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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 606920 matches for " Jos P. M. van Putten "
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Basolateral Invasion and Trafficking of Campylobacter jejuni in Polarized Epithelial Cells
Lieneke I. Bouwman, Paula Niewold, Jos P. M. van Putten
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054759
Abstract: Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial diarrheal disease. Most enteropathogenic bacteria including C. jejuni can invade cultured eukaryotic cells via an actin- and/or microtubule-dependent and an energy-consuming uptake process. Recently, we identified a novel highly efficient C. jejuni invasion pathway that involves bacterial migration into the subcellular space of non-polarized epithelial cells (termed subvasion) followed by invasion from the cell basis. Here we report cellular requirements of this entry mechanism and the subsequent intracellular trafficking route of C. jejuni in polarized islands of Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Advanced microscopy on infected cells revealed that C. jejuni invades the polarized intestinal cells via the subcellular invasion pathway. Remarkably, invasion was not blocked by the inhibitors of microtubule dynamics colchicine or paclitaxel, and was even enhanced after disruption of host cell actin filaments by cytochalasin D. Invasion also continued after dinitrophenol-induced cellular depletion of ATP, whereas this compound effectively inhibited the uptake of invasive Escherichia coli. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that intracellular C. jejuni resided in membrane-bound CD63-positive cellular compartments for up to 24 h. Establishment of a novel luciferase reporter-based bacterial viability assay, developed to overcome the limitations of the classical bacterial recovery assay, demonstrated that a subset of C. jejuni survived intracellularly for up to 48 h. Taken together, our results indicate that C. jejuni is able to actively invade polarized intestinal epithelial cells via a novel actin- and microtubule-independent mechanism and remains metabolically active in the intracellular niche for up to 48 hours.
Asymptotic Harmonic Behavior in the Prime Number Distribution  [PDF]
Maurice H. P. M. van Putten
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.516244
Abstract: We consider \"\" on x > 0, where the sum is over all primes p. If Φ is bounded on x > 0, then the Riemann hypothesis is true or there are infinitely many zeros \"\". The first 21 zeros give rise to asymptotic harmonic behavior in Φ(x) defined by the prime numbers up to one trillion.
Lgt Processing Is an Essential Step in Streptococcus suis Lipoprotein Mediated Innate Immune Activation
Paul J. Wichgers Schreur, Johanna M. J. Rebel, Mari A. Smits, Jos P. M. van Putten, Hilde E. Smith
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022299
Abstract: Background Streptococcus suis causes invasive infections in pigs and occasionally in humans. The host innate immune system plays a major role in counteracting S. suis infections. The main components of S. suis able to activate the innate immune system likely include cell wall constituents that may be released during growth or after cell wall integrity loss, however characterization of these components is still limited. Methology/Principal Findings A concentrated very potent innate immunity activating supernatant of penicillin-treated S. suis was SDS-PAGE fractionated and tested for porcine peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) stimulating activity using cytokine gene transcript analysis. More than half of the 24 tested fractions increased IL-1β and IL-8 cytokine gene transcript levels in porcine PBMCs. Mass spectrometry of the active fractions indicated 24 proteins including 9 lipoproteins. Genetic inactivation of a putative prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (Lgt) gene resulted in deficient lipoprotein synthesis as evidenced by palmitate labeling. The Lgt mutant showed strongly reduced activation of porcine PBMCs, indicating that lipoproteins are dominant porcine PBMC activating molecules of S. suis. Conclusion/Significance This study for the first time identifies and characterizes lipoproteins of S. suis as major activators of the innate immune system of the pig. In addition, we provide evidence that Lgt processing of lipoproteins is required for lipoprotein mediated innate immune activation.
Identification of a Functional Type VI Secretion System in Campylobacter jejuni Conferring Capsule Polysaccharide Sensitive Cytotoxicity
Nancy M. C. Bleumink-Pluym equal contributor,Lieke B. van Alphen equal contributor,Lieneke I. Bouwman,Marc M. S. M. W?sten,Jos P. M. van Putten
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003393
Abstract: The pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the principal cause of bacterial food-borne infections. The mechanism(s) that contribute to bacterial survival and disease are still poorly understood. In other bacterial species, type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are increasingly recognized to contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by toxic effects on host cells or competing bacterial species. Here we report the presence of a functional Type VI secretion system in C. jejuni. Proteome and genetic analyses revealed that C. jejuni strain 108 contains a 17-kb T6SS gene cluster consisting of 13 T6SS-conserved genes, including the T6SS hallmark genes hcp and vgrG. The cluster lacks an ortholog of the ClpV ATPase considered important for T6SS function. The sequence and organization of the C. jejuni T6SS genes resemble those of the T6SS located on the HHGI1 pathogenicity island of Helicobacter hepaticus. The C. jejuni T6SS is integrated into the earlier acquired Campylobacter integrated element CJIE3 and is present in about 10% of C. jejuni isolates including several isolates derived from patients with the rare clinical feature of C. jejuni bacteremia. Targeted mutagenesis of C. jejuni T6SS genes revealed T6SS-dependent secretion of the Hcp needle protein into the culture supernatant. Infection assays provided evidence that the C. jejuni T6SS confers contact-dependent cytotoxicity towards red blood cells but not macrophages. This trait was observed only in a capsule-deficient bacterial phenotype. The unique C. jejuni T6SS phenotype of capsule-sensitive contact-mediated hemolysis represents a novel evolutionary pathway of T6SS in bacteria and expands the repertoire of virulence properties associated with T6SS.
