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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10473 matches for " Jonathan Tregear "
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The Latin American Social Medicine database
Jonathan D Eldredge, Howard Waitzkin, Holly S Buchanan, Janis Teal, Celia Iriart, Kevin Wiley, Jonathan Tregear
BMC Public Health , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-4-69
Abstract: This public health informatics case study describes the key features of a unique information resource intended to improve access to LASM literature and to augment understanding about the social determinants of health. This case study includes both quantitative and qualitative evaluation data. Currently the LASM database at The University of New Mexico http://hsc.unm.edu/lasm webcite brings important information, originally known mostly within professional networks located in Latin American countries to public health professionals worldwide via the Internet. The LASM database uses Spanish, Portuguese, and English language trilingual, structured abstracts to summarize classic and contemporary works.This database provides helpful information for public health professionals on the social determinants of health and expands access to LASM.Public health practitioners have long recognized the connections between patients' socioeconomic conditions and their health [1-8]. Yet these practitioners and their empirically oriented researcher colleagues have faced difficulties in establishing the precise linkages between socioeconomic variables and sub-optimal health status. Social medicine is a diverse field that studies these relationships between society (and its socioeconomic conditions) and the health of populations. In Latin America, social medicine consists of a widely respected and influential field of research, teaching and professional practice [9]. Professionals working in this field seek to identify and to understand better the linkages between socioeconomic conditions and patients' health.Until recently, however, most of the knowledge base in this discipline has remained largely unknown outside Latin America. Language barriers and disincentives to distribute this information more widely are two major reasons for this lack of awareness. Some readers might have first learned about Latin American social medicine (LASM) through recent critical reviews [9] or through a spec
A system for rating the stability and strength of medical evidence
Jonathan R Treadwell, Stephen J Tregear, James T Reston, Charles M Turkelson
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-6-52
Abstract: This paper introduces a new system for rating medical evidence. The system requires explicit judgments and provides explicit rules for balancing these judgments. Unlike other systems for rating the strength of evidence, our system draws a distinction between two types of conclusions: quantitative and qualitative. A quantitative conclusion addresses the question, "How well does it work?", whereas a qualitative conclusion addresses the question, "Does it work?" In our system, quantitative conclusions are tied to stability ratings, and qualitative conclusions are tied to strength ratings. Our system emphasizes extensive a priori criteria for judgments to reduce the potential for bias. Further, the system makes explicit the impact of heterogeneity testing, meta-analysis, and sensitivity analyses on evidence ratings. This article provides details of our system, including graphical depictions of how the numerous judgments that an analyst makes can be combined. We also describe two worked examples of how the system can be applied to both interventional and diagnostic technologies.Although explicit judgments and formal combination rules are two important steps on the path to a comprehensive system for rating medical evidence, many additional steps must also be taken. Foremost among these are the distinction between quantitative and qualitative conclusions, an extensive set of a priori criteria for making judgments, and the direct impact of analytic results on evidence ratings. These attributes form the basis for a logically consistent system that can improve the usefulness of evidence reviews.Systematic reviews, technology assessments, and clinical practice guidelines all incorporate evidence-based conclusions. The multifaceted nature of evidence, however, leads to varying degrees of confidence in how well the evidence supports conclusions drawn from it. For example, one is more confident in conclusions drawn from several well-designed randomized controlled trials that find
Proximity and typicity: a typology of local food identities in the marketplace
Angela Tregear
Anthropology of Food , 2007,
Abstract: En choisissant une perspective de marché pour étudier les produits locaux, cet article se place au sein des débats entre sociologues et géographes ruraux, quant aux questions du r le et de la valeur des systèmes de produits locaux. Après avoir pris en considération la réalité complexe du marché européen matière de produits locaux, l’article propose une typologie des systèmes de produits locaux, basée sur une perspective de marché. Les trois types de systèmes identifiés – produit direct, typicité proche et spécialité distante - (direct produce, close typicity et distant speciality) – sont expliqués et critiqués, afin d’éclaircir les aspects problématiques des systèmes agroalimentaires locaux, que l’on a tendance à oublier. La discussion révèle aussi des aspects problématiques de la Régulation européenne 2081/92. La conclusion explique en quoi une perspective du marché peut augmenter et enrichir notre compréhension des systèmes des produits locaux. In light of debates in the rural sociology and geography literatures about the role and value of local food systems, this paper presents an alternative perspective of local foods: that of the marketplace. After observing the complex reality of the European market for local foods, the paper proposes a typology of local food systems, based on marketplace phenomena. The three types of system identified – direct produce, close typicity and distant speciality – are described and then critically discussed, the aim being to highlight problematic aspects of local food systems which tend to be overlooked in the literature. Problematic aspects of EC Regulation 2081/92 are included in this discussion. The paper concludes with an account of how a market perspective can enhance and enrich our understanding of local food systems
