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Landcover Change of Gashaka Gumti National Park within 21 Years Window (1991 to 2011) Using Satellite Imageries  [PDF]
Ibrahim Ahamed Umar, Zacharia Buba Yaduma, Ephraim Edward Dishan, Joyrose Enebuse Adaeze
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105750
Abstract:
The study was conducted at Gashaka Gumti National Park to assess the land cover changes of Gashaka Gumti National Park within 21 years window (1991 to 2011) using satellite imageries. Results showed that in 1991, 2001 and 2011, Guinea Savannah covered 41% (2762.01 km2), 38% (2565.01 km2) and 36% (2449.23 km2) of the land area respectively. Derived Savannah covered 31% (2086.85 km2), 33% (2185.41 km2) and 31% (2072.39 km2) respectively in the stated years. Montane Forest covered 12% (775.28 km2), 12% (822.02 km2) and 14% (941.11 km2) respectively in the years under consideration. For Gallery Forest, 16%, 17% and 19% were recorded for the stated years respectively. This indicated that Guinea Savannah decreased by 7.13% (﹣197 km2), Derived Savanna, Montane Forest and Gallery Forest increased by 4.72% ( 98.56 km2), 6.03% ( 46.74 km2) and 4.67% ( 51.7 km2) respectively between 1991 and 2011. Between 2001 and 2011, Guinea Savanna and Derived savanna decreased by 4.51% (115.78 km2) and 5.17% (113.02 km2), respectively, while Montane and Gallery forests increased by 14.49% ( 119.09 km2) and 9.47% ( 109.71 km2) respectively. The changes recorded were considered marginal. Similarly, the temperature and rainfall dynamics established in the study were not of such magnitude that could negatively impact on the landcover classes.
Socio-Economic Characters and Activities of Support Zone Communities in Gashaka Gumti National Park  [PDF]
Zacharia Buba Yaduma, Joyrose Enebuse Adaeze, Mary Omowumi Oluwole, Bijida Zacharia
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106200
Abstract: The study was conducted at Gashaka Gumti National Park to determine socio-economic activities and their relationship with the forest. The Result obtained shows that, the age of the respondents was presented in Table 1. The pooled result indicated that there were 29.82%, for the age class of 36 - 45 years, 28.77%, for the age class of 26 - 35, 20.35%, for the age class of 15 - 25; 13.68%, for the age class of 46 - 55; and 7.37% for the age class of 56 years and above. The result on gender indicated that Males were 75.78%, while female was 24.21%, of the population. The result of marital status revealed that married respondents recorded 58.24%; singles had 29.82% while the widows recorded 11.93%. The results of the family size indicated that the family size of 10 - 14 recorded 37.54%; 5 - 9 family size had 22.46%; 15 - 19 recorded 20.70%; 1 - 4 had 11.23% while 20 and above recorded 8.07%. The result of occupation of the respondent indicated that farmers/grazers recorded 44.91%; business men/women were 18.59%; public servants recorded 14.74%, students were 12.98%, while house wives/widows recorded 8.77%. The educational qualification of the respondents revealed that non formal education recorded 37.89%, primary education recorded 21.40%, adult education, had 15.78%, and post primary education recorded 15.78% while tertiary education had 9.12%. The result of income level of the respondents revealed that N30,000 - N39,000 had 34.38%, N20,000 - N29,000 recorded 23.86%, N10,000 - N19,000, had 23.16%, N40,000 - N 49,000, had 10.88% and N50,000 and above recorded 7.72%. The research reviles that the greater are still in their early forties, but the level of education was lower among the population and which may be the result of the lower income among the population; of which it may have a negative impact on the survival of the forest and its biodiversity. Therefore, more income and better education may help in maintaining a balanced relationship between the population and its environs.
