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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401300 matches for " Josephat M Chinawa "
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Mothers' beliefs about infant teething in Enugu, South-east Nigeria: a cross sectional study
Gilbert N Adimorah, Agozie C Ubesie, Josephat M Chinawa
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-228
Abstract: A cross-sectional survey involving sixty mothers presenting at a Children's clinic in Enugu metropolis using questionnaire. More than 90% of the respondents thought that babies can experience medical problems as a result of teething. The commonest medical problems perceived to be associated with teething were fever (71.7%), loose stools (58.3%) and vomiting (35%).Mothers still associate a variety of symptoms of childhood illnesses to teething and this association is not evidence based and could lead to delayed interventions, increased morbidity and mortality of children. It is important therefore that mothers and health workers caring for young children are educated on the need to seek prompt medical attentions in a symptomatic child.Teething according to Tasanen cited in Swann [1] has traditionally been the explanation for a variety of symptoms and signs associated with tooth eruption in the young child, both by parents and doctors. A child's first tooth usually appears by 6 months of age, and a complete set of 20 primary or first teeth usually develops by age three [2]. It is important to remember that during this same period of an infant's life, passive immunity due to maternal antibodies wanes and exposure to a wide variety of childhood illnesses can occur [3]. Some of the attributable symptoms such as drooling of saliva and itching gum are trivial, nevertheless significant to the child and parents [4]. Others such as fever, diarrhea and cough may connote underlying serious medical conditions in the child. There is little evidence to support these beliefs despite their implications for prompt diagnosis and management of childhood illnesses [4]. Such uninformed beliefs could cause delays in diagnosing and managing serious childhood illnesses. Delayed diagnosis of underlying serious medical conditions on the other hand, may have far reaching consequences including mortalities from otherwise preventable and treatable diseases. It is important therefore, that parent
Paracetamol use (and/or misuse) in children in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria
Herbert A Obu, Josephat M Chinawa, Agozie C Ubesie, Christopher B Eke, Ikenna K Ndu
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-103
Abstract: To determine the dosage, formulation, and frequency of paracetamol administration to children by caregivers and factors associated with its use and/or misuse.An observational prospective study involving 231 children and their caregivers seen at the paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku - Ozalla, Enugu between June and November 2011 was undertaken. Data on paracetamol use before presentation to the clinic, in addition to demographic and other data were obtained from the caregivers using a structured questionnaire. Ethical consent for the study was obtained from the Hospital Ethics and Research Committee and informed consent was further obtained from the caregivers of the children.A total of 231 children aged six weeks to 16?years and their caregivers participated in this study. The mean ages of the children and their caregivers were 3.8 and 33.9?years, respectively. One hundred and thirty three of the children studied were males while 98 were females. Most of the children (75.6%) received paracetamol at home before presenting. Paracetamol tablet alone or in combination with the syrup was mostly used (60%) and this observation was made across all age groups. The commonest reason for using paracetamol tablet instead of the syrup was that it was more effective. Most caregivers relied on past experience (71.2%) rather than on enclosed information leaflet to decide the appropriate dosage. Half of the children also received other medications, mainly anti-malarials and antibiotics.Paracetamol was commonly given to children on “self prescription” basis and the tablet formulation was most frequently used, with the possibility of misuse and overdose. Caregivers need to be educated on age-appropriate formulations which are less likely to lead to overdose.Paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen) is the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic [1]. It is found in many over the counter and prescription products. Given in the right do
Congenital malformations among newborns admitted in the neonatal unit of a tertiary hospital in Enugu, South-East Nigeria - a retrospective study
