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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 463798 matches for " Judith A Clements "
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Breast Cancer Cells Induce Osteolytic Bone Lesions In vivo through a Reduction in Osteoblast Activity in Mice
Laura S. Gregory, Wilson Choi, Leslie Burke, Judith A. Clements
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068103
Abstract: Bone metastases are severely debilitating and have a significant impact on the quality of life of women with metastatic breast cancer. Treatment options are limited and in order to develop more targeted therapies, improved understanding of the complex mechanisms that lead to bone lesion development are warranted. Interestingly, whilst prostate-derived bone metastases are characterised by mixed or osteoblastic lesions, breast-derived bone metastases are characterised by osteolytic lesions, suggesting unique regulatory patterns. This study aimed to measure the changes in bone formation and bone resorption activity at two time-points (18 and 36 days) during development of the bone lesion following intratibial injection of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells into the left tibiae of Severely Combined Immuno-Deficient (SCID) mice. The contralateral tibia was used as a control. Tibiae were extracted and processed for undecalcified histomorphometric analysis. We provide evidence that the early bone loss observed following exposure to MDA-MB-231 cells was due to a significant reduction in mineral apposition rate, rather than increased levels of bone resorption. This suggests that osteoblast activity was impaired in the presence of breast cancer cells, contrary to previous reports of osteoclast-dependent bone loss. Furthermore mRNA expression of Dickkopf Homolog 1 (DKK-1) and Noggin were confirmed in the MDA-MB-231 cell line, both of which antagonise osteoblast regulatory pathways. The observed bone loss following injection of cancer cells was due to an overall thinning of the trabecular bone struts rather than perforation of the bone tissue matrix (as measured by trabecular width and trabecular separation, respectively), suggesting an opportunity to reverse the cancer-induced bone changes. These novel insights into the mechanisms through which osteolytic bone lesions develop may be important in the development of new treatment strategies for metastatic breast cancer patients.
Hydrogel Microwell Arrays Allow the Assessment of Protease-Associated Enhancement of Cancer Cell Aggregation and Survival
Daniela Loessner,Stefan Kobel,Judith A. Clements,Matthias P. Lutolf,Dietmar W. Hutmacher
Microarrays , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/microarrays2030208
Abstract: Current routine cell culture techniques are only poorly suited to capture the physiological complexity of tumor microenvironments, wherein tumor cell function is affected by intricate three-dimensional (3D), integrin-dependent cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. 3D cell cultures allow the investigation of cancer-associated proteases like kallikreins as they degrade ECM proteins and alter integrin signaling, promoting malignant cell behaviors. Here, we employed a hydrogel microwell array platform to probe using a high-throughput mode how ovarian cancer cell aggregates of defined size form and survive in response to the expression of kallikreins and treatment with paclitaxel, by performing microscopic, quantitative image, gene and protein analyses dependent on the varying microwell and aggregate sizes. Paclitaxel treatment increased aggregate formation and survival of kallikrein-expressing cancer cells and levels of integrins and integrin-related factors. Cancer cell aggregate formation was improved with increasing aggregate size, thereby reducing cell death and enhancing integrin expression upon paclitaxel treatment. Therefore, hydrogel microwell arrays are a powerful tool to screen the viability of cancer cell aggregates upon modulation of protease expression, integrin engagement and anti-cancer treatment providing a micro-scaled yet high-throughput technique to assess malignant progression and drug-resistance.
Phenotypic Characterization of Prostate Cancer LNCaP Cells Cultured within a Bioengineered Microenvironment
Shirly Sieh, Anna V. Taubenberger, Simone C. Rizzi, Martin Sadowski, Melanie L. Lehman, Anja Rockstroh, Jiyuan An, Judith A. Clements, Colleen C. Nelson, Dietmar W. Hutmacher
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040217
Abstract: Biophysical and biochemical properties of the microenvironment regulate cellular responses such as growth, differentiation, morphogenesis and migration in normal and cancer cells. Since two-dimensional (2D) cultures lack the essential characteristics of the native cellular microenvironment, three-dimensional (3D) cultures have been developed to better mimic the natural extracellular matrix. To date, 3D culture systems have relied mostly on collagen and Matrigel? hydrogels, allowing only limited control over matrix stiffness, proteolytic degradability, and ligand density. In contrast, bioengineered hydrogels allow us to independently tune and systematically investigate the influence of these parameters on cell growth and differentiation. In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogels, functionalized with the Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motifs, common cell-binding motifs in extracellular matrix proteins, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) cleavage sites, were characterized regarding their stiffness, diffusive properties, and ability to support growth of androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells. We found that the mechanical properties modulated the growth kinetics of LNCaP cells in the PEG hydrogel. At culture periods of 28 days, LNCaP cells underwent morphogenic changes, forming tumor-like structures in 3D culture, with hypoxic and apoptotic cores. We further compared protein and gene expression levels between 3D and 2D cultures upon stimulation with the synthetic androgen R1881. Interestingly, the kinetics of R1881 stimulated androgen receptor (AR) nuclear translocation differed between 2D and 3D cultures when observed by immunofluorescent staining. Furthermore, microarray studies revealed that changes in expression levels of androgen responsive genes upon R1881 treatment differed greatly between 2D and 3D cultures. Taken together, culturing LNCaP cells in the tunable PEG hydrogels reveals differences in the cellular responses to androgen stimulation between the 2D and 3D environments. Therefore, we suggest that the presented 3D culture system represents a powerful tool for high throughput prostate cancer drug testing that recapitulates tumor microenvironment.
