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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10459 matches for " Jonathan Tyrer "
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Food and Fantasy as Reflection of Female Repression in Like Water for Chocolate
Pat Tyrer
Studies in Literature and Language , 2011, DOI: 10.3968/j.sll.1923156320110302.040
Abstract: Set in Mexico at the turn of the 20th century, Laura Esquivel’s contemporary novel, Like Water for Chocolate, centers on the youngest daughter of the De la Garza family whose familial position destines her to remain at home, unmarried, and in charge of the life-long care of her tyrannical mother. The conflict arises when Tita falls in love and is denied both marriage and influence over her own affairs. Ultimately, Tita negotiates a voice through the elaborate, fantastical recipes she creates, thereby subverting gender suppression by speaking through the stereotypical women’s sphere of cooking. These recipes and their fantastic results mirror and reinforce the central theme of the novel, that of suppression of the female voice and its inevitable explosion of expression elsewhere. Key words: Esquivel; Like Water for Chocolate; female repression; matriarchy
Association between Common Variation in 120 Candidate Genes and Breast Cancer Risk
Paul D. P Pharoah ,Jonathan Tyrer,Alison M Dunning,Douglas F Easton,Bruce A. J Ponder,SEARCH Investigators
PLOS Genetics , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0030042
Abstract: Association studies in candidate genes have been widely used to search for common low penetrance susceptibility alleles, but few definite associations have been established. We have conducted association studies in breast cancer using an empirical single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) tagging approach to capture common genetic variation in genes that are candidates for breast cancer based on their known function. We genotyped 710 SNPs in 120 candidate genes in up to 4,400 breast cancer cases and 4,400 controls using a staged design. Correction for population stratification was done using the genomic control method, on the basis of data from 280 genomic control SNPs. Evidence for association with each SNP was assessed using a Cochran–Armitage trend test (p-trend) and a two-degrees of freedom χ2 test for heterogeneity (p-het). The most significant single SNP (p-trend = 8 × 10?5) was not significant at a nominal 5% level after adjusting for population stratification and multiple testing. To evaluate the overall evidence for an excess of positive associations over the proportion expected by chance, we applied two global tests: the admixture maximum likelihood (AML) test and the rank truncated product (RTP) test corrected for population stratification. The admixture maximum likelihood experiment-wise test for association was significant for both the heterogeneity test (p = 0.0031) and the trend test (p = 0.017), but no association was observed using the rank truncated product method for either the heterogeneity test or the trend test (p = 0.12 and p = 0.24, respectively). Genes in the cell-cycle control pathway and genes involved in steroid hormone metabolism and signalling were the main contributors to the association. These results suggest that a proportion of SNPs in these candidate genes are associated with breast cancer risk, but that the effects of individual SNPs is likely to be small. Large sample sizes from multicentre collaboration will be needed to identify associated SNPs with certainty.
School and Community-Based Interventions for Refugee and Asylum Seeking Children: A Systematic Review
Rebecca A. Tyrer, Mina Fazel
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089359
Abstract: Background Research for effective psychological interventions for refugee and asylum-seeking children has intensified. The need for interventions in environments more easily accessed by children and families is especially relevant for newly arrived populations. This paper reviews the literature on school and community-based interventions aimed at reducing psychological disorders in refugee and asylum-seeking children. Methods and Findings Comprehensive searches were conducted in seven databases and further information was obtained through searching reference lists, grey literature, and contacting experts in the field. Studies were included if they reported on the efficacy of a school or community-based mental health intervention for refugee or asylum-seeking children. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection, extracted data, and reached consensus on study quality. Results were summarized descriptively. The marked heterogeneity of studies excluded conducting a meta-analysis but study effect-sizes were calculated where possible. Twenty one studies met inclusion criteria for the review reporting on interventions for approximately 1800 refugee children. Fourteen studies were carried out in high-income countries in either a school (n = 11) or community (n = 3) setting and seven studies were carried out in refugee camps. Interventions were either primarily focused on the verbal processing of past experiences (n = 9), or on an array of creative art techniques (n = 7) and others used a combination of these interventions (n = 5). While both intervention types reported significant changes in symptomatology, effect sizes ranged from 0.31 to 0.93 and could mainly be calculated for interventions focusing on the verbal processing of past experiences. Conclusions Only a small number of studies fulfilled inclusion criteria and the majority of these were in the school setting. The findings suggest that interventions delivered within the school setting can be successful in helping children overcome difficulties associated with forced migration.
