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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 70038 matches for " José Salazar-Fraile "
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The switch from conventional to atypical antipsychotic treatment should not be based exclusively on the presence of cognitive deficits. A pilot study in individuals with schizophrenia
Gabriel Selva-Vera, Vicent Balanzá-Martínez, José Salazar-Fraile, José Sánchez-Moreno, Anabel Martinez-Aran, Patricia Correa, Eduard Vieta, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos
BMC Psychiatry , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-10-47
Abstract: In this naturalistic study, we used a comprehensive neuropsychological battery of tests to assess a sample of schizophrenia patients taking either conventional (n = 13) or novel antipsychotics (n = 26) at baseline and at two years after.Continuous antipsychotic treatment regardless of class was associated with improvement on verbal fluency, executive functions, and visual and verbal memory. Patients taking atypical antipsychotics did not show greater cognitive enhancement over two years than patients taking conventional antipsychotics.Although long-term antipsychotic treatment slightly improved cognitive function, the switch from conventional to atypical antipsychotic treatment should not be based exclusively on the presence of these cognitive deficits.Cognitive disturbances are a core feature of schizophrenia and have been extensively studied in recent years [1]. Cognitive impairment is present before the onset of the illness [2] and is also found in healthy relatives of patients, although to a lesser degree [3]. In addition, this feature is not exclusively secondary to psychiatric symptoms or medication [4]. Cognitive impairment is a better predictor of future functional outcomes compared with positive symptoms [5-7].The positive action of conventional antipsychotics drugs (APDs) on cognition is considered mild or moderate [8] and is limited to certain cognitive domains such as sustained attention [9,10].Regarding novel antipsychotics, this supposed cognitive enhancement would be mediated by their capability to raise the level of dopamine and acetylcholine in prefrontal regions [11]. However, their different affinity for brain receptors may result in different procognitive profiles of each class of antipsychotics. Many studies support a cognitive enhancement of the different atypical antipsychotics: quetiapine and olanzapine [12], quetiapine and risperidone [13], ziprasidone and olanzapine [14]; olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone [15], risperidone and quetiap
Motor speed predicts stability of cognitive deficits in both schizophrenic and bipolar I patients at one-year follow-up
J. Salazar-Fraile,V. Balanzá-Martínez,G. Selva-Vera,A. Martínez-Aran
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2009,
Abstract: Background: We examined whether motor speed assessed by the finger tapping test predicts generalized and specific stable deficits because of a common pathogenic process in bipolar and schizophrenic patients. Methods: One hundred and two patients underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests. Patients with a score of less than one standard deviation from their siblings', sample in two assessments with an interval of one year were defined as suffering from stable deficits because of a common pathogenic process. In addition to univariate analyses, factor analyses, ordinal logistic regression, and multiple linear regressions were used. A general score was also calculated. Results: No differences were found between schizophrenic and bipolar patients in the deficits of verbal fluency, shift reasoning ability and executive attention. Schizophrenic patients had greater persistent cognitive deficit because of a common pathogenic factor in the verbal memory dimension than bipolar patients. Motor speed predicted the specific deficits of verbal fluency, shift reasoning, executive attention and the general deficit of both bipolar I and schizophrenic patients. Bipolar patients suffered a lesser specific deficit in the verbal memory dimension than schizophrenic patients did, this domain not being predicted by motor speed. Motor speed predicted the generalized deficit and the specific dimensions in which schizophrenic and bipolar patients showed no differences. Conclusions: These results suggest the presence of general and specific stable cognitive deficits because of a common pathogenic factor related to psychomotor slowness. Motor speed seems to be suitable endophenocognitype for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Motor speed predicts stability of cognitive deficits in both schizophrenic and bipolar I patients at one-year follow-up
Salazar-Fraile,J.; Balanzá-Martínez,V.; Selva-Vera,G.; Martínez-Aran,A.; Sánchez-Moreno,J.; Rubio,C.; Vieta,E.; Gómez-Beneyto,M.; Tabarés-Seisdedos,R.;
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2009, DOI: 10.4321/S0213-61632009000300007