SSR markers in transcripts of genes linked to post-transcriptional and transcriptional regulatory functions during vegetative and reproductive development of Elaeis guineensis
Timothy Tranbarger, Wanwisa Kluabmongkol, Duangjai Sangsrakru, Fabienne Morcillo, James W Tregear, Somvong Tragoonrung, Norbert Billotte
BMC Plant Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-12-1
Abstract: In the current study, 6,103 non-redundant ESTs derived from cDNA libraries of developing vegetative and reproductive tissues were annotated and searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Primer pairs from sequences flanking 289 EST-SSRs were tested to detect polymorphisms in elite breeding parents and their crosses. 230 of these amplified PCR products, 88 of which were polymorphic within the breeding material tested. A detailed analysis and annotation of the EST-SSRs revealed the locations of the polymorphisms within the transcripts, and that the main functional category was related to transcription and post-transcriptional regulation. Indeed, SSR polymorphisms were found in sequences encoding AP2-like, bZIP, zinc finger, MADS-box, and NAC-like transcription factors in addition to other transcriptional regulatory proteins and several RNA interacting proteins.The identification of new EST-SSRs that detect polymorphisms in elite breeding material provides tools for molecular breeding strategies. The identification of SSRs within transcripts, in particular those that encode proteins involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, will allow insight into the functional roles of these proteins by studying the phenotypic traits that cosegregate with these markers. Finally, the oil palm EST-SSRs derived from vegetative and reproductive development will be useful for studies on the evolution of the functional diversity within the palm family.Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), a perennial monocotyledonous tropical crop species that belongs to the family Arecaceae, is now the world's number one source of edible vegetable oil, and also the richest dietary source of provitamin A. While the worldwide demand for palm oil increases each year, new elite genotypes from traditional breeding programs provide a yield increase of only 1% per year and the long selection cycle (10-12 years) makes genetic improvement slow [1]. Furthermore, to increase overall oil produc
Evolution of the relaxin-like peptide family
Tracey N Wilkinson, Terence P Speed, Geoffrey W Tregear, Ross AD Bathgate
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-5-14
Abstract: Sequence similarity searches of genomic and EST data identified homologs of relaxin-like peptides in mammals, and non-mammalian vertebrates such as fish. Phylogenetic analysis was used to resolve the evolution of the family. Searches were unable to identify an invertebrate relaxin-like peptide. The published relaxin cDNA sequence in the tunicate, Ciona intestinalis was not present in the completed C. intestinalis genome. The newly discovered relaxin-3 is likely to be the ancestral relaxin. Multiple relaxin-3-like sequences are present in fugu fish (Takifugu rubripes) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), but these appear to be specific to the fish lineage. Possible relaxin-1 and INSL5 homologs were also identified in fish and frog species, placing their emergence prior to mammalia, earlier than previously believed. Furthermore, estimates of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates (dN/dS) suggest that the emergence of relaxin-1, INSL4 and INSL6 during mammalia was driven by positive Darwinian selection, hence these peptides are likely to have novel and in the case of relaxin-1, which is still under positive selection in humans and the great apes, possibly still evolving functions. In contrast, relaxin-3 is constrained by strong purifying selection, demonstrating it must have a highly conserved function, supporting its hypothesized important neuropeptide role.We present a phylogeny describing the evolutionary history of the relaxin-like peptide family and show that positive selection has driven the evolution of the most recent members of the family.The relaxin-like peptide family includes: relaxin-1, relaxin-2, relaxin-3, and the insulin-like (INSL) peptides, INSL3, INSL4, INSL5 and INSL6. All share high structural similarity with insulin due to the presence of six cysteine residues, which confer two inter-chain and one intra-chain disulfide bonds. Thus, it was postulated that relaxin and insulin had derived from a common ancestral gene and were therefore grouped as th
Plant Epigenetics: From genomes to epigenomes
Alain RIVAL,Thierry BEULé,Frédérique ABERLENC BERTOSSI,James TREGEAR
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2010,
Abstract: Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in the DNA sequence. In recent years, this field has attracted increasing attention as more epigenetic mechanisms affecting gene activity are being discovered. Such processes involve a complex interplay between DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs, notably small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and micro RNAs (miRNAs). Epigenetic regulation is not only important for generating differentiated cell types during plant development, but also in maintaining the stability and integrity of their respective gene expression profiles. Although epigenetic processes are essential for normal development, they can become misdirected which leads to abnormal phenotypes and diseases, especially cancer. Sensing environmental changes and initiating a quick, reversible and appropriate response in terms of modified gene expression is of paramount importance for plants which are sessile autotrophs. Although epigenetic mechanisms help to protect plant cells from the activity of parasitic sequences such as transposable elements, this defense can complicate the genetic engineering process through transcriptional gene silencing. Epigenetic phenomena have economic relevance in the case of somaclonal variation: a genetic and phenotypic variation among clonally propagated plants from a single donor genotype. The success of sequencing projects on model plants has created widespread interest in exploring the epigenome in order to elucidate how plant cell decipher and execute the information stored and encoded in the genome. New high-throughput techniques are making it easier to map DNA methylation patterns on a large scale and results have already provided surprises.