Herbert A Obu, Josephat M Chinawa, Nwachinemere D Uleanya, Gilbert N Adimora, Ikechukwu E Obi
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-177
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of congenital malformations among newborns admitted in a tertiary hospital in Enugu, the nature of these abnormalities and the outcome/prognosis. For purposes of this study, congenital abnormalities are defined as obvious abnormality of structure or form which is present at birth or noticed within a few days after birth. A cross-sectional retrospective study in which a review of the records of all babies admitted in the Newborn Special Care Unit (NBSCU) of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu over a four year period (January 2007-April 2011) was undertaken.All babies admitted in the unit with the diagnosis of congenital abnormality were included in the study. Information extracted from the records included characteristics of the baby, maternal characteristics, nature/type of abnormalities and outcome.Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS 13. Rates and proportions were calculated with 95% confidence interval. The proportions were compared using students T-test. Level of significance was set at P?<?0.05Seventeen (17) out of a total of six hundred and seven newborn babies admitted in the newborn unit of UNTH over the study period (Jan 2007-March 2011) were found to have congenital abnormalities of various types, giving a prevalence of 2.8%. Common abnormalities seen in these babies were mainly surgical birth defects and included cleft lip/cleft palate, neural tube defects (occurring either singly or in combination with other abnormalities), limb abnormalities (often in combination with neural tube defects of various types), omphalocoele, umbilical herniae, ano-rectal malformations and dysmorphism associated with multiple congenital abnormalities.The results of this study show that 2.8% of babies admitted to a Newborn Special Care Unit in a teaching hospital in Enugu had congenital abnormalities and that the commonest forms seen were mainly surgical birth defects and includes
Situs invertus totalis in a child with chronic sinusitis  [PDF]
Chinawa Josephat Maduabuchi, Ujunwa Fortune Amuche, Eze Chukwubuike Uzodinma
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.33041

Background: Total situs inversus, (also called situs transversus or oppositus) known as mirror image dextrocardia, is characterized by a heart on the right side of the midline while the liver is on the left side. Situs Inversus Totalis (SIT) is a congenital anomaly characterized by complete transposition of abdominal and thoracic organs. Patients with this anomaly usually lead a normal life. We report a fourteen-year old Nigerian who was found to have dextrocardia with situs inversus totalis while presenting for treatment for a different problem. Conclusion: Situs inversus totalis is a rare finding. This report underscores the need for routine screening of children so that such congenital anomalies can be identified and complications that follow it averted timely.

Sickle Cell Anaemia: Errors in Haemoglobin Genotyping: Impact on Parents of Children Attending Two Hospitals in South East Nigeria  [PDF]
J. M. Chinawa, P. C. Manyike, A. E. Aronu, H. A. Obu, A. T. Chinawa
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.51002
Objectives: The study is aimed at determining that errors in assigning genotypes to intending couples do exist; and the impact of these errors on parents. Methods: The study was conducted at the children clinics in Enugu and Abakiliki, south east Nigeria. It is a cross-sectional retrospective study in which a review of the records of all the children attending 2 private clinics in Enugu and Abakaliki of Enugu and Ebonyi states respectively, over a 3-year period was done. Results: A total of 6006 children attended the children clinics over the study period. Twenty three (23) of them had sickle cell anaemia. Out of the 23 cases 10 (43.5%) were males and 13 (56.5%) were females. Male to female ratio was 1:1.3. The commonest features were abdominal and leg pains, involving 20 (87%) and 21 (91.3 %) respectively. Among the 23 parents that had their genotypes repeated, 9 males had different genotypes from what they had during courtship or before marriage. The genotypes of all the females that could recall their genotypes before marriage or during courtship were the same after a repeat test. Conclusions: There exist errors in assigning genotypes to parents which at the end made them have children with sickle cell anemia, unwittingly, with serious consequences bordering on strained relationship between the parents with the children bearing the brunt.
