Abstract:
Pyrolysis gas jets out from the surface of a solid fuel particle when heated. This study experimentally observes the occurrence of gas jets？from heated solid fuel particles. Results reveal a local gas jet occurs from the particle’s surface when its temperature reaches the point at which a pyrolysis reaction occurs. To investigate the influence of the gas jet on particle motion, a numerical simulation of the uniform flow around a spherical particle with a nonuniform outflow or high surface temperature is conducted, and the drag force acting on the spherical particle is estimated. In the numerical study, the magnitude of the outflow velocity, direction of outflow, and Rayleigh number,？i.e., particle surface temperature, are altered, and outflow velocities and the Rayleigh number are set based on the experiment. The drag coefficient is found to decrease when an outflow occurs in the direction against the mainstream; this drag coefficient at a higher Rayleigh number is slightly higher than that at a Rayleigh number of zero.

Abstract:
We have developed a simulation code with the techniques which enhance both spatial and time resolution of the PM method for which the spatial resolution is restricted by the spacing of structured mesh. The adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique subdivides the cells which satisfy the refinement criterion recursively. The hierarchical meshes are maintained by the special data structure and are modified in accordance with the change of particle distribution. In general, as the resolution of the simulation increases, its time step must be shortened and more computational time is required to complete the simulation. Since the AMR enhances the spatial resolution locally, we reduce the time step locally also, instead of shortening it globally. For this purpose we used a technique of hierarchical time steps (HTS) which changes the time step, from particle to particle, depending on the size of the cell in which particles reside. Some test calculations show that our implementation of AMR and HTS is successful. We have performed cosmological simulation runs based on our code and found that many of halo objects have density profiles which are well fitted to the universal profile proposed by Navarro, Frenk, & White (1996) over the entire range of their radius.

Abstract:
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) enables direct submucosal dissection so that even large early-stage gastrointestinal tumors can be resected en bloc. ESD has recently been applied to the colorectum since it was originally developed for use in the stomach. However, colorectal ESD is technically more difficult with an increased risk of perforation compared with gastric ESD. In addition, this procedure is seldom performed in Western countries. Consequently, further technical advances and the availability of a suitable clinical training system are required for the extensive use of colorectal ESD. In this topic highlight, we review the most recent developments in colorectal ESD.

Abstract:
We have developed a new parallel tree method which will be called the forest method hereafter. This new method uses the sectional Voronoi tessellation (SVT) for the domain decomposition. The SVT decomposes a whole space into polyhedra and allows their flat borders to move by assigning different weights. The forest method determines these weights based on the load balancing among processors by means of the over-load diffusion (OLD). Moreover, since all the borders are flat, before receiving the data from other processors, each processor can collect enough data to calculate the gravity force with precision. Both the SVT and the OLD are coded in a highly vectorizable manner to accommodate on vector parallel processors. The parallel code based on the forest method with the Message Passing Interface is run on various platforms so that a wide portability is guaranteed. Extensive calculations with 15 processors of Fujitsu VPP300/16R indicate that the code can calculate the gravity force exerted on 10^5 particles in each second for some ideal dark halo. This code is found to enable an N-body simulation with 10^7 or more particles for a wide dynamic range and is therefore a very powerful tool for the study of galaxy formation and large-scale structure in the universe.

Abstract:
We investigate the application of matrix product states to the Hubbard model in one spatial dimension with both of open and periodic boundary conditions. We develop the variatinal method that the optimization of the variational parameters is carried out locally and sequentially in the framework of matrix product operators (MPO) by including the sign, due to the anti-commutation relation of fermion operators, in the matrix element of MPO. The numerical accuracy of the ground state energy is examined.

Abstract:
We examine spectral properties of doped holes dressed with surrounding spin cloud in the t-J model. These composite-hole excitations well characterize prominent band structures in the angle-resolved photoemission spectrum. In one-dimensional (1D) case at half-filling, we identify the composite operators that separately pick up the spinon and holon branches, respectively. After hole doping, we find that the composite hole excitations with string-like spins tend to be localized at k=\pi/2 in the momentum space. This means that such composite excitations should be actual electronic excitations, since the spinon and holon branches merge together at this momentum. In 2D case, we find that the composite excitations with more non-local spin fluctuation have stronger intensity near the Fermi level. The composite band structure along diagonal (0,0)-(\pi,\pi) direction in 2D has some similarity to that in 1D, and such non-local spin fluctuation plays an important role on the formation of the pseudogap in high-Tc cuprates.