Association between Common Germline Genetic Variation in 94 Candidate Genes or Regions and Risks of Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Lydia Quaye, Jonathan Tyrer, Susan J. Ramus, Honglin Song, Eva Wozniak, Richard A. DiCioccio, Valerie McGuire, Estrid H?gdall, Claus H?gdall, Jan Blaakaer, Ellen L. Goode, Joellen M. Schildkraut, Douglas F. Easton, Susanne Krüger-Kjaer, Alice S. Whittemore, Simon A. Gayther, Paul D. P. Pharoah
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005983
Abstract: Background Recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the population that are associated with variations in the risks of many different diseases including cancers such as breast, prostate and colorectal. For ovarian cancer, the known highly penetrant susceptibility genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) are probably responsible for only 40% of the excess familial ovarian cancer risks, suggesting that other susceptibility genes of lower penetrance exist. Methods We have taken a candidate approach to identifying moderate risk susceptibility alleles for ovarian cancer. To date, we have genotyped 340 SNPs from 94 candidate genes or regions, in up to 1,491 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 3,145 unaffected controls from three different population based studies from the UK, Denmark and USA. Results After adjusting for population stratification by genomic control, 18 SNPs (5.3%) were significant at the 5% level, and 5 SNPs (1.5%) were significant at the 1% level. The most significant association was for the SNP rs2107425, located on chromosome 11p15.5, which has previously been identified as a susceptibility allele for breast cancer from a genome wide association study (P-trend = 0.0012). When SNPs/genes were stratified into 7 different pathways or groups of validation SNPs, the breast cancer associated SNPs were the only group of SNPs that were significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk (P-heterogeneity = 0.0003; P-trend = 0.0028; adjusted (for population stratification) P-trend = 0.006). We did not find statistically significant associations when the combined data for all SNPs were analysed using an admixture maximum likelihood (AML) experiment-wise test for association (P-heterogeneity = 0.051; P-trend = 0.068). Conclusion These data suggest that a proportion of the SNPs we evaluated were associated with ovarian cancer risk, but that the effect sizes were too small to detect associations with individual SNPs.
CHAMP: Cognitive behaviour therapy for health anxiety in medical patients, a randomised controlled trial
Peter Tyrer, Sylvia Cooper, Helen Tyrer, Paul Salkovskis, Mike Crawford, John Green, Georgina Smith, Steven Reid, Simon Dupont, David Murphy, Sarah Byford, Duolao Wang, Barbara Barrett
BMC Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-11-99
Abstract: The study is a randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms and equal randomization of 466 eligible patients (assuming a 20% drop-out) to an active treatment group of 5-10 sessions of cognitive behaviour therapy and to a control group. The aim at baseline, after completion of all assessments but before randomization, was to give a standard simple explanation of the nature of health anxiety for all participants. Subsequently the control group was to receive whatever care might usually be available in the clinics, which is normally a combination of clinical assessment, appropriate tests and reassurance. Those allocated to the active treatment group were planned to receive between 5 and 10 sessions of an adapted form of cognitive behaviour therapy based on the Salkovskis/Warwick model, in which a set of treatment strategies are chosen aimed at helping patients understand the factors that drive and maintain health anxiety. The therapy was planned to be given by graduate research workers, nurses or other health professionals trained for this intervention whom would also have their competence assessed independently during the course of treatment. The primary outcome is reduction in health anxiety symptoms after one year and the main secondary outcome is the cost of care after two years.This represents the first trial of adapted cognitive behaviour therapy in health anxiety that is large enough to test not only the clinical benefits of treatment but also whether the cost of treatment is offset by savings from reduced use of other health services in comparison to the control group.Cognitive behaviour therapy for Health Anxiety in Medical Patients (CHAMP)Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14565822Abnormal health anxiety - and its older synonym, hypochondriasis - is a relatively common problem in both primary and secondary medical care settings [1-3]. It also places a substantial burden on health services [4], as its central feature is sufficient fear of having a serious d
Under the Flag of Blue and White: Mary as an A-NationalSymbol in the Greek-Orthodox Community in Israel  [PDF]
Jonathan Ventura
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.14029
Abstract: Marian devotion and rituals have been the apex of Christian believers’ journey for centuries. In spite of its importance in many disciplines, Marian devotion and rituals in Israel have been neglected. In this article I will outline several social and religious aspects of Marian devotion in the Greek-Orthodox community in Israel. Using several case-studies of Marian devotion around the world I will address the question is Mary a national symbol in Israel? Since one of the most important Marian devotion sites is located in Israel and centered in Mary’s place of ascension in Gethsemane, addressing this site directly is crucial. I will express a new concept more fitting to the Israeli case—Mary as an a-national symbol. This research is based upon a combination of two main methodologies: participant observations and in-depth interviews with believers (local Greek and Palestinian residents as well as pilgrims) and clergymen. The research focuses on a procession taking place in the Old City of Jerusalem in the end of August, celebrating Mary’s legacy and resurrection.
On the Robustness of Strategic Experimentation to Persuasive Cheap Talk  [PDF]
Jonathan Rosborough
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25097
Abstract: This paper develops a model in which a privately informed seller attempts to indirectly influence the experimentation strategy of a buyer by sending costless signals. The question under consideration is whether there is any credible way in which this single rational seller could influence the buyer’s decisions. We provide bounds on information transmission in equilibrium, and show that there exists no reporting strategy for the seller which changes the experimentation strategy of the buyer. These results demonstrate the robustness of a class of learning models to coercion.
Investor Na?veté and Asset Prices  [PDF]
Jonathan Cook
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2013.34047
Abstract:

This paper describes strategic behavior in a nonequilibrium model of asset pricing with heterogeneous sophistication. Both risk and return are increasing in the na?veté of investors in the market. Optimal investment involves in considering the effect that na?e investors have on the market. Further, we derive a simple characterization of the asset price dynamics that results from an arbitrary combination of a countably infinite set of investor types.

Surgery for Acute Stanford Type A Aortic Dissection in an Inner City Community Hospital: Single Surgeon’s Experience  [PDF]
Jonathan Nwiloh
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2016.62005
Abstract: Objective: An inverse relationship between volume and mortality in some cardiothoracic surgical procedures has been previously established, leading to suggestions that acute aortic dissection should not be operated in community or low volume heart centers. We therefore reviewed our experience to compare with published data. Methods: Retrospective review of 27 patients who underwent proximal aortic surgery by a single surgeon at an inner city community hospital between May 2004 and April 2015. 16 patients, mean age 51.7 ± 13.6 years old, 75.0% males underwent emergency surgery for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection, while 9 with root or ascending aortic aneurysm, mean age 50.3 ± 15.0 years old, 88.9% males had elective proximal aortic surgery. 2 patients with arch aneurysm were excluded. Results: Four (25.0%) patients with acute dissection were in Penn class A, 3 (18.7%) Penn B, 3 (18.7%) Penn C and 6 (37.5%) Penn B+C. 10 (62.5%) patients underwent emergency root replacement with 60.0% (6/10) mortality all related to malperfusion including 2 patients with bloody stools, while 6 (37.5%) underwent supracoronary graft replacement with 16.6% (1/6) mortality from cardiac tamponade. The 5-year survival was 89.0%. In patients with aortic aneurysm, 8 (88.9%) underwent elective root replacement and 1 (11.1%) supracoronary graft replacement with zero mortality. Conclusion: Supracoronary graft replacement is performed for the majority of uncomplicated acute type A dissections and can be undertaken by the average general cardiac surgeon with acceptable results. Visceral malperfusion especially when associated with bloody stools portends a poor prognosis, and aortic dissection should be excluded in any Marfan patient presenting with acute abdomen. Delaying intervention in attempting transfer to a tertiary hospital can potentially increase preoperative mortality, known to rise with each passing hour from onset of acute dissection. Patients presenting therefore to community hospitals should probably undergo surgery there to avoid complications associated with delay.
Inherited Variants in Regulatory T Cell Genes and Outcome of Ovarian Cancer
Ellen L. Goode, Melissa DeRycke, Kimberly R. Kalli, Ann L. Oberg, Julie M. Cunningham, Matthew J. Maurer, Brooke L. Fridley, Sebastian M. Armasu, Daniel J. Serie, Priya Ramar, Krista Goergen, Robert A. Vierkant, David N. Rider, Hugues Sicotte, Chen Wang, Boris Winterhoff, Catherine M. Phelan, Joellen M. Schildkraut, Rachel P. Weber, Ed Iversen, Andrew Berchuck, Rebecca Sutphen, Michael J. Birrer, Shalaka Hampras, Leah Preus, Simon A. Gayther, Susan J. Ramus, Nicolas Wentzensen, Hannah P. Yang, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Honglin Song, Jonathan Tyrer, Paul P. D. Pharoah, Gottfried Konecny, Thomas A. Sellers, Roberta B. Ness, Lara E. Sucheston, Kunle Odunsi, Lynn C. Hartmann, Kirsten B. Moysich, Keith L. Knutson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053903
Abstract: Although ovarian cancer is the most lethal of gynecologic malignancies, wide variation in outcome following conventional therapy continues to exist. The presence of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Tregs) has a role in outcome of this disease, and a growing body of data supports the existence of inherited prognostic factors. However, the role of inherited variants in genes encoding Treg-related immune molecules has not been fully explored. We analyzed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and sequence-based tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) for 54 genes associated with Tregs in 3,662 invasive ovarian cancer cases. With adjustment for known prognostic factors, suggestive results were observed among rarer histological subtypes; poorer survival was associated with minor alleles at SNPs in RGS1 (clear cell, rs10921202, p = 2.7×10?5), LRRC32 and TNFRSF18/TNFRSF4 (mucinous, rs3781699, p = 4.5×10?4, and rs3753348, p = 9.0×10?4, respectively), and CD80 (endometrioid, rs13071247, p = 8.0×10?4). Fo0r the latter, correlative data support a CD80 rs13071247 genotype association with CD80 tumor RNA expression (p = 0.006). An additional eQTL SNP in CD80 was associated with shorter survival (rs7804190, p = 8.1×10?4) among all cases combined. As the products of these genes are known to affect induction, trafficking, or immunosuppressive function of Tregs, these results suggest the need for follow-up phenotypic studies.
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