-plane direction of the film. The calculation of the threshold vicinal angle for the onset of the transition and the lattice deformation of the film due to the inclusion of the impurity nanorods is in very good agreement with experimental observations.
Micromechanical Model for Self-Organized Impurity Nanorod Arrays in Epitaxial YBCO Films
Jack J. Shi,Judy Z. Wu
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1080/14786435.2012.682173
Abstract: A micromechanical model based on the theory of elasticity has been developed to study the configuration of self-assembled impurity nanostructures in high temperature superconducting YBCO films. With the calculated equilibrium strain and elastic energy of the impurity doped film, a phase diagram of lattice mismatches $vs.$ elastic constants of the dopant was obtained for the energetically-preferred orientation of impurity nanorods. The calculation of the nanorod orientation and the film lattice deformation has yielded an excellent agreement with experimental measurements.
Neuroimaging in mental health care: voices in translation
Emily L. Borgelt,Daniel Z. Buchman,Judy Illes
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00293
Abstract: Images of brain function, popularly called “neuroimages,” have become a mainstay of contemporary communication about neuroscience and mental health. Paralleling media coverage of neuroimaging research and the high visibility of clinics selling scans is pressure from sponsors to move basic research about brain function along the translational pathway. Indeed, neuroimaging may offer benefits to mental health care: early or tailored intervention, opportunities for education and planning, and access to resources afforded by objectification of disorder. However, risks of premature technology transfer, such as misinterpretation, misrepresentation, and increased stigmatization, could compromise patient care. The insights of stakeholder groups about neuroimaging for mental health care are a largely untapped resource of information and guidance for translational efforts. We argue that the insights of key stakeholders—including researchers, healthcare providers, patients, and families—have an essential role to play upstream in professional, critical, and ethical discourse surrounding neuroimaging in mental health. Here we integrate previously orthogonal lines of inquiry involving stakeholder research to describe the translational landscape as well as challenges on its horizon.
Klein tunneling and supercollimation of pseudospin-1 photons
A. Fang,Z. Q. Zhang,Steven G. Louie,C. T. Chan
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Pseudospin plays a central role in many novel physical properties of graphene and other artificial systems which have pseudospins of 1/2. Here we show that in certain photonic crystals (PCs) exhibiting conical dispersions at k = 0, the eigenmodes near the "Dirac-like point" can be described by an effective spin-orbit Hamiltonian with a pseudospin of 1, treating wave propagations in the upper cone, the lower cone and a flat band (corresponding to zero refractive index) within a unified framework. The 3-component spinor gives rise to boundary conditions distinct from those of pseudospin-1/2, leading to new wave transport behaviors as manifested in Klein tunneling and supercollimation. For example, collimation can be realized more easily with pseudospin-1 than pseudospin-1/2. The special wave scattering properties of pseudospin-1 photons, coupled with the discovery that the effective photonic "potential" can be varied by a simple change of length scale, may offer new ways to control photon transport.
Theory of the Raman spectrum of rotated double-layer graphene
Sinisa Coh,Liang Z. Tan,Steven G. Louie,Marvin L. Cohen
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.165431
Abstract: We study theoretically the Raman spectrum of the rotated double-layer graphene, consisting of two graphene layers rotated with respect to each other by an arbitrary angle \theta. We find a relatively simple dependence of the Raman G peak intensity on the angle \theta. On the other hand, the Raman 2D peak position, intensity, and width show a much more complicated dependence on the angle \theta. We account for all of these effects, including dependence on the incoming photon energy, in good agreement with the experimental data. We find that it is sufficient to include the interaction between the graphene layers on the electronic degrees of freedom (resulting in the occurrence of van Hove singularities in the density of states). We assume that the phonon degrees of freedom are unaffected by the interaction between the layers. Furthermore, we decompose the Raman 2D peak into two components having very different linewidths; these widths are almost independent of the angle \theta. The change in the intensity and the peak position of one of these two components gives insight into the dependence of the overall Raman 2D peak features as a function of the angle \theta. Additionally, we show regions in the phonon spectrum giving rise to the Raman 2D peak signal. This work provides an insight into the interplay between the mechanical degree of freedom (angle \theta) and the electronic degrees of freedom (singularities in the density of states) in rotated double-layer graphene. Additionally, this work provides a way to establish experimentally the value of the rotation angle \theta using Raman spectroscopy measurement. This procedure becomes even more robust if one repeats the Raman spectroscopy measurement with a different incoming photon energy.
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