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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32485 matches for " John Unterborn "
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Correlation of Self-Reported Breathlessness with Post Exercise Dyspnea in Obesity  [PDF]
Michael Agustin, Hong Chang, John Unterborn, Augustine Andoh-Duku
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.74015
Abstract:
Background: Dyspnea in obesity is common and dyspnea questionnaires are mostly validated for chronic respiratory diseases. The study aims to assess how modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale correlates with post exercise dyspnea Borg scale in 6-minute walk test of the obese population. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study on 342 obese patients with 6 MWT tests from February 2008 to November 2014 at a single tertiary hospital. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between mMRC and Borg dyspnea score. Fractional polynomial regression was used to analyze the relationship of mMRC and Borg scores with BMI. Results: MMRC dyspnea score was a strong predictor of post exercise dyspnea Borg score in the obese population in a univariate regression model (coefficient = 0.764, p ≤ 0.001). When adjusted to age, BMI, 6 MWT distance and PFT parameters in a multivariate regression model, the relationship remained statistically significant (coefficient = 0.587, p ≤ 0.001). The relationship was stronger in obese group with no airflow obstruction. Conclusion: In obese population, pre-exercise mMRC dyspnea score correlates significantly with post exercise dyspnea Borg score regardless of airflow obstruction. This is the first validity study regarding mMRC scale in assessing dyspnea in the obese population.
Thorium Abundances in Solar Twins and Analogues: Implications for the Habitability of Extrasolar Planetary Systems
Cayman T. Unterborn,Jennifer A. Johnson,Wendy R. Panero
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We present the first investigation of Th abundances in Solar twins and analogues to understand the possible range of this radioactive element and its effect on rocky planet interior dynamics and potential habitability. The abundances of the radioactive elements Th and U are key components of a planet's energy budget, making up 30% to 50% of the Earth's (Korenaga 2008; All\`egre et al. 2001; Schubert et al. 1980; Lyubetskaya & Korenaga 2007; The KamLAND Collaboration 2011; Huang et al. 2013). Radiogenic heat drives interior mantle convection and surface plate tectonics, which sustains a deep carbon and water cycle and thereby aides in creating Earth's habitable surface. Unlike other heat sources that are dependent on the planet's specific formation history, the radiogenic heat budget is directly related to the mantle concentration of these nuclides. As a refractory element, the stellar abundance of Th is faithfully reflected in the terrestrial planet's concentration. We find that log eps Th varies from 59% to 251% that of Solar, suggesting extrasolar planetary systems may possess a greater energy budget with which to support surface to interior dynamics and thus increase their likelihood to be habitable compared to our Solar System.
Scaling the Earth: A Sensitivity Analysis of Terrestrial Exoplanetary Interior Models
Cayman T. Unterborn,Evan E. Dismukes,Wendy R. Panero
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: An exoplanet's structure and composition are first-order controls of the planet's habitability. We explore which aspects of bulk terrestrial planet composition and interior structure affect the chief observables of an exoplanet: its mass and radius. We apply these perturbations to the Earth, the planet we know best. Using the mineral physics toolkit BurnMan to self-consistently calculate mass-radius models, we find that core radius, presence of light elements in the core and an upper-mantle consisting of low-pressure silicates have the largest effect on the final calculated mass at a given radius, with mantle composition being secondary. We further apply this model to determine the interior composition of Kepler-36b, finding that it is likely structurally similar to the Earth with Si/Fe = 1.14 compared to Earth's Si/Fe = 1 and Sun's Si/Fe = 1.19. We expand these results provide a grid of terrestrial mass-radius models for determining whether exoplanets are indeed "Earth-like" as bound by their composition and structure.
The Role of Carbon in Extrasolar Planetary Geodynamics and Habitability
Cayman T. Unterborn,Jason E. Kabbes,Jeffrey S. Pigott,Daniel R. Reaman,Wendy R. Panero
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/793/2/124
Abstract: The proportions of oxygen, carbon and major rock-forming elements (e.g. Mg, Fe, Si) determine a planet's dominant mineralogy. Variation in a planet's mineralogy subsequently affects planetary mantle dynamics as well as any deep water or carbon cycle. Through thermodynamic models and high pressure diamond anvil cell experiments, we demonstrate the oxidation potential of C is above that of Fe at all pressures and temperatures indicative of 0.1 - 2 Earth-mass planets. This means that for a planet with (Mg+2Si+Fe+2C)/O > 1, excess C in the mantle will be in the form of diamond. We model the general dynamic state of planets as a function of interior temperature, carbon composition, and size, showing that above a critical threshold of $\sim$3 atom% C, limited to no mantle convection will be present assuming an Earth-like geotherm. We assert then that in the C-(Mg+2Si+Fe)-O system, only a very small compositional range produce habitable planets. Planets outside of this habitable range will be dynamically sluggish or stagnant, thus having limited carbon or water cycles leading to surface conditions inhospitable to life as we know it.