Genetic Association of the KLK4 Locus with Risk of Prostate Cancer
Felicity Lose, Srilakshmi Srinivasan, Tracy O’Mara, Louise Marquart, Suzanne Chambers, Robert A. Gardiner, Joanne F. Aitken, the Australian Prostate Cancer BioResource 7 , Amanda B. Spurdle, Jyotsna Batra, Judith A. Clements
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044520
Abstract: The Kallikrein-related peptidase, KLK4, has been shown to be significantly overexpressed in prostate tumours in numerous studies and is suggested to be a potential biomarker for prostate cancer. KLK4 may also play a role in prostate cancer progression through its involvement in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a more aggressive phenotype, and metastases to bone. It is well known that genetic variation has the potential to affect gene expression and/or various protein characteristics and hence we sought to investigate the possible role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the KLK4 gene in prostate cancer. Assessment of 61 SNPs in the KLK4 locus (±10 kb) in approximately 1300 prostate cancer cases and 1300 male controls for associations with prostate cancer risk and/or prostate tumour aggressiveness (Gleason score <7 versus ≥7) revealed 7 SNPs to be associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer at the Ptrend<0.05 significance level. Three of these SNPs, rs268923, rs56112930 and the HapMap tagSNP rs7248321, are located several kb upstream of KLK4; rs1654551 encodes a non-synonymous serine to alanine substitution at position 22 of the long isoform of the KLK4 protein, and the remaining 3 risk-associated SNPs, rs1701927, rs1090649 and rs806019, are located downstream of KLK4 and are in high linkage disequilibrium with each other (r2≥0.98). Our findings provide suggestive evidence of a role for genetic variation in the KLK4 locus in prostate cancer predisposition.
A Closed-Form Approximation for Pricing Temperature-Based Weather Derivatives  [PDF]
A. E. Clements, A. S. Hurn, K. A. Lindsay
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.49182

This paper develops analytical distributions of temperature indices on which temperature derivatives are written. If the deviations of daily temperatures from their expected values are modelled as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with timevarying variance, then the distributions of the temperature index on which the derivative is written is the sum of truncated, correlated Gaussian deviates. The key result of this paper is to provide an analytical approximation to the distribution of this sum, thus allowing the accurate computation of payoffs without the need for any simulation. A data set comprising average daily temperature spanning over a hundred years for four Australian cities is used to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach for estimating the payoffs to temperature derivatives. It is demonstrated that expected payoffs computed directly from historical records are a particularly poor approach to the problem when there are trends in underlying average daily temperature. It is shown that the proposed analytical approach is superior to historical pricing.

Evaluation of Self-Treatment of Acne Using Silk’n Blue Phototherapy System  [PDF]
Judith Hellman, Cielo A. Ramirez
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2014.43025

Background: At-home phototherapy devices for the treatment of acne have emerged as an appealing treatment option and as an effective adjunct treatment to existing modalities. The principal goal of the study was to determine the changes in the number of inflammatory lesions in acne patients. Methods: Patients received instruction for daily at-home use of Silk’n Blue device for 12 weeks. Follow-up visits were conducted at 1 and 3 months to collect data. Results: Fifteen subjects with mild to severe cases experienced improvement over the course of the trial. The decrease in mean inflammatory acne counts (from 41.26 to 24.46) and mean percent reduction (41.8%) were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Some participants experienced percent reductions as great as 67%. No adverse events were recorded. Conclusions: The Silk’n Blue device is a safe and effective modality for at-home treatment of mild, moderate, and severe inflammatory acne vulgaris with proper use.

A Kallikrein 15 (KLK15) single nucleotide polymorphism located close to a novel exon shows evidence of association with poor ovarian cancer survival
Jyotsna Batra, Christina M Nagle, Tracy O'Mara, Melanie Higgins, Ying Dong, Olivia L Tan, Felicity Lose, Lene Skeie, Srilakshmi Srinivasan, Kelly L Bolton, Honglin Song, Susan J Ramus, Simon A Gayther, Paul DP Pharoah, Mary-Anne Kedda, Amanda B Spurdle, Judith A Clements
BMC Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-119
Abstract: In silico analysis was performed to identify KLK15 regulatory elements and to classify potentially functional SNPs in these regions. After SNP validation and identification by DNA sequencing of ovarian cancer cell lines and aggressive ovarian cancer patients, 9 SNPs were shortlisted and genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX Mass Array platform in a cohort of Australian ovarian cancer patients (N = 319). In the Australian dataset we observed significantly worse survival for the KLK15 rs266851 SNP in a dominant model (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.42, 95% CI 1.02-1.96). This association was observed in the same direction in two independent datasets, with a combined HR for the three studies of 1.16 (1.00-1.34). This SNP lies 15bp downstream of a novel exon and is predicted to be involved in mRNA splicing. The mutant allele is also predicted to abrogate an HSF-2 binding site.We provide evidence of association for the SNP rs266851 with ovarian cancer survival. Our results provide the impetus for downstream functional assays and additional independent validation studies to assess the role of KLK15 regulatory SNPs and KLK15 isoforms with alternative intracellular functional roles in ovarian cancer survival.Ovarian cancer is an aggressive disease with high metastatic potential and is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage [1,2]. In vitro studies show that malignant cells synthesize and secrete proteolytic enzymes which disrupt basement and extracellular membranes to allow malignant cells to invade neighboring tissues and metastasize [3]. Members of the Kallikrein-related (KLK) peptidase family are part of a proteolytic enzymatic cascade activated in aggressive forms of hormone-related cancers including ovarian cancer [4-6]. The KLKs are encoded by a 15-member gene family clustered together in a region of approximately 320 kb on chromosome 19q13.4 [5-7]. KLK15 (encoding for KLK15, previously reported as hK15, or prostinogen) is the most recently cloned member of the human kallikrein g
The Potential Role of Lycopene for the Prevention and Therapy of Prostate Cancer: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Evidence
Nina Pauline Holzapfel,Boris Michael Holzapfel,Simon Champ,Jesper Feldthusen,Judith Clements,Dietmar Werner Hutmacher
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms140714620
Abstract: Lycopene is a phytochemical that belongs to a group of pigments known as carotenoids. It is red, lipophilic and naturally occurring in many fruits and vegetables, with tomatoes and tomato-based products containing the highest concentrations of bioavailable lycopene. Several epidemiological studies have linked increased lycopene consumption with decreased prostate cancer risk. These findings are supported by in vitro and in vivo experiments showing that lycopene not only enhances the antioxidant response of prostate cells, but that it is even able to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis and decrease the metastatic capacity of prostate cancer cells. However, there is still no clearly proven clinical evidence supporting the use of lycopene in the prevention or treatment of prostate cancer, due to the only limited number of published randomized clinical trials and the varying quality of existing studies. The scope of this article is to discuss the potential impact of lycopene on prostate cancer by giving an overview about its molecular mechanisms and clinical effects.
Delivery of Short Interfering Ribonucleic Acid-Complexed Magnetic Nanoparticles in an Oscillating Field Occurs via Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis
Jenson Lim, Michael A. Clements, Jon Dobson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051350
Abstract: Gene delivery technologies to introduce foreign genes into highly differentiated mammalian cells have improved significantly over the last few decades. Relatively new techniques such as magnetic nanoparticle-based gene transfection technology are showing great promise in terms of its high transfection efficiency and wide-ranging research applications. We have developed a novel gene delivery technique, which uses magnetic nanoparticles moving under the influence of an oscillating magnetic array. Herein we successfully introduced short interfering RNA (siRNA) against green fluorescent protein (GFP) or actin into stably-transfected GFP-HeLa cells or wild-type HeLa and rat aortic smooth muscle cells, respectively. This gene silencing technique occurred in a dose- and cell density- dependent manner, as reflected using fluorescence intensity and adhesion assays. Furthermore, using endocytosis inhibitors, we established that these magnetic nanoparticle-nucleic acid complexes, moving across the cell surface under the influence of an oscillating magnet array, enters into the cells via the caveolae-mediated endocytic pathway.
A Mathematical Model of Chikungunya Dynamics and Control: The Major Epidemic on Réunion Island
Laith Yakob, Archie C. A. Clements
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057448
Abstract: Chikungunya is a re-emerging arboviral disease transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Although principally endemic to Africa and Asia, recent outbreaks have occurred in Europe following introductions by returning travellers. A particularly large outbreak occurred on Réunion Island in 2006, the published data from which forms the basis of the current study. A simple, deterministic mathematical model of the transmission of the virus between humans and mosquitoes was constructed and parameterised with the up-to-date literature on infection biology. The model is fitted to the large Réunion epidemic, resulting in an estimate of 4.1 for the type reproduction number of chikungunya. Although simplistic, the model provided a close approximation of both the peak incidence of the outbreak and the final epidemic size. Sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated the strong influence that both the latent period of infection in humans and the pre-patent period have on these two epidemiological outcomes. We show why separating these variables, which are epidemiologically distinct in chikungunya infections, is not only necessary for accurate model fitting but also important in informing control.
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