The Natural Antimicrobial Carvacrol Inhibits Campylobacter jejuni Motility and Infection of Epithelial Cells
Lieke B. van Alphen, Sara A. Burt, Andreas K. J. Veenendaal, Nancy M. C. Bleumink-Pluym, Jos P. M. van Putten
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045343
Abstract: Background Natural compounds with anti-microbial properties are attractive reagents to reduce the use of conventional antibiotics. Carvacrol, the main constituent of oregano oil, inhibits the growth of a variety of bacterial foodborne pathogens. As concentrations of carvacrol may vary in vivo or when used in animal feed, we here investigated the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of the compound on major virulence traits of the principal bacterial foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Methods/Principal Findings Motility assays revealed that subinhibitory concentrations of carvacrol inhibited the motility of C. jejuni without affecting bacterial growth. Immunoblotting and electron microscopy showed that carvacrol-treated C. jejuni still expressed flagella. The loss of motility was not caused by reduced intracellular ATP levels. In vitro infection assays demonstrated that subinhibitory concentrations of carvacrol also abolished C. jejuni invasion of human epithelial cells. Bacterial uptake of invasive Escherichia coli was not blocked by carvacrol. Exposure of C. jejuni to carvacrol prior to infection also inhibited cellular infection, indicating that the inhibition of invasion was likely caused by an effect on the bacteria rather than inhibition of epithelial cell function. Conclusions/Significance Bacterial motility and invasion of eukaryotic cells are considered key steps in C. jejuni infection. Our results indicate that subinhibitory concentrations of carvacrol effectively block these virulence traits by interfering with flagella function without disturbing intracellular ATP levels. These results broaden the spectrum of anti-microbial activity of carvacrol and support the potential of the compound for use in novel infection prevention strategies.
Lysozyme Resistance in Streptococcus suis Is Highly Variable and Multifactorial
Paul J. Wichgers Schreur, Christian van Weeghel, Johanna M. J. Rebel, Mari A. Smits, Jos P. M. van Putten, Hilde E. Smith
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036281
Abstract: Background Streptococcus suis is an important infectious agent for pigs and occasionally for humans. The host innate immune system plays a key role in preventing and eliminating S. suis infections. One important constituent of the innate immune system is the protein lysozyme, which is present in a variety of body fluids and immune cells. Lysozyme acts as a peptidoglycan degrading enzyme causing bacterial lysis. Several pathogens have developed mechanisms to evade lysozyme-mediated killing. In the present study we compared the lysozyme sensitivity of various S. suis isolates and investigated the molecular basis of lysozyme resistance for this pathogen. Results The lysozyme minimal inhibitory concentrations of a wide panel of S. suis isolates varied between 0.3 to 10 mg/ml. By inactivating the oatA gene in a serotype 2 and a serotype 9 strain, we showed that OatA-mediated peptidoglycan modification partly contributes to lysozyme resistance. Furthermore, inactivation of the murMN operon provided evidence that additional peptidoglycan crosslinking is not involved in lysozyme resistance in S. suis. Besides a targeted approach, we also used an unbiased approach for identifying factors involved in lysozyme resistance. Based on whole genome comparisons of a lysozyme sensitive strain and selected lysozyme resistant derivatives, we detected several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were correlated with the lysozyme resistance trait. Two SNPs caused defects in protein expression of an autolysin and a capsule sugar transferase. Analysis of specific isogenic mutants, confirmed the involvement of autolysin activity and capsule structures in lysozyme resistance of S. suis. Conclusions This study shows that lysozyme resistance levels are highly variable among S. suis isolates and serotypes. Furthermore, the results show that lysozyme resistance in S. suis can involve different mechanisms including OatA-mediated peptidolycan modification, autolysin activity and capsule production.
Differential Effect of TLR2 and TLR4 on the Immune Response after Immunization with a Vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis or Bordetella pertussis
Floris Fransen,Rachel M. Stenger,Martien C. M. Poelen,Harry H. van Dijken,Betsy Kuipers,Claire J. P. Boog,Jos P. M. van Putten,Cécile A. C. M. van Els,Peter van der Ley
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015692
Abstract: Neisseria meningitidis and Bordetella pertussis are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that can cause serious diseases in humans. N. meningitidis outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines and whole cell pertussis vaccines have been successfully used in humans to control infections with these pathogens. The mechanisms behind their effectiveness are poorly defined. Here we investigated the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 in the induction of immune responses in mice after immunization with these vaccines. Innate and adaptive immune responses were compared between wild type mice and mice deficient in TLR2, TLR4, or TRIF. TRIF-deficient and TLR4-deficient mice showed impaired immunity after immunization. In contrast, immune responses were not lower in TLR2?/? mice but tended even to be higher after immunization. Together our data demonstrate that TLR4 activation contributes to the immunogenicity of the N. meningitidis OMV vaccine and the whole cell pertussis vaccine, but that TLR2 activation is not required.
Naturally Occurring Lipid A Mutants in Neisseria meningitidis from Patients with Invasive Meningococcal Disease Are Associated with Reduced Coagulopathy
Floris Fransen,Sebastiaan G. B. Heckenberg,Hendrik Jan Hamstra,Moniek Feller,Claire J. P. Boog,Jos P. M. van Putten,Diederik van de Beek,Arie van der Ende equal contributor,Peter van der Ley equal contributor
PLOS Pathogens , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000396
Abstract: Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis worldwide. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane, is sensed by mammalian cells through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), resulting in activation of proinflammatory cytokine pathways. TLR4 recognizes the lipid A moiety of the LPS molecule, and the chemical composition of the lipid A determines how well it is recognized by TLR4. N. meningitidis has been reported to produce lipid A with six acyl chains, the optimal number for TLR4 recognition. Indeed, meningococcal sepsis is generally seen as the prototypical endotoxin-mediated disease. In the present study, we screened meningococcal disease isolates from 464 patients for their ability to induce cytokine production in vitro. We found that around 9% of them were dramatically less potent than wild-type strains. Analysis of the lipid A of several of the low-activity strains by mass spectrometry revealed they were penta-acylated, suggesting a mutation in the lpxL1 or lpxL2 genes required for addition of secondary acyl chains. Sequencing of these genes showed that all the low activity strains had mutations that inactivated the lpxL1 gene. In order to see whether lpxL1 mutants might give a different clinical picture, we investigated the clinical correlate of these mutations in a prospective nationwide observational cohort study of adults with meningococcal meningitis. Patients infected with an lpxL1 mutant presented significantly less frequently with rash and had higher thrombocyte counts, consistent with reduced cytokine induction and less activation of tissue-factor mediated coagulopathy. In conclusion, here we report for the first time that a surprisingly large fraction of meningococcal clinical isolates have LPS with underacylated lipid A due to mutations in the lpxL1 gene. The resulting low-activity LPS may have an important role in virulence by aiding the bacteria to evade the innate immune system. Our results provide the first example of a specific mutation in N. meningitidis that can be correlated with the clinical course of meningococcal disease.
Variation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Directs Dendritic Cell–Induced T Helper Responses
Sandra J. van Vliet,Liana Steeghs,Sven C. M. Bruijns,Medi M. Vaezirad,Christian Snijders Blok,Jésus A. Arenas Busto,Marcel Deken,Jos P. M. van Putten,Yvette van Kooyk
PLOS Pathogens , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000625
Abstract: Gonorrhea is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the world. A naturally occurring variation of the terminal carbohydrates on the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) molecule correlates with altered disease states. Here, we investigated the interaction of different stable gonoccocal LOS phenotypes with human dendritic cells and demonstrate that each variant targets a different set of receptors on the dendritic cell, including the C-type lectins MGL and DC-SIGN. Neisseria gonorrhoeae LOS phenotype C constitutes the first bacterial ligand to be described for the human C-type lectin receptor MGL. Both MGL and DC-SIGN are locally expressed at the male and female genital area, the primary site of N. gonorrhoeae infection. We show that targeting of different C-type lectins with the N. gonorrhoeae LOS variants results in alterations in dendritic cell cytokine secretion profiles and the induction of distinct adaptive CD4+ T helper responses. Whereas N. gonorrhoeae variant A with a terminal N-acetylglucosamine on its LOS was recognized by DC-SIGN and induced significantly more IL-10 production, phenotype C, carrying a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine, primarily interacted with MGL and skewed immunity towards the T helper 2 lineage. Together, our results indicate that N. gonorrhoeae LOS variation allows for selective manipulation of dendritic cell function, thereby shifting subsequent immune responses in favor of bacterial survival.
Regulation of Energy Metabolism by the Extracytoplasmic Function (ECF) σ Factors of Arcobacter butzleri
Irati Martinez-Malaxetxebarria, Rudy Muts, Linda van Dijk, Craig T. Parker, William G. Miller, Steven Huynh, Wim Gaastra, Jos P. M. van Putten, Aurora Fernandez-Astorga, Marc M. S. M. W?sten
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044796
Abstract: The extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors are fundamental for bacterial adaptation to distinct environments and for survival under different stress conditions. The emerging pathogen Arcobacter butzleri possesses seven putative pairs of σ/anti-σ factors belonging to the ECF family. Here, we report the identification of the genes regulated by five out of the seven A. butzleri ECF σ factors. Three of the ECF σ factors play an apparent role in transport, energy generation and the maintenance of redox balance. Several genes like the nap, sox and tct genes are regulated by more than one ECF σ factor, indicating that the A. butzleri ECF σ factors form a network of overlapping regulons. In contrast to other eubacteria, these A. butzleri ECF regulons appear to primarily regulate responses to changing environments in order to meet metabolic needs instead of an obvious role in stress adaptation.
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