Evaluating the Use of Role Playing Simulations in Teaching Negotation Skills to University Students  [PDF]
John Andrew, John Meligrana
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.36104
Abstract: This paper critically evaluates the use of role-playing simulations in a negotiation course taught to graduate students. The course consisted primarily of a series of simulations involving the alternative dispute resolution (ADR) processes of negotiation, facilitation and mediation. Data were obtained from two sets of questionnaires completed by 41 students before and after the course. A review of previous research reveals that despite the widespread use of role-playing simulations in education, there has been very little empirical evaluation of their effectiveness, especially in conflict resolution and planning. Comparison of the data acquired from the two surveys generated findings regarding student understanding of ADR processes and key issues in conflict resolution; the educational value of simulations; the amenability of types of planning and planning goals to ADR; appropriate learning objectives; the importance of negotiation skills in planning; challenges in conducting effective simulations; the value of simulations in resolving real conflicts; the utility of negotiation theory; and obstacles to applying ADR to planning disputes. More generally, the paper concludes that role-playing simulations are very effective for teaching negotiation skills to students, and preparing them to manage actual conflicts skillfully and to participate effectively in real ADR processes. However, this technique is somewhat less valuable for teaching aspects of planning other than conflict resolution. Surprisingly, prior experience with simulations had no significant influence on the responses to the pre-course survey. Also surprising was the lack of a significant correlation between final exam scores and responses to relevant questions on the post-course survey.
Bronchoscopy Simulation in Anesthesia Resident Education  [PDF]
John McNeil,John Pawlowski
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.33041
Abstract: Simulation in residency training is becoming more popular but there is limited evidence showing that it can improve a resident’s fund of knowledge, particularly in anesthesiology. We looked at whether a bronchoscopy simulation could improve performance on a thoracic anesthesia knowledge test administered both before and after using the simulator. Fourteen first-year anesthesiology residents completed the study with an average improvement on the test of 28% (p < 0.05). We conclude that bronchoscopy simulation is an effective method of educating anesthesiology residents.
Bronchoscopy Simulation in Anesthesia Resident Education  [PDF]
John McNeil, John Pawlowski
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.33041
Abstract:

Simulation in residency training is becoming more popular but there is limited evidence showing that it can improve a resident’s fund of knowledge, particularly in anesthesiology. We looked at whether a bronchoscopy simulation could improve performance on a thoracic anesthesia knowledge test administered both before and after using the simulator. Fourteen first-year anesthesiology residents completed the study with an average improvement on the test of 28% (p < 0.05). We conclude that bronchoscopy simulation is an effective method of educating anesthesiology residents.


Factors Impacting Innovation in New Service Offerings  [PDF]
John Maleyeff
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2011.42014
Abstract: Factors that affect the level of innovation in projects to develop new service offerings are analyzed based on field re-search results from 84 service innovation projects. Personal characteristics of developers, process and customer type, and an important characteristic of their organization (i.e., whether or not they possess a strong Lean Six Sigma or simi-lar process improvement orientation) are analyzed. It is shown that, although personal characteristics, process type, or customer type do not affect the level of innovation, organizations with a strong Lean Six Sigma orientation had a lower incidence of radical innovation recommendations.
Deadly Inertia: A History of Constitutional Challenges to Canada's Criminal Code Sections on Prostitution  [PDF]
John Lowman
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2011.22005
Abstract: This paper examines rhetoric surrounding prostitution law reform in Canada from 1970 to the present. During the 1950s and 1960s, there was very little media or political attention paid to prostitution. It was not until the mid 1970s that perceived problems with prostitution law began to surface, driven by concerns that the criminal code statute prohibiting street prostitution was not enforceable. In 1983 the Liberal government appointed the Special Committee on Pornography and Prostitution to consider options for law and policy reform. However, the Conservative government that received the report in 1985 rejected the sweeping law changes the Special Committee recommended, opