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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 160113 matches for " Joseph H. Graziano "
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Impact on arsenic exposure of a growing proportion of untested wells in Bangladesh
Christine George, Joseph H Graziano, Jacob L Mey, Alexander van Geen
Environmental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-11-7
Abstract: A household drinking water survey of 6646 households was conducted in Singair upazilla of Bangladesh. A subset of 795 untested wells used by 1000 randomly selected households was tested in the field by trained village workers with the Hach EZ kit, using an extended reaction time of 40 min, and in the laboratory by high-resolution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS).The household survey shows that more than 80% of the wells installed since the national testing campaign in this area were untested. Less than 13% of the households with untested wells knew where a low-As well was located near their home. Village workers using the Hach EZ kit underestimated the As content of only 4 out of 795 wells relative to the Bangladesh standard. However, the As content of 168 wells was overestimated relative to the same threshold.There is a growing need for testing tubewells in areas of Bangladesh where As concentrations in groundwater are elevated. This could be achieved by village workers trained to use a reliable field kit. Such an effort would result in a considerable drop in As exposure as it increases the opportunities for well switching by households.Elevated exposure to inorganic arsenic (As) is associated with cancers of the skin, bladder, and lung [1-3], reproductive and developmental effects [4,5], cardiovascular disease [6,7], and skin lesions [8,9]. In Bangladesh, millions of people are exposed to naturally occurring As concentrations that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline of 10 μg/L [10]. During the 1970s, the United Nations Children's Fund, through the government of Bangladesh, promoted the installation of tubewells to reduce risks from drinking microbial contaminated surface water [11]. In the early 1990s, evidence began to emerge that Bangladeshi villagers were presenting signs of arsenicosis due to the consumption of well water with elevated levels of As [12]. An As testing campaign relying on field kits and targeting 5 milli
Influence of Prenatal Arsenic Exposure and Newborn Sex on Global Methylation of Cord Blood DNA
J. Richard Pilsner, Megan N. Hall, Xinhua Liu, Vesna Ilievski, Vesna Slavkovich, Diane Levy, Pam Factor-Litvak, Mahammad Yunus, Mahfuzar Rahman, Joseph H. Graziano, Mary V. Gamble
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037147
Abstract: Background An emerging body of evidence indicates that early-life arsenic (As) exposure may influence the trajectory of health outcomes later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying these observations are unknown. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of prenatal As exposure on global methylation of cord blood DNA in a study of mother/newborn pairs in Matlab, Bangladesh. Design Maternal and cord blood DNA were available from a convenience sample of 101 mother/newborn pairs. Measures of As exposure included maternal urinary As (uAs), maternal blood As (mbAs) and cord blood As (cbAs). Several measures of global DNA methylation were assessed, including the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay and three Pyrosequencing assays: Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA. Results In the total sample, increasing quartiles of maternal uAs were associated with an increase in covariate-adjusted means of newborn global DNA methylation as measured by the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay (quartile 1 (Q1) and Q2 vs. Q4; p = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively). Sex-specific linear regression analyses, while not reaching significance level of 0.05, indicated that the associations between As exposures and Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA were positive among male newborns (N = 58) but negative among female newborns (N = 43); tests for sex differences were borderline significant for the association of cbAs and mbAs with Alu (p = 0.05 and 0.09, respectively) and for the association between maternal uAs and LINE-1 (p = 0.07). Sex-specific correlations between maternal urinary creatinine and newborn methyl-incorporation, Alu and LINE-1 were also evident (p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that prenatal As exposure is associated with global DNA methylation in cord blood DNA, possibly in a sex-specific manner. Arsenic-induced epigenetic modifications in utero may potentially influence disease outcomes later in life. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the persistence of DNA methylation marks over time.
Identification and Interpretation of Longitudinal Gene Expression Changes in Trauma
Natasa Rajicic,Joseph Cuschieri,Dianne M. Finkelstein,Carol L. Miller-Graziano,Douglas Hayden,Lyle L. Moldawer,Ernest Moore,Grant O'Keefe,Kimberly Pelik,H. Shaw Warren,David A. Schoenfeld
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014380
Abstract: The relationship between leukocyte gene expression and recovery of respiratory function after injury may provide information on the etiology of multiple organ dysfunction.
Urinary and Dietary Analysis of 18,470 Bangladeshis Reveal a Correlation of Rice Consumption with Arsenic Exposure and Toxicity
Stephanie Melkonian, Maria Argos, Megan N. Hall, Yu Chen, Faruque Parvez, Brandon Pierce, Hongyuan Cao, Briseis Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Alauddin Ahmed, Tariqul Islam, Vesna Slavcovich, Mary Gamble, Parvez I. Haris, Joseph H. Graziano, Habibul Ahsan
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080691
Abstract: Background We utilized data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to evaluate the association of steamed rice consumption with urinary total arsenic concentration and arsenical skin lesions in the overall study cohort (N=18,470) and in a subset with available urinary arsenic metabolite data (N=4,517). Methods General linear models with standardized beta coefficients were used to estimate associations between steamed rice consumption and urinary total arsenic concentration and urinary arsenic metabolites. Logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between rice intake and prevalent skin lesions at baseline. Discrete time hazard models were used to estimate discrete time (HRs) ratios and their 95% CIs for the associations between rice intake and incident skin lesions. Results Steamed rice consumption was positively associated with creatinine-adjusted urinary total arsenic (β=0.041, 95% CI: 0.032-0.051) and urinary total arsenic with statistical adjustment for creatinine in the model (β=0.043, 95% CI: 0.032-0.053). Additionally, we observed a significant trend in skin lesion prevalence (P-trend=0.007) and a moderate trend in skin lesion incidence (P-trend=0.07) associated with increased intake of steamed rice. Conclusions This study suggests that rice intake may be a source of arsenic exposure beyond drinking water.
Promotion of well-switching to mitigate the current arsenic crisis in Bangladesh
van Geen,Alexander; Ahsan,Habibul; Horneman,Allan H.; Dhar,Ratan K.; Zheng,Yan; Hussain,Iftikhhar; Ahmed,Kazi Matin; Gelman,Andrew; Stute,Martin; Simpson,H. James; Wallace,Sean; Small,Christopher; Parvez,Faruque; Slavkovich,Vesna; LoIacono,Nancy J.; Becker,Marck; Cheng,Zhongqi; Momotaj,Hassina; Shahnewaz,Mohammad; Seddique,Ashraf Ali; Graziano,Joseph H.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862002000900010
Abstract: objective: to survey tube wells and households in araihazar upazila, bangladesh, to set the stage for a long-term epidemiological study of the consequences of chronic arsenic exposure. methods: water samples and household data were collected over a period of 4 months in 2000 from 4997 contiguous tube wells serving a population of 55 000, the position of each well being determined to within ± 30 m using global positioning system receivers. arsenic concentrations were determined by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. in addition, groundwater samples collected every 2 weeks for an entire year from six tube wells were analysed for arsenic by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. findings: half of the wells surveyed in araihazar had been installed in the previous 5 years; 94% were privately owned. only about 48% of the surveyed wells supplied water with an arsenic content below 50 mg/l, the current bangladesh standard for drinking-water. similar to other regions of bangladesh and west bengal, india, the distribution of arsenic in araihazar is spatially highly variable (range: 5-860 mg/l) and therefore difficult to predict. because of this variability, however, close to 90% of the inhabitants live within 100 m of a safe well. monitoring of six tube wells currently meeting the 50 mg/l standard showed no indication of a seasonal cycle in arsenic concentrations coupled to the hydrological cycle. this suggests that well-switching is a viable option in araihazar, at least for the short term. conclusions: well-switching should be more systematically encouraged in araihazar and many other parts of bangladesh and west bengal, india. social barriers to well-switching need to be better understood and, if possible, overcome.
Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Chromosome 10q24.32 Variants Associated with Arsenic Metabolism and Toxicity Phenotypes in Bangladesh
Brandon L. Pierce,Muhammad G. Kibriya,Lin Tong,Farzana Jasmine,Maria Argos,Shantanu Roy,Rachelle Paul-Brutus,Ronald Rahaman,Muhammad Rakibuz-Zaman,Faruque Parvez,Alauddin Ahmed,Iftekhar Quasem,Samar K. Hore,Shafiul Alam,Tariqul Islam,Vesna Slavkovich,Mary V. Gamble,Md Yunus,Mahfuzar Rahman,John A. Baron,Joseph H. Graziano,Habibul Ahsan
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002522
Abstract: Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a major public health issue in many countries, increasing risk for a wide array of diseases, including cancer. There is inter-individual variation in arsenic metabolism efficiency and susceptibility to arsenic toxicity; however, the basis of this variation is not well understood. Here, we have performed the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of arsenic-related metabolism and toxicity phenotypes to improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which arsenic affects health. Using data on urinary arsenic metabolite concentrations and approximately 300,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 1,313 arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi individuals, we identified genome-wide significant association signals (P<5×10?8) for percentages of both monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) near the AS3MT gene (arsenite methyltransferase; 10q24.32), with five genetic variants showing independent associations. In a follow-up analysis of 1,085 individuals with arsenic-induced premalignant skin lesions (the classical sign of arsenic toxicity) and 1,794 controls, we show that one of these five variants (rs9527) is also associated with skin lesion risk (P = 0.0005). Using a subset of individuals with prospectively measured arsenic (n = 769), we show that rs9527 interacts with arsenic to influence incident skin lesion risk (P = 0.01). Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses of genome-wide expression data from 950 individual's lymphocyte RNA suggest that several of our lead SNPs represent cis-eQTLs for AS3MT (P = 10?12) and neighboring gene C10orf32 (P = 10?44), which are involved in C10orf32-AS3MT read-through transcription. This is the largest and most comprehensive genomic investigation of arsenic metabolism and toxicity to date, the only GWAS of any arsenic-related trait, and the first study to implicate 10q24.32 variants in both arsenic metabolism and arsenical skin lesion risk. The observed patterns of associations suggest that MMA% and DMA% have distinct genetic determinants and support the hypothesis that DMA is the less toxic of these two methylated arsenic species. These results have potential translational implications for the prevention and treatment of arsenic-associated toxicities worldwide.
Multicriteria Partial Cooperative Games  [PDF]
Graziano Pieri, Lucia Pusillo
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.612186
Abstract: In this paper, we study an approach to environmental topics, through multicriteria partial cooperative games. In general, not all players wish to cooperate to solve a common problem, so we consider a model where only some decision-makers cooperate. Starting from the transformation of a coalition game into a strategic one, we give a new concept of solution for partial cooperative models proving an existence theorem.
Multimessenger Astronomy and Astrophysics Synergies
Maurice H. P. M. van Putten,Graziano Rossi
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: A budget neutral strategy is proposed for NSF to lead the implementation of multimessenger astronomy and astrophysics, as outlined in the Astro2010 Decadal Survey. The emerging capabilities for simultaneous measurements of physical and astronomical data through the different windows of electromagnetic, hadronic and gravitational radiation processes call for a vigorous pursuit of new synergies. The proposed approach is aimed at the formation of new collaborations and multimessenger data-analysis, to transcend the scientific inquiries made within a single window of observations. In view of budgetary constraints, we propose to include the multimessenger dimension in the ranking of proposals submitted under existing NSF programs.
An Application for Screening Gradual-Onset Age-Related Hearing Loss  [PDF]
Wayne M. Garrison, Joseph H. Bochner
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.94051
Abstract:
Objective: Less than 15% of adults in the USA over age 70 receive hearing screening; less than 20% of adults with hearing loss receive any form of treatment. Reasons vary, but affordability and accessibility are major barriers to intervention and treatment. This study provides data supporting a new adult hearing screening measure (NSRT) that is self-administered, easy to use and focused on difficulties experienced in everyday speech communication. Methods: The NSRT test materials are sentence-length utterances containing phonetic contrasts. The test requires respondents to determine whether sentences printed on a computer monitor are the same/different from sentences delivered as auditory stimuli through the computer sound card. The test is administered in quiet and +5 dB SNR background noise. Study participants were 120 adults aged 18 - 88 years. Results: Data obtained from the NSRT testing experience are used to construct a pseudo audiogram. When the predicted hearing thresholds were compared with conventional, clinical puretone measures, the sensitivity and specificity of the NSRT screening measure were 95% and 87%, respectively; diagnostic accuracy was 91%. Conclusions: The NSRT can identify individuals with hearing loss through a simple screening process grounded in standards set by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. The NSRT is suitable for administration in clinical and nonclinical settings.
Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress
Graziano Riccioni
Marine Drugs , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/md10010116
Abstract: Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the etiology of many diseases. Dietary phytochemical products, such as bioactive food components and marine carotenoids (asthaxantin, lutein, β-carotene, fucoxanthin), have shown an antioxidant effect in reducing oxidative markers stress. Scientific evidence supports the beneficial role of phytochemicals in the prevention of some chronic diseases. Many carotenoids with high antioxidant properties have shown a reduction in disease risk both in epidemiological studies and supplementation human trials. However, controlled clinical trials and dietary intervention studies using well-defined subjects population have not provided clear evidence of these substances in the prevention of diseases. The most important aspects of this special issue will cover the synthesis, biological activities, and clinical applications of marine carotenoids, with particular attention to recent evidence?regarding anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in the prevention of cardiovascular?disease.
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