Abstract: background: we examined whether motor speed assessed by the finger tapping test predicts generalized and specific stable deficits because of a common pathogenic process in bipolar and schizophrenic patients. methods: one hundred and two patients underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests. patients with a score of less than one standard deviation from their siblings', sample in two assessments with an interval of one year were defined as suffering from stable deficits because of a common pathogenic process. in addition to univariate analyses, factor analyses, ordinal logistic regression, and multiple linear regressions were used. a general score was also calculated. results: no differences were found between schizophrenic and bipolar patients in the deficits of verbal fluency, shift reasoning ability and executive attention. schizophrenic patients had greater persistent cognitive deficit because of a common pathogenic factor in the verbal memory dimension than bipolar patients. motor speed predicted the specific deficits of verbal fluency, shift reasoning, executive attention and the general deficit of both bipolar i and schizophrenic patients. bipolar patients suffered a lesser specific deficit in the verbal memory dimension than schizophrenic patients did, this domain not being predicted by motor speed. motor speed predicted the generalized deficit and the specific dimensions in which schizophrenic and bipolar patients showed no differences. conclusions: these results suggest the presence of general and specific stable cognitive deficits because of a common pathogenic factor related to psychomotor slowness. motor speed seems to be suitable endophenocognitype for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Peleles y coplas del Carnaval madrile o
Fraile Gil, José Manuel
Revista de Dialectología y Tradiciones Populares , 2007,
Abstract: In the early 1800’s, the old custom of hoisting people and dogs in the air by means of blankets turned into an expression of Carnival, developed chiefly by women. Strawmade effigies, known as peleles, were in every case representations of men whom women, while singing, would revile with all kinds of invectives. The custom lasted until well into the 1900’s, especially in Madrid and the southern towns within its province. La vieja costumbre de mantear seres humanos y perros se transformó a comienzos del siglo XVIII en una manifestación del Carnaval desarrollada fundamentalmente por mujeres. Los mu ecos de paja, llamados peleles, representaban siempre la figura de un hombre, a quien las mujeres dirigían todo tipo de injurias por medio del canto. La costumbre pervivió especialmente en Madrid y los pueblos más meridionales de su provincia hasta bien mediado el siglo XX.
La indumentaria sefardí en el Norte de Marruecos. El tocado y la ropa de cada día
Fraile Gil, José Manuel
Revista de Dialectología y Tradiciones Populares , 2004,
Abstract: When the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, many of them crossed the straits of Gibraltar to live under the protection of the Sultan of Morocco, whose court, at the time, was in Fez. The existing North African Jewish population —of Arabic and Berber language and culture— increased by the arrival of the Sephardic Jews who kept Spanish as their conversational language as well as many customs originating in the Iberian peninsular. The clothing of this group had a particular character due partly to its development from Hispanic roots before the expulsion and partly to its gradual evolution amidst the surrounding Arabic influence and the strict Muslim laws compelling the men to always dress in black. Cuando en 1492 los judíos fueron expulsados de Espa a, cruzaron muchos el Estrecho de Gibraltar para colocarse bajo el amparo del sultán de Marruecos, que tenía entonces su corte en Fez. A la población judía existente ya en el Norte de áfrica —de lengua y cultura árabe o beréber— se a adió entonces el grupo de los sefardíes, que conservaron el espa ol como lengua coloquial y muchos usos y costumbres de origen peninsular. La indumentaria de este grupo tuvo un carácter propio que debió formarse a partir del sustrato hispánico anterior a la expulsión, y que fue modificándose lentamente por la influencia del entorno árabe y por la severa legislación musulmana que obligaba a estos hombres a vestir siempre de negro.
Desarrollo psicomotor en protesis fijas
Salazar,José Rafael;
Acta Odontológica Venezolana , 2007,
Abstract: abstrat the preclinical in dentistry, whose strategy is of laboratry for the learning of motor skills, is based on the? concep of flexner, sustained in taxonomie of bloom, cal describes the selection of classified situations of learning in cognoscitivas, affective areas and psicomotor, being these you complete those that include motor abilities or skills. they have seted out different taxonomies for development motor in dentistry, from some simplified, with maniquies, to teeth seeded, drawings, to the computerized ones, virtual, at a distance. the revision of the curricula to establish advance position of the preclinical is indispensable, which cold be based on the concept of applied clinical
Métodos de separación gingival en protesis fija
Salazar,José Rafael;
Acta Odontológica Venezolana , 2007,
Abstract: the gingival retraction consists of separation of gingival woven with the purpose of provide an space in lateral sense as much as vertical, between gingival margin and the gingival source in that way the impression material can count with sufficient space to obtain the exact copied over the preparation. gingival retraction is described. for this procedure has been described different methods and in all of them a control of the gingivals fluids, without causing damage of periodontals weaves must be consider.
Las facetas del cambio no estan lejos del entorno cotidiano
Salazar Barquero,José Miguel;
Revistas de Ciencias Administrativas y Financieras de la Seguridad Social , 1997,
Abstract: este artículo centra su interés en las distintas facetas del cambio en las que están inmersas las organizaciones modernas. de manera gradual se han ido sintiendo las influencias y repercusiones del cambio, por lo que es del interés de muchos profesionales el conocer y reflexionar sobre las nuevas orientaciones en ese campo. con la globalización, los mercados se tornaron más abiertos y agresivos, por lo que es imperativo crear consciencia en las instituciones de servicio de la relevancia y del rumbo seguido, en particular en la cultura de atención al cliente, como sinónimo de apertura y aprendizaje. las transnacionales destinan significativas sumas e sus presupuestos para el estudio del comportamiento de los mercados, pero en particular en las nuevas orientaciones del servicio al cliente, ?por qué ese proceder?, ?hacia dónde quieren ir? ?qué podemos aprender de ello e incorporarlo en nuestro desarrollo profesional? de ahí el interés, de muchas empresas, por la motivación y la capacitación de su personal, con el claro convencimiento de redoblar esfuerzos para ofrecer excelencia a sus clientes. no cabe, necesitamos mirar con nuevos ojos el entorno para duda desmenuzar la realidad en la que estamos inmersos. la actual orientación se centra en la continua capacitación, estamos obligados en saber en qué dirección se perfilan los recursos humanos; que rumbo sigue en la economía mundial y sus posibles repercusiones. las fronteras perdieron sus limites. debemos estar abiertos al cambio, con una enorme capacidad de innovar para ofrecer nuevos servicios en un mercado cada día más voraz. ?qué hacer?, es la impostergable pregunta que debemos formularnos si estamos interesados en el cambio: que no está lejos de nuestro entorno.
Desarrollo psicomotor en protesis fijas
José Rafael Salazar
Acta Odontológica Venezolana , 2007,
Abstract: RESUMEN La preclínica en Odontología, cuya estrategia es de laboratorio para el aprendizaje de destrezas motoras, se basa en el concepto del modelo Flexner, sustentado en la taxonomía de Bloom, la cual describe la selección de las situaciones de aprendizaje clasificadas en áreas cognoscitivas, afectivas y psicomotoras, siendo estas últimas las que incluyen habilidades ó destrezas motoras. Se han propuesto distintas taxonomías para el desarrollo psicomotor en Odontología, desde algunas simplificadas, con maniquíes, con dientes sembrados, con dibujo, hasta la computarizada, virtual, a distancia. Es indispensable la revisión de los planes de estudio en Odontología para establecer una posición de avanzada en la preclínica, la cual pudiera estar dada en el concepto de la clínica aplicada ABSTRAT The preclinical in dentistry, whose strategy is of laboratry for the learning of motor skills, is based on the concep of Flexner, sustained in taxonomie of Bloom, cal describes the selection of classified situations of learning in cognoscitivas, affective areas and psicomotor, being these you complete those that include motor abilities or skills. They have seted out different taxonomies for development motor in dentistry, from some simplified, with maniquies, to teeth seeded, drawings, to the computerized ones, virtual, at a distance. The revision of the curricula to establish advance position of the preclinical is indispensable, which cold be based on the concept of applied clinical
Métodos de separación gingival en protesis fija
José Rafael Salazar
Acta Odontológica Venezolana , 2007,
Abstract: La separación gingival consiste en la retracción de este tejido con la finalidad de proporcionar un espacio tanto en sentido lateral como vertical entre el margen gingival y la terminación gingival de manera tal que el material de impresión penetre en suficiente cantidad para obtener el copiado exacto de la preparación. Se le describe también con el nombre de Retracción Gingival, siendo ambos empleados dentro de la literatura. Para la realización de este procedimiento han sido descritos diferentes métodos y en todos debe existir un control de los fluidos gingivales sin ocasionar perjuicio de los tejidos periodontales. The gingival retraction consists of separation of gingival woven with the purpose of provide an space in lateral sense as much as vertical, between gingival margin and the gingival source in that way the impression material can count with sufficient space to obtain the exact copied over the preparation. Gingival Retraction is described. For this procedure has been described different methods and in all of them a control of the gingivals fluids, without causing damage of periodontals weaves must be consider.
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