Invasion of Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl. in Kenya  [PDF]
Josephat Makokha
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.96042
Abstract: Many forest ecosystems in Kenya are at risk from the invasion of exotic plant species that pose numerous threats like decreasing biodiversity, deteriorating ecosystem processes and degrading their services. They also affect human, other animal health and various angles of the general economy. Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl. is a species with invasive reputation having been reported with very high biological success rating and has been noted in parts of Kenya in proportions that raise concerns. It has negative effects on other plants and animal species function and diversity. These impacts have been recorded in Kenya and elsewhere in this review, I synthesized data from studies that have examined the taxonomy of Cestrum aurantiacum, how this species become part of the ecosystem in Kenya and its ecological and economic impacts. I sourced relevant articles from the internet using keywords relating to the taxonomy, impacts and reports of invasive species and narrowed to records from different parts of Kenya. In this review, I looked across twenty-seven studies, on Cestrum aurantiacum in Kenya and went ahead to review one hundred and thirteen other articles for expanded discussion. Species data in published articles from different parts of Kenya were used as georefences to model overall species distribution which was noted to lie between Mt Kenya, Mt Elgon-Nandi hills and Cherangani hills. It was clearly established that there are major adverse effects associated with species. First, it can change native ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycle or hydrology and contribute significant role on the decrease of native species. A primary risk of Cestrum aurantiacum is that when this species alters the biodiversity, ecosystems are transformed into new configurations with unpredictable consequences to humans and other wildlife in totality. Despite the few positive applications of cestrum species, these can’t compensate for the enormous detrimental consequences associated with the species. Cestrum aurantiacum was introduced in Kenya as an ornamental plant in 1921 by the government and was distributed in several regions of high potential Kenya due to high level of hybridization within the genera, several variables of the species occur. By examining the level of information regarding the taxonomy and impacts of Cestrum aurantiacum on animal and plant species, this study provides pivotal information at the country level with a view to informing monitoring and conservation efforts, such as alien plant removal and control programmes, and
The Pattern and Outcome of Civilian Vascular Injury in a Teaching Hospital over a 7-Year Period  [PDF]
I. A. Nwafor, J. C. Eze, N. Ezemba, F. A. Onyekwulu, C. I. Ngene, J. M. Chinawa
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2016.62006
Abstract: Background: The exact incidence of vascular injuries in Nigeria as a country especially south-east zone of Nigeria is unknown on account of under reporting and uncoordinated management of victims. Aim: To determine the pattern and outcome of common civilian vascular injuries managed in a teaching hospital in the south-east zone of Nigeria. Method: This is a retrospective study from January, 2007 to December, 2013. All case records of common civilian vascular injuries presenting at the accident center and those referred to the clinics as well as operation register and data banks of managing surgeons, were retrieved and analysed. Results: The age range of 12 - 75 years was rec-orded for the 26 patients. In this spectrum, age range of 21 - 30 years (19.2%) was the highest while the age range, 61 - 70 years (0%) was the lowest. One female (3.9%) and twenty five males (96.1%) were recorded, giving a female to male ratio of 1:25. In the upper extremity, brachial artery 6 (23.1%) was the most involved vessel while in the lower extremity, the most involved was the femoral artery 9 (34.6%). The patterns of presentation were isolated bleeding 10 (38%), arterivenous fistula 1 (3.5%) and pseudoaneurysm 8 (30%). 23 (88%) had good outcome. Conclusion: The incidence is about 4 cases per year. 23 (88%) had good outcome. The shortcoming of lattending physicians was because they were not conversant with hard and soft signs of vascular injuries with attendant limb loss and death of one of the victims. This short coming can be averted by training and retraining of doctors.
Structural Controls on the Geochemistry and Output of the Wells in the Olkaria Geothermal Field of the Kenyan Rift Valley  [PDF]
Ruth N. Wamalwa, Christopher M. Nyamai, Willis J. Ambusso, Josephat Mulwa, Aaron K. Waswa
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.711094
Abstract: The Olkaria geothermal field is located in the Kenya Rift valley, about 120 km from Nairobi. Geothermal activity is widespread in this rift with 14 major geothermal prospects being identified. Structures in the Greater Olkaria volcanic complex include: the ring structure, the Ol’Njorowa gorge, the ENE-WSW Olkaria fault and N-S, NNE-SSW, NW-SE and WNW-ESE trending faults. The faults are more prominent in the East, Northeast and West Olkaria fields but are scarce in the Olkaria Domes area, possibly due to the thick pyroclastics cover. The NW-SE and WNW- ESE faults are thought to be the oldest and are associated with the development of the rift. The most prominent of these faults is the Gorge Farm fault, which bounds the geothermal fields in the northeastern part and extends to the Olkaria Domes area. The most recent structures are the N-S and the NNE-SSW faults. The geochemistry and output of the wells cut by these faults have a distinct characteristic that is the N-S, NW-SE and WNW-ESE faults are characterized by wells that have high Cl contents, temperatures and are good producers whereas the NE-SW faults, the Ring Structure and the Ol’Njorowa gorge appear to carry cool dilute waters with less chloride concentration and thus low performing wells. Though the impacts of these faults are apparent, there exists a gap in knowledge on how wide is the impact of these faults on the chemistry and performance of the wells. This paper therefore seeks to bridge this gap by analysis of the chemical trends of both old wells and newly drilled ones to evaluate the impacts of individual faults and then using buffering technique of ArcGis estimate how far and wide the influence of the faults is. The data was obtained after the sampling and analysis of discharge fluids of wells located on six profiles along the structures cutting through the field. Steam samples were collected with a stainless steel Webre separator connected between the wellhead and an atmospheric silencer on the discharging wells whereas the analysis was done in house in the KenGen geochemistry laboratory. The results indicates that Olkaria field has three categories of faults that control fluid flow that is the NW-SE trending faults that bring in high temperature and Cl rich waters, and the NE-SW trending Olkaria fracture tend to carry cool
Effect of Spermidine on Misfolding and Interactions of Alpha-Synuclein
Alexey V. Krasnoslobodtsev, Jie Peng, Josephat M. Asiago, Jagadish Hindupur, Jean-Christophe Rochet, Yuri L. Lyubchenko
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038099
Abstract: Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) is a 140 aa presynaptic protein which belongs to a group of natively unfolded proteins that are unstructured in aqueous solutions. The aggregation rate of α-Syn is accelerated in the presence of physiological levels of cellular polyamines. Here we applied single molecule AFM force spectroscopy to characterize the effect of spermidine on the very first stages of α-Syn aggregation – misfolding and assembly into dimers. Two α-Syn variants, the wild-type (WT) protein and A30P, were studied. The two protein molecules were covalently immobilized at the C-terminus, one at the AFM tip and the other on the substrate, and intermolecular interactions between the two molecules were measured by multiple approach-retraction cycles. At conditions close to physiological ones at which α-Syn misfolding is a rare event, the addition of spermidine leads to a dramatic increase in the propensity of the WT and mutant proteins to misfold. Importantly, misfolding is characterized by a set of conformations, and A30P changes the misfolding pattern as well as the strength of the intermolecular interactions. Together with the fact that spermidine facilitates late stages of α-Syn aggregation, our data demonstrate that spermidine promotes the very early stages of protein aggregation including α-Syn misfolding and dimerization. This finding suggests that increased levels of spermidine and potentially other polyamines can initiate the disease-related process of α-Syn.
Survival of immature Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in aquatic habitats in Mwea rice irrigation scheme, central Kenya
Joseph M Mwangangi, Ephantus J Muturi, Josephat Shililu, Simon M Muriu, Benjamin Jacob, Ephantus W Kabiru, Charles M Mbogo, John Githure, Robert Novak
Malaria Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-114
Abstract: Horizontal life tables were constructed for immatures in semi-field condition. The time spent in the various immature stages was determined and survival established. Vertical life tables were obtained from five paddies sampled by standard dipping technique.Pre-adult developmental time for An. arabiensis in the trays in the experimental set up in the screen house was 11.85 days from eclosion to emergence. The mean duration of each instar stage was estimated to be 1.40 days for first instars, 2.90 days for second instars, 1.85 days for third instars, 3.80 days for fourth instars and 1.90 days for pupae. A total of 590 individuals emerged into adults, giving an overall survivorship from L1 to adult emergence of 69.4%. A total of 4,956 An. arabiensis immatures were collected in 1,400 dips throughout the sampling period. Of these, 55.9% were collected during the tillering stage, 42.5% during the transplanting period and 1.6% during the land preparation stage. There was a significant difference in the An. arabiensis larval densities among the five stages. Also there was significant variation in immature stage composition for each day's collection in each paddy. These results indicate that the survival of the immatures was higher in some paddies than others. The mortality rate during the transplanting was 99.9% and at tillering was 96.6%, while the overall mortality was 98.3%.The survival of An. arabiensis immatures was better during the tillering stage of rice growth. Further the survival of immatures in rice fields is influenced by the rice agronomic activities including addition of nitrogenous fertilizers and pesticides. For effective integrated vector management, the application of larvicides should target An. arabiensis larvae at the tillering stage (early vegetative stage of rice) when their survival in the aquatic habitats is high to significantly reduce them and the larvicides should be long-lasting to have a significant impact on the malaria vector productivity on
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