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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1647 matches for " Jordi "
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Climate and Dispersal: Black-Winged Stilts Disperse Further in Dry Springs
Jordi Figuerola
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000539
Abstract: Climate affects the abundance and distribution of many species of wildlife. Nevertheless, the potential effects of climate on dispersive behaviour remain unstudied. Here, I combine data from (i) a long-term Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) monitoring program, (ii) a capture-recapture marking program in Do?ana, and (iii) reports from the Rare Birds Committee in the United Kingdom to analyse at different geographical scales the relationship between climate, survival, philopatry, and dispersive behaviour. Black-winged Stilt populations varied in size in consonance with changes in both the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and local rainfall during the breeding season. Changes in population size are related to changes in philopatry and increases in dispersal beyond the traditional range of the species. The results indicate that climatic conditions influence the dispersive behaviour of individual birds, explaining rapid changes in the local population of this species breeding in unstable Mediterranean wetlands.
Closing the circle of germline and stem cells: the Primordial Stem Cell hypothesis
Jordi Solana
EvoDevo , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2041-9139-4-2
Abstract: Here, based on recent molecular data on germ plasm components, I revise the germline concept. I introduce the concept of primordial stem cells, which are evolutionarily conserved stem cells that carry germ plasm components from the zygote to the germ cells. These cells, delineated by the classic concept of the Weismann barrier, can contribute to different extents to somatic tissues or be present in a rudimentary state. The primordial stem cells are a part of the germline that can drive asexual reproduction.Molecular information on the expression of germ plasm components is needed during early development of non-classic model organisms, with special attention to those capable of undergoing asexual reproduction and regeneration. The cell lineage of germ plasm component-containing cells will also shed light on their position with respect to the Weismann barrier. This information will help in understanding the germline and its associated stem cells across metazoan phylogeny.This revision of the germline concept explains the extensive similarities observed among stem cells and germline cells in a wide variety of animals, and predicts the expression of germ plasm components in many others. The life history of these animals can be simply explained by changes in the extent of self-renewal, proliferation and developmental potential of the primordial stem cells. The inclusion of the primordial stem cells as a part of the germline, therefore, solves many controversies and provides a continuous germline, just as originally envisaged by August Weismann.
Demographics, guidelines, and clinical experience in severe community-acquired pneumonia
Jordi Rello
Critical Care , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/cc7025
Abstract: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute illness with clinical features of lower respiratory tract infection characterized by new radiological shadowing and no other explanation for the illness. CAP is a separate entity from nursing home pneumonia and other health care associated pneumonia. There are many definitions of severe CAP, and the best way to define severity is controversial. Pragmatically, severe CAP can be defined as disease that necessitates admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) [1,2], which is the definition used in many clinical trials. However, more systematic criteria that permit integration of objective measurement into assessment and avoid variation caused by differing ICU admittance policies across institutions are desirable [3]. Even with the use of such criteria (discussed in greater detail below), the decision to hospitalize or to admit to an ICU relies heavily on physician judgment, particularly the case of illness in younger patients [4].Severe CAP is a progressive disease, and in the event of evolution from a local to a systemic infection the following spectrum of sepsis-related complications may develop (Figure 1): sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction. Approximately 50% of CAP admissions to Spanish ICUs are associated with septic shock [5]. Progression of severe CAP is associated with hypercoagulation, hypotension, alteration of the microcirculation, and ultimately multiple organ dysfunction. Once multiple organ dysfunction has developed, patient management is independent of the causative pathogen.Approximately 4 million adults develop CAP annually in the USA [6]. Among hospitalized CAP patients in Europe and the USA, rates of severe CAP range from 6.6% to 16.7% [4,7-10]. Mortality from severe CAP is high worldwide, with pneumonia/influenza as the eighth leading cause of death in the USA, accounting for 0.3% of deaths in 2004 [6]. Nearly all patients who die as a consequence of severe CAP develop se
Bench-to-bedside review: Therapeutic options and issues in the management of ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia
Jordi Rello
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc3014
Abstract: Pneumonia is the single most common nosocomial infection among patients in intensive care units (ICUs) [1,2]. Rates of pneumonia are considerably higher among patients hospitalized in ICUs than in hospital wards, and the risk for developing pneumonia is 3-fold to 10-fold higher for intubated patients receiving mechanical ventilation [1,2]. Of hospital-acquired infections, nosocomial pneumonia is reported to be the leading cause of death, being responsible for half of the hospital-acquired infections that result in death [3,4]. However, whether patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) have associated mortality is controversial. Indeed, in a large matched cohort study of patients with early onset VAP [5], an association between VAP and poor clinical and economic outcomes was demonstrated, but hospital mortality was not attributable to VAP in this analysis. On the other hand, there does appear to be a correlation between severity of illness at admission and survival [6]. Reported mortality in VAP patients ranges from 33% to 72% [4], with the upper range reflecting the increased risk for mortality among the elderly, patients with impaired cardiopulmonary function, immunocompromised patients, patients who require prolonged intubation, and those at risk for infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [7].Fiel [7] recently showed that a twofold reduction in mortality could be achieved in patients with nosocomial pneumonia with prompt use of appropriate antibiotics, but what are the appropriate therapeutic options for VAP, which is often a polymicrobial infection [8]? The published literature indicates that Gram-negative bacteria account for between 55% and 85% of cases of nosocomial pneumonia [8] but that the Gram-positive pathogen S aureus is the second most prevalent organism, accounting for 10–20% of all nosocomial pneumonias. Moreover, the growing incidence of methicillin-resistant strains of S aureus has impor
Geographical differences on the mortality impact of heat waves in Europe
Jordi Sunyer
Environmental Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-9-38
Abstract: Climate change is potentially the biggest global health threat in the 21st century [1]. Deaths related with heat waves and spread of infectious diseases will be part of the menace though the major impact will be caused by malnutrition, diarrhoea and extreme climate events [2]. Consequently, loss of healthy life years as a result of global climate change is predicted to be 500 times greater in poor African populations than in European populations [3]. However, the increase of more than 2°C of average temperature will result in a negative health impact in all regions, the potential benefits of a warmer temperature being negatively compensated, heat waves being one of the largest climate change threats in the developed world [4].D'Ippoliti et al investigated heat waves in Europe and provide data related to several of the uncertainties of their health impact [5]. The study of D'Ippoliti et al aimed assessing for the first time the impact of heat waves in 9 European cities using the same criteria to define heat wave and the same methodology to asses the mortality association. The study refers to the summer months of the years 1990-2004. Heat wave was defined based on the city 90th percentile of the monthly maximum and minimum apparent temperature.The major finding refers to the great heterogeneity in the effect of heat waves on diary mortality. The strongest effect was seen in the Mediterranean cities (Athens, Barcelona, Milan, Rome and Valencia) than in the North-Continental (Budapest, London, Munich and Paris) after adjusting for age, sex and cause of death. The authors suggested higher temperatures could explain higher effects in the South, but this could not account for the large variability within Mediterranean cities (i.e., the effect is lower in Valencia (increase of 8.5% of total mortality) than in Milan (33.6%), Rome (26.8%) or Barcelona (15.6%)). Similarly, among the non-Mediterranean cities the heterogeneity is also large, from Munich (7.6%) to Budapest (21.1%
Revolución y contrarrevolución en la ciudad global: las expectativas frustradas por la globalización de nuestras ciudades
EURE (Santiago) , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0250-71612007000300003
Abstract: a pessimistic analysis, even catastrophic, prevails in studies of global urbanization. for example, the reports of the undp-habitat or the worldwatch institute, or the articles and presentations in intellectual fora. this does not mean that the transformative and integrative potential of cities is not recognized. the positive discourse about citizens' liberties that the urban revolution, currently in process, makes possible forms part of our culture. these are the two sides of this reality. many cities, european and american, have promoted regeneration of their central areas that, in many cases, deal with almost an entire municipality, with a revaluing of the compact, heterogenous city characterized by the quality of public space. however the urban developments, the metropolitan regions, multiply inequalities over the landscape, generating spaces that are physically fragmented and socially segregated. the current urban revolution is frustrating. the political, urbanistic and cultural challenge today is to 'make the city' in all regions characterized by urbanization
The influence of democracy in the practice of public relations in Spain
Anagramas -Rumbos y sentidos de la comunicación- , 2011,
Abstract: this article presents an exploratory study of the current status of public relations in spain on the basis of elements and indicators applied to other countries in the study the global public relations handbook (2009). spain is one of the most notable absentees from the study; this article therefore fills a hole in current public relations research and theory. the conclusion is that spain is a country that has undergone radical change, from a dictatorship to one of the world's most democratic systems, substantially transforming its economic system, its culture and its society. this transformation has had a crucial effect on the practice of those professions which have freedom of expression as their legal foundation; one such example is public relations, which has grown from an emerging industry into an established profession.
Organic matter in comets and cometary dust
International Microbiology , 2005,
Abstract: comets are primitive conglomerates of the solar system containing a mixture of frozen gases, refractory grains, and carbonaceous particles rich in biogenic elements. the dramatic display of comets is mostly caused by a cloud of micrometer-sized dust particles that leave the comet nucleus when frozen gases sublimate as they approach the sun. analyses of cometary dust captured in the stratosphere together with data obtained from space missions to comets have revealed the presence of a great variety of organic molecules. since substantial amounts of cometary dust were gently deposited on earth, their organic content could have played a major role in prebiotic processes prior to the appearance of microorganisms. this review discusses the description and implications for life of the organic content of comets and cometary dust.
Organic matter in meteorites
International Microbiology , 2004,
Abstract: some primitive meteorites are carbon-rich objects containing a variety of organic molecules that constitute a valuable record of organic chemical evolution in the universe prior to the appearance of microorganisms. families of compounds include hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amino acids, amines, amides, heterocycles, phosphonic acids, sulfonic acids, sugar-related compounds and poorly defined high-molecular weight macromolecules. a variety of environments are required in order to explain this organic inventory, including interstellar processes, gas-grain reactions operating in the solar nebula, and hydrothermal alteration of parent bodies. most likely, substantial amounts of such organic materials were delivered to the earth via a late accretion, thereby providing organic compounds important for the emergence of life itself, or that served as a feedstock for further chemical evolution. this review discusses the organic content of primitive meteorites and their relevance to the build up of biomolecules.
Los sonidos fricativos sordos y sus implicaciones forenses
Estudios filológicos , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0071-17132011000200003
Abstract: this paper presents the results of a study aimed at assessing the capability of spanish unvoiced fricative sounds to discriminate between speakers in forensic phonetics. the center of gravity, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis and higher peak intensity of the spectra of fricative segments, as well as the standardized values of the bands ltas have been analyzed. results achieved on average 89.78% of original grouped cases correctly classified, and 71.6% in cross-validation. theoretical implications are discussed, as well as its applicability in forensic speaker identification with a closed reference set.
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