Under the Flag of Blue and White: Mary as an A-NationalSymbol in the Greek-Orthodox Community in Israel  [PDF]
Jonathan Ventura
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.14029
Abstract: Marian devotion and rituals have been the apex of Christian believers’ journey for centuries. In spite of its importance in many disciplines, Marian devotion and rituals in Israel have been neglected. In this article I will outline several social and religious aspects of Marian devotion in the Greek-Orthodox community in Israel. Using several case-studies of Marian devotion around the world I will address the question is Mary a national symbol in Israel? Since one of the most important Marian devotion sites is located in Israel and centered in Mary’s place of ascension in Gethsemane, addressing this site directly is crucial. I will express a new concept more fitting to the Israeli case—Mary as an a-national symbol. This research is based upon a combination of two main methodologies: participant observations and in-depth interviews with believers (local Greek and Palestinian residents as well as pilgrims) and clergymen. The research focuses on a procession taking place in the Old City of Jerusalem in the end of August, celebrating Mary’s legacy and resurrection.
On the Robustness of Strategic Experimentation to Persuasive Cheap Talk  [PDF]
Jonathan Rosborough
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25097
Abstract: This paper develops a model in which a privately informed seller attempts to indirectly influence the experimentation strategy of a buyer by sending costless signals. The question under consideration is whether there is any credible way in which this single rational seller could influence the buyer’s decisions. We provide bounds on information transmission in equilibrium, and show that there exists no reporting strategy for the seller which changes the experimentation strategy of the buyer. These results demonstrate the robustness of a class of learning models to coercion.
Investor Na?veté and Asset Prices  [PDF]
Jonathan Cook
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2013.34047
Abstract:

This paper describes strategic behavior in a nonequilibrium model of asset pricing with heterogeneous sophistication. Both risk and return are increasing in the na?veté of investors in the market. Optimal investment involves in considering the effect that na?e investors have on the market. Further, we derive a simple characterization of the asset price dynamics that results from an arbitrary combination of a countably infinite set of investor types.

Surgery for Acute Stanford Type A Aortic Dissection in an Inner City Community Hospital: Single Surgeon’s Experience  [PDF]
Jonathan Nwiloh
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2016.62005
Abstract: Objective: An inverse relationship between volume and mortality in some cardiothoracic surgical procedures has been previously established, leading to suggestions that acute aortic dissection should not be operated in community or low volume heart centers. We therefore reviewed our experience to compare with published data. Methods: Retrospective review of 27 patients who underwent proximal aortic surgery by a single surgeon at an inner city community hospital between May 2004 and April 2015. 16 patients, mean age 51.7 ± 13.6 years old, 75.0% males underwent emergency surgery for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection, while 9 with root or ascending aortic aneurysm, mean age 50.3 ± 15.0 years old, 88.9% males had elective proximal aortic surgery. 2 patients with arch aneurysm were excluded. Results: Four (25.0%) patients with acute dissection were in Penn class A, 3 (18.7%) Penn B, 3 (18.7%) Penn C and 6 (37.5%) Penn B+C. 10 (62.5%) patients underwent emergency root replacement with 60.0% (6/10) mortality all related to malperfusion including 2 patients with bloody stools, while 6 (37.5%) underwent supracoronary graft replacement with 16.6% (1/6) mortality from cardiac tamponade. The 5-year survival was 89.0%. In patients with aortic aneurysm, 8 (88.9%) underwent elective root replacement and 1 (11.1%) supracoronary graft replacement with zero mortality. Conclusion: Supracoronary graft replacement is performed for the majority of uncomplicated acute type A dissections and can be undertaken by the average general cardiac surgeon with acceptable results. Visceral malperfusion especially when associated with bloody stools portends a poor prognosis, and aortic dissection should be excluded in any Marfan patient presenting with acute abdomen. Delaying intervention in attempting transfer to a tertiary hospital can potentially increase preoperative mortality, known to rise with each passing hour from onset of acute dissection. Patients presenting therefore to community hospitals should probably undergo surgery there to avoid complications associated with delay.
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