Abstract:
We study exactly the effect of an impurity in the interacting quantum spin chain at low temperature by solving the integrable spin-1/2 XXZ periodic chain with an impurity through the algebraic and thermal Bethe ansatz methods. In particular, we investigate how the crossover temperature for the impurity specific heat depends on the impurity parameter, i.e. the coupling of the impurity to other spins, and show that it is consistent with the analytic expression that is obtained by setting the impurity susceptibility to be proportional to the inverse of the crossover temperature. In the model, two types of crossover behavior appear: one from the high-temperature regime to the low-temperature Kondo regime and another from the N-site homogeneous chain to the (N-1)-site chain with a decoupled free impurity spin, with respect to the temperature and the impurity parameter, respectively.

Abstract:
We study the zero- and the finite-temperature behavior of the integrable spin-1/2 XXZ periodic chain with an impurity by the algebraic and thermal Bethe ansatz methods. We evaluate the impurity local magnetization at zero temperature analytically and derive the impurity susceptibility exactly from it. In the graphs of the impurity specific heat versus temperature, we show how the impurity spin becomes more liberated from the bulk many-body effect as the exchange coupling between the impurity spin and other spins decreases, and also that in low temperature it couples strongly to them such as the Kondo effect. Thus, we observe not only the crossover behavior from the high- to the low-temperature regime but also another one from the $N$-site chain to the $(N-1)$-site chain with a free impurity spin. We also show that the estimate of the Wilson ratio at a given low temperature is independent of the impurity parameter if its absolute value is small enough with respect to the temperature, and the universality class is described by the XXZ anisotropy in terms of the dressed charge.

Abstract:
In a well-developed eyespot, the inner black core ring is much wider than the outer black ring; this is termed the inside-wide rule. It appears that signals are wider near the focus of the eyespot and become narrower as they expand. Although fundamental signal dynamics are likely to be based on a reaction-diffusion mechanism, they were described well mathematically as a type of simple uniformly decelerated motion in which signals associated with the outer and inner black rings of eyespots and PFEs are released at different time points, durations, intervals, and initial velocities into a two-dimensional field of fundamentally uniform or graded resistance; this produces eyespots and PFEs that are diverse in size and structure. The inside-wide rule, eyespot distortion, structural differences between small and large eyespots, and structural changes in eyespots and PFEs in response to physiological treatments were explained well using mathematical simulations. Natural colour patterns and previous experimental findings that are not easily explained by the conventional gradient model were also explained reasonably well by the formal mathematical simulations performed in this study.In a mode free from speculative molecular interactions, the present study clarifies fundamental structural rules related to butterfly eyespots, delineates a theoretical basis for the induction model, and proposes a mathematically simple mode of long-range signalling that may reflect developmental mechanisms associated with butterfly eyespots.Although butterfly wing patterns are highly complex, it is believed that they are produced by simple rules that determine the fate of immature scale cells fixed in a two-dimensional plane. Among the colour-pattern elements that constitute the overall wing pattern, eyespots are conspicuous symmetric elements. Partly for this reason, characterisation of eyespots via physical damage and transplantation methods has been intensively performed, with the focus on th

Abstract:
The transference analysis takes the central position of the work in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The work in extratransference sphere and experience in practical work with extratransference interventions are not often reported in expert literature. Extratransference sphere includes less transferring relation to the psychotherapist, transference on the other objects, or may refer to the external reality rather than the psychic reality or fantasy. In our illustration, we gave emphasis to extratransference interventions. Application of genetic interpretation and reconstruction were demonstrated as well, which can restore and establish connections between past and present, in order to understand influences of the past and current reality, and helping us to resolve infantile conflicts. Interpretation of extratransference situations is an important part of the analytical work and it is the essential category of interpretation. Analytic understanding should include transference and extratransference spheres, fantasy and reality, past and present. Working with neurotic patterns and character resistance needs an optimal choice of intervention in a given moment of analytic process. Extratransference interventions are the essential category of intervention, irreplaceable for their effectiveness in analytic process.