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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 421 matches for " Joris Vriens "
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Citral Sensing by TRANSient Receptor Potential Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons
Stephanie C. Stotz, Joris Vriens, Derek Martyn, Jon Clardy, David E. Clapham
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002082
Abstract: Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels mediate key aspects of taste, smell, pain, temperature sensation, and pheromone detection. To deepen our understanding of TRP channel physiology, we require more diverse pharmacological tools. Citral, a bioactive component of lemongrass, is commonly used as a taste enhancer, as an odorant in perfumes, and as an insect repellent. Here we report that citral activates TRP channels found in sensory neurons (TRPV1 and TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1), and produces long-lasting inhibition of TRPV1–3 and TRPM8, while transiently blocking TRPV4 and TRPA1. Sustained citral inhibition is independent of internal calcium concentration, but is state-dependent, developing only after TRP channel opening. Citral's actions as a partial agonist are not due to cysteine modification of the channels nor are they a consequence of citral's stereoisoforms. The isolated aldehyde and alcohol cis and trans enantiomers (neral, nerol, geranial, and geraniol) each reproduce citral's actions. In juvenile rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, prolonged citral inhibition of native TRPV1 channels enabled the separation of TRPV2 and TRPV3 currents. We find that TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are present in a high proportion of these neurons (94% respond to 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate), consistent with our immunolabeling experiments and previous in situ hybridization studies. The TRPV1 activation requires residues in transmembrane segments two through four of the voltage-sensor domain, a region previously implicated in capsaicin activation of TRPV1 and analogous menthol activation of TRPM8. Citral's broad spectrum and prolonged sensory inhibition may prove more useful than capsaicin for allodynia, itch, or other types of pain involving superficial sensory nerves and skin.
Turbulent Trajectories: African Migrants on Their Way to the?European Union
Joris Schapendonk
Societies , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/soc2020027
Abstract: Sub-Saharan African migration towards the European Union (EU) belongs to one of the most stigmatized forms of migration of the 21st century. It is strongly characterized by EU’s restrictive migration policies. As a consequence, migrants who are aspiring to reach the EU often undertake fragmented and dangerous journeys to the North. This contribution attempts to gain more empirical insights into these migratory journeys. It is based on a ‘trajectory ethnography’ that combines in-depth interviews with sub-Saharan Africans, who are waiting in Morocco and Turkey to enter the EU, with a longitudinal strategy to follow some of these respondents over longer periods of time. With this longitudinal element I was in particular able to grasp expected steps and unexpected turns in individual migration trajectories. By discussing three main components (the motivation, facilitation and velocity) of journeys, this contribution puts into perspective the unidirectional and often frictionless metaphors of migration—as if migrants move like ‘flows’ and ‘waves’.
Is Faith Rational? A Hermeneutical-Phenomenological Accounting of Faith
Geldhof, Joris
Ars Disputandi : the Online Journal for Philosophy of Religion , 2007,
Wilde Rewound: Time-Travelling with Oscar in Recent Author Fictions
Kirby Joris
Authorship , 2012,
Abstract: In the early 1980s historical figures in general – and writers from the past in particular – entered a kind of Golden Age thanks to fiction. Through various forms of semi-biographical novels and other narratives, they have, from that time forward, been enjoying a pampered life in a new genre called “the author-as-character” (Franssen and Hoenselaars 1999) or “author fictions” (Savu 2009) that reanimate them or conjure them up in a present that constantly seeks to reassert its link with the past. This is particularly true of Oscar Wilde’s life, for his disparate and colourful personality has been time and again re-appropriated in recent fiction. This article focuses on three of these contemporary fictional depictions: an epistolary novel, an epistolary website and a fictional interview, all three dealing with a fictionalised Oscar Wilde conversing with a contemporary author who is also an interviewer in his or her own way and right. Because they are very close to each other in terms of narration (i.e. impersonation and pastiche) and subject, putting words in Wilde’s mouth as though they were his own, The Unauthorized Letters of Oscar Wilde, the website Dialogus, and Coffee with Oscar Wilde, represent three fascinating means of exploring how Oscar’s rebirth as a man and author actually takes place. Among the numerous fictional portraits of Oscar Wilde, I have thus chosen to pay particular attention to the depictions that are well anchored in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries and which do not, therefore, display a narrative that would merely take place during the fin de siècle, with only period-style people in period costume. By contrast, the three portraits are literal time-travelling narratives that endeavour to bridge the gap between past, present and future.
From Transit Migrants to Trading Migrants: Development Opportunities for Nigerians in the Transnational Trade Sector of Istanbul
Joris Schapendonk
Sustainability , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/su5072856
Abstract: This paper critically discusses the relation between human mobility and development. It moves away from conventional migration-development policy discussions that mainly focus on diaspora-like actors, who have established a stable and integrated socio-economic position in the destination countries. Instead, it looks at mobility-development dynamics in the context of less privileged and less integrated migrants; Nigerian migrants who are (or have been) living in transit-like situations in the city of Istanbul (Turkey). Based on in-depth interviews with Nigerian migrants, it analyses migrants’ personal developments in the light of their migration trajectories. The analysis particularly shows how upward social mobility is not so much found in onward migration to Europe, but in getting involved in a different form of mobility; informally arranged transnational trade between Turkey and West Africa. It outlines the diverse roles of migrants in this informal trade sector and elaborates on their relations with fly in/fly out traders originating from Africa. With these empirical insights, I conclude that these migrants do not belong to settled diaspora communities, but nevertheless, act as bridges between “here” and “there” and contribute to the creation of (new) development corridors.
Chronology protection in stationary three-dimensional spacetimes
Joris Raeymaekers
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/JHEP11(2011)024
Abstract: We study chronology protection in stationary, rotationally symmetric spacetimes in 2+1 dimensional gravity, focusing especially on the case of negative cosmological constant. We show that in such spacetimes closed timelike curves must either exist all the way to the boundary or, alternatively, the matter stress tensor must violate the null energy condition in the bulk. We also show that the matter in the closed timelike curve region gives a negative contribution to the conformal weight from the point of view of the dual conformal field theory. We illustrate these properties in a class of examples involving rotating dust in anti-de Sitter space, and comment on the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence to study chronology protection.
Chronology protection in stationary 3D spacetimes
Joris Raeymaekers
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/343/1/012099
Abstract: We address chronology protection in stationary, rotationally symmetric spacetimes in 2+1 dimensional gravity, focusing on the case of negative cosmological constant. We show that, if such spacetimes contain closed timelike curves, they belong to one of the following two classes: (i) bad asymptotics: the boundary itself contains closed timelike curves, or (ii) unphysical stress tensor in the bulk: the matter stress tensor violates the null energy condition. We illustrate these properties in a class of examples involving rotating dust in anti-de Sitter space and comment on the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence to study chronology protection.
A class of nonholonomic kinematic constraints in elasticity
Joris Vankerschaver
Mathematics , 2006, DOI: 10.1088/1751-8113/40/14/010
Abstract: We propose a first example of a simple classical field theory with nonholonomic constraints. Our model is a straightforward modification of a Cosserat rod. Based on a mechanical analogy, we argue that the constraint forces should be modeled in a special way, and we show how such a procedure can be naturally implemented in the framework of geometric field theory. Finally, we derive the equations of motion and we propose a geometric integration scheme for the dynamics of a simplified model.
A periodic representation of the interface for the volume of fluid method
Joris Verschaeve
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We extend the volume of fluid method for the computation of two-phase flow to a higher order accurate method in two dimensions. The interface reconstruction by the PLIC method is thereby replaced by a periodic interface reconstruction. The advection step is reformulated and extended to higher order in order to account for the present interface representation. This periodic interface reconstruction describes the interface in terms of higher order periodic B-splines. Numerical tests verify that the theoretical order of convergence is indeed exhibited by the present method.
The momentum map for nonholonomic field theories with symmetry
Joris Vankerschaver
Mathematics , 2005, DOI: 10.1142/S0219887805000971
Abstract: In this note, we introduce a suitable generalization of the momentum map for nonholonomic field theories and prove a covariant form of the nonholonomic momentum equation. We show that these covariant objects coincide with their counterparts in mechanics by making the transition to the Cauchy formalism.
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