Investigation of Relationship between Sociodemographic Factors and HIV Counseling and Testing (HCT) among Young People in Nigeria  [PDF]
Adaeze Oguegbu
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2016.61004
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to examine the association between sociodemographic factors (gender, place of residence, level of education, geopolitical zone, and socioeconomic status) and HCT uptake among young people in Nigeria. The study is a quantitative research guided by one research question and one hypothesis. The target population comprised young people in Nigeria ages 15 to 24 years because the focus of this study was to identify the factors affecting HCT uptake among young people in this age cohort. The representative sample was obtained from the updated master sample frame of rural and urban zones developed by the National Population Commission in Nigeria. This master sample frame was a national survey that comprises all 36 states in Nigeria. Probability sampling technique was used to obtain a sample of 10,091 respondents (ages 15 to 24 years) for the study. The multistage cluster sampling was used to select suitable young people with known probability. Data were collected throughout Nigeria between September and December 2012 from 32,543 households (rural = 22,192; urban = 10,351) using structured and semi-structured questionnaires. The individual questionnaires asked about household characteristics, background characteristics of the respondents. Data were analyzed by inputting them into SPSS v21.0 for analysis and then coded them for each participant. The data were summed using descriptive statistics. Frequencies and percentages; measures of central tendencies were used to answer the research question while nonparametric test such as chi-square was used to analyze non-normally distributed data at 0.5 level of significance. Results of data analysis indicated that the sociodemographic variables of gender, place of residence, level of education, geopolitical zone, and SES were significantly associated with HCT uptake. Among others, it was recommended that examining the efficacy of HCT treatments in Nigeria, along with conducting a demographic analysis of the at-risk population, could be beneficial in informing the authorities who are responsible for allocating finite medical resources.
Relationship between Sexual Risk Behaviors and HIV Counseling and Testing (HCT) Uptake among Young People in Nigeria  [PDF]
Adaeze Oguegbu, Frazier Beatty
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.85049
Abstract: This study examined the relationship between sexual risk behavior and HIV counselling and testing uptake among young people in Nigeria. Probability sampling technique was used to obtain a sample of 10,091 respondents (ages 15 to 24 years) for the study. The multistage cluster sampling was used to select suitable young people with known probability. Data were collected throughout Nigeria between September and December 2012 from 32,543 households (rural = 22,192; urban = 10,351) using structured and semi-structured questionnaires. The data were summed using descriptive statistics. Frequencies and percentages; measures of central tendencies were used to answer the research question while nonparametric test such as chi-square was used to analyze non-normally distributed data at 0.5 level of significance. Results of data analysis indicated that sexual risk behaviors comprised three variables: sex with multiple partners, intergenerational sex (sex with partners 10 years older), and transactional sex. The results of the chi-square test of association between sex with multiple partners and HCT uptake showed that there was no statistically significant relationship between sex with multiple partners and HCT uptake among young people ages 15 to 24 years in Nigeria. It was among others recommended that sexually active young people in Nigeria should use protection against HIV infection.
Relationship between HIV Counseling and Testing (HCT) Awareness and HCT Uptake among Young People in Nigeria: Implications for Social Change  [PDF]
Adaeze Oguegbu, Frazier Beatty
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2016.64016
Abstract: This study examined the relationship between HIV counselling and testing (HCT) awareness and HCT uptake among young people in Nigeria and their implications for social change. The study is a quantitative research guided by one research question and one hypothesis. The target population comprised young people in Nigeria ages 15 to 24 years because the focus of this study was to identify the factors affecting HCT uptake among young people in this age cohort. The representative sample was obtained from the updated master sample frame of rural and urban zones developed by the National Population Commission in Nigeria. This master sample frame was a national survey that comprised all 36 states in Nigeria. Probability sampling technique was used to obtain a sample of 10,091 respondents (ages 15 to 24 years) for the study. The multistage cluster sampling was used to select suitable young people with known probability. Data were collected throughout Nigeria between September and December 2012 from 32,543 households (rural = 22,192; urban = 10,351) using structured and semi-structured questionnaires. The individual questionnaires asked about household characteristics, background characteristics of the respondents. Data were analyzed by inputting them into SPSS v21.0 for analysis and then coded them for each participant. The data were summed using descriptive statistics. Frequencies and percentages; measures of central tendencies were used to answer the research question while nonparametric tests such as chi-square were used to analyze non-normally distributed data at 0.5 level of significance. The results of the chi-square test of association between HCT awareness and HCT uptake showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between HCT awareness and HCT uptake among young people ages 15 to 24 years in Nigeria, X2 (1, n = 8916) = 306.66, p < 0.001. In other words, knowledge of the availability of HCT services may have influenced the possibility that the participants would use them. Among others, it was recommended that government should examine the efficacy of HCT treatments in Nigeria, along with conducting a demographic analysis of the at-risk population.
Spectrophotometric Data in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Antiretroviral Drug Coated Blood Interactions  [PDF]
Okwuchukwu Ani, Adaeze Ani, Jeremiah Chukwuneke
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.38005
Abstract: The spectrophotometric data in the interactions between the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and blood cells treated with antiretroviral drug were collected to be used to show the effects of antiretroviral drugs on the absorbance characteristics of HIV infected and uninfected blood. The methodology involved the serial dilution of the five different antiretroviral drugs (two HAART/FDC and three single drugs) and the subsequent incubation with the blood samples collected from ten HIV infected persons who had not yet commenced treatment with the antiretroviral drugs, ten HIV infected persons who had already commenced treatment with the antiretroviral drugs, and ten HIV negative persons, for the absorbance measurements using a digital Ultraviolet Visible MetaSpecAE1405031Pro Spectrophotometer. The peak absorbance data for various interacting systems were measured. These were used to show that the antiretroviral drug had the effect of increasing the peak absorbance values of both the uninfected and infected blood components, i.e., the drugs were made able to increase the light absorption capacity of the blood cells. The use of the findings of this work in drug design may be expected to yield good results.
Level of Adherence to Cytotoxic Drugs by Breast Cancer Patients’ in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital  [PDF]
Popoola Abiodun, Samira Makanjuola, Sowunmi Anthonia, Igwilo Adaeze, Mobolaji Oludara, Ibrahim Nasir, Omodele Foluso
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.64041
Abstract:

Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases in women and adjuvant combination chemotherapy has been shown to reduce mortality from this disease. Adherence to medical treatment is a multifaceted issue that can substantially alter the outcomes of therapy. Patient non-adherence to chemotherapy is the ultimate barrier to the treatment effectiveness. Objective: This study was carried out to determine the relationship between cancer chemotherapy adherence and breast cancer staging, patient’s perception of cancer care and patient’s socio-demographic characteristics. Material and method: This was a cross sectional study selection of respondents and was based on simple random sampling technique, 184 patients were interviewed and data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic data, adherence data, and facility-related information. Results: There was a significant association between marital status and non-adherence (P= 0.013). Both separated and single subjects had higher proportion of non-adherence compared with married subjects. Analysis of perception of chemotherapy care revealed a significant association between the satisfaction score and non-adherence, with non-adherent patients showing higher scores or being less satisfied. The quality of service (P= 0.0052); rating of needs been met (P= 0.0079); rating on whether the services helped the subject (P= 0.0405); rating on the general satisfaction of the services provided (P= 0.0115); and rating on whether subject would seek help again (P= 0.0320) all had a significant association with non-adherence. Conclusion: The awareness of oncologist and patient of the problem of non-adherence and communication regarding the importance of adherence to therapy may improve health outcomes.

Biorthogonality in $\mathcal A$-Pairings and Hyperbolic Decomposition Theorem for $\mathcal A$-Modules
Patrice P. Ntumba,Adaeze C. Orioha
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: In this paper, as part of a project initiated by A. Mallios consisting of exploring new horizons for \textit{Abstract Differential Geometry} ($\grave{a}$ la Mallios), \cite{mallios1997, mallios, malliosvolume2, modern}, such as those related to the \textit{classical symplectic geometry}, we show that results pertaining to biorthogonality in pairings of vector spaces do hold for biorthogonality in pairings of $\mathcal A$-modules. However, for the \textit{dimension formula} the algebra sheaf $\mathcal A$ is assumed to be a PID. The dimension formula relates the rank of an $\mathcal A$-morphism and the dimension of the kernel (sheaf) of the same $\mathcal A$-morphism with the dimension of the source free $\mathcal A$-module of the $\mathcal A$-morphism concerned. Also, in order to obtain an analog of the Witt's hyperbolic decomposition theorem, $\mathcal A$ is assumed to be a PID while topological spaces on which $\mathcal A$-modules are defined are assumed \textit{connected}.
Plants Species Diversity along River Benue Bank under the Influence of Siltation and Solid Waste Effluents, Adamawa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
J. E. Adaeze, E. E. Dishan, I. O. Tella
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104125
Abstract:
This research was aimed at assessing plants diversity, under the influence of siltation and solid waste effluents along the River Benue bank, Shinko area in Yola North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Three plots of 20 m × 20 m were randomly established at the solid waste, silt solid waste, silted and no-silt; no-waste areas. A quadrat of 1 m × 1 m was laid at random to determine the population of plant species in each plot. The results of the population of plant species in the various sites revealed that, 10 plant species occurred at the solid waste area (SWA), 7 species at silt waste area (SSW), 12 plant species at silted area (SA) and 31 plant species at no-silt; no-waste area (NSW). Shannon-Wiener’s diversity index was used to analyse species diversity in the various sampling locations. Shannon-Wiener’s diversity indexes in the various sites were approximately 1.985, 1.788, 2.140 and 3.125 at SWA, SSW, SA and NSW respectively. The result obtained indicates high uncertainties; as each species are relatively distributed within SWA, SSW, SA and NSW areas. The results indicated that there were significant differences at P ≥ 0.05 as (p-value = 0.183377) in plant species among the study sites. Axonopus compressus had the highest occurrence in 3 of the study areas, except for the silted area.
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV: the pre-rapid advice experience of the university of Nigeria teaching hospital Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu, South-east Nigeria
Ngozi S Ibeziako, Agozie C Ubesie, Ifeoma J Emodi, Adaeze C Ayuk, Kene K Iloh, Anthony N Ikefuna
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-305
Abstract: A retrospective study, involving HIV exposed infants seen at the pediatric HIV clinic of UNTH between March 2006 and September 2008. Relevant data were retrieved from their medical records. The overall rate of mother to child transmission of HIV in this study was 3.9% (95% CI 1.1%- 6.7%). However, in children breastfed for 3?months or less, the rate of transmission was 10% (95% CI ?2.5%-22.5%), compared to 3.5% (95% CI 0.5%-6.5%) in children that had exclusive replacement feeding.This retrospective observational study shows a 3.9% cumulative rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV by 18?months of age in Enugu. Holistic but cost effective preventive interventions help in reducing the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV even in economically-developing settings like Nigeria.The first documented case of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Nigeria was in 1986 in a 13?year old child in Calabar, Cross River State [1]. Since then, children have continued to remain vulnerable to this epidemic in Nigeria. Children can be infected with the virus through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), blood transfusion, unprotected sex and through the use of non-sterile sharp objects [1,2]. MTCT is the most common route and is responsible for as much as 70 to 95% [3-6] of the infection in the pediatric age group. The next most common route of HIV transmission in children living in economically-developing countries is blood transfusion.[7,8]. This route accounts for about 5 to 20% of pediatric AIDS [3,4].MTCT can occur in utero, during labor and delivery, and postnatally through breastfeeding. A number of risk factors for MTCT of HIV have been documented. The risk factors associated with transmission during labor are prolonged rupture of uterine membrane for more than 4 hours, prolonged labor, mixing of maternal and fetal blood which happens more with tears and episiotomies [5,9]. The risk factors associated with transmission post-natally are breastfeeding and mixed f
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