Abstract:
The relation between entanglement entropy and the computational difficulty of classically simulating Quantum Mechanics is briefly reviewed. Matrix product states are proven to provide an efficient representation of one-dimensional quantum systems. Further applications of the techniques based on matrix product states, some of their spin-off and their recent generalizations to scale invariant theories and higher dimensions systems are also discussed.

Abstract:
The pixel values of an image can be casted into a real ket of a Hilbert space using an appropriate block structured addressing. The resulting state can then be rewritten in terms of its matrix product state representation in such a way that quantum entanglement corresponds to classical correlations between different coarse-grained textures. A truncation of the MPS representation is tantamount to a compression of the original image. The resulting algorithm can be improved adding a discrete Fourier transform preprocessing and a further entropic lossless compression.

Abstract:
We analyze the ground state entanglement in a quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm designed to solve the NP-complete Exact Cover problem. The entropy of entanglement seems to obey linear and universal scaling at the point where the mass gap becomes small, suggesting that the system passes near a quantum phase transition. Such a large scaling of entanglement suggests that the effective connectivity of the system diverges as the number of qubits goes to infinity and that this algorithm cannot be efficiently simulated by classical means. On the other hand, entanglement in Grover's algorithm is bounded by a constant.

Abstract:
We present a line of reasoning based on the analysis of scale variations of the Wilsonian partition function and the trace of the stress tensor in a curved manifold which results in a statement of irreversibility of Wilsonian renormalization group flow for unitary theories. We also analyze subtleties related to subtractions in the case of the 1PI effective action flow.

Abstract:
We study the universality of scaling of entanglement in Shor's factoring algorithm and in adiabatic quantum algorithms across a quantum phase transition for both the NP-complete Exact Cover problem as well as the Grover's problem. The analytic result for Shor's algorithm shows a linear scaling of the entropy in terms of the number of qubits, therefore difficulting the possibility of an efficient classical simulation protocol. A similar result is obtained numerically for the quantum adiabatic evolution Exact Cover algorithm, which also shows universality of the quantum phase transition the system evolves nearby. On the other hand, entanglement in Grover's adiabatic algorithm remains a bounded quantity even at the critical point. A classification of scaling of entanglement appears as a natural grading of the computational complexity of simulating quantum phase transitions.

Abstract:
We extend the method of differential renormalization to massive quantum field theories treating in particular $\ph4$-theory and QED. As in the massless case, the method proves to be simple and powerful, and we are able to find, in particular, compact explicit coordinate space expressions for the finite parts of two notably complicated diagrams, namely, the 2-loop 2-point function in $\ph4$ and the 1-loop vertex in QED.

Abstract:
There exists a remarkable four-qutrit state that carries absolute maximal entanglement in all its partitions. Employing this state, we construct a tensor network that delivers a holographic many body state, the H-code, where the physical properties of the boundary determine those of the bulk. This H-code is made of an even superposition of states whose relative Hamming distances are exponentially large with the size of the boundary. This property makes H-codes natural states for a quantum memory. H-codes exist on tori of definite sizes and get classified in three different sectors characterized by the sum of their qutrits on cycles wrapped through the boundaries of the system. We construct a parent Hamiltonian for the H-code which is highly non local and finally we compute the topological entanglement entropy of the H-code.

Abstract:
We present a proof of the irreversibility of renormalization group flows, i.e. the c-theorem for unitary, renormalizable theories in four (or generally even) dimensions. Using Ward identities for scale transformations and spectral representation arguments, we show that the c-function based on the trace of the energy-momentum tensor (originally suggested by Cardy) decreases monotonically along renormalization group trajectories. At fixed points this c-function is stationary and coincides with the coefficient of the Euler density in the trace anomaly, while away from fixed points its decrease is due to the decoupling of positive--norm massive modes.

Abstract:
We propose a quantum circuit that creates a pure state corresponding to the quantum superposition of all prime numbers less than 2^n, where n is the number of qubits of the register. This Prime state can be built using Grover's algorithm, whose oracle is a quantum implementation of the classical Miller-Rabin primality test. The Prime state is highly entangled, and its entanglement measures encode number theoretical functions such as the distribution of twin primes or the Chebyshev bias. This algorithm can be further combined with the quantum Fourier transform to yield an estimate of the prime counting function, more efficiently than any classical algorithm and with an error below the bound that allows for the verification of the Riemann hypothesis. We also propose a Twin Prime state to measure the number of twin primes and another state to test the Goldbach conjecture. Arithmetic properties of prime numbers are then, in principle, amenable to experimental verifications on quantum systems.

Abstract:
We develop a coordinate space renormalization of massless Quantum Electrodynamics using the powerful method of differential renormalization. Bare one-loop amplitudes are finite at non-coincident external points, but do not accept a Fourier transform into momentum space. The method provides a systematic procedure to obtain one-loop renormalized amplitudes with finite Fourier transforms in strictly four dimensions without the appearance of integrals or the use of a regulator. Higher loops are solved similarly by renormalizing from the inner singularities outwards to the global one. We compute all 1- and 2-loop 1PI diagrams, run renormalization group equations on them and check Ward identities. The method furthermore allows us to discern a particular pattern of renormalization under which certain amplitudes are seen not to contain higher-loop leading logarithms. We finally present the computation of the chiral triangle showing that differential renormalization emerges as a natural scheme to tackle $\gamma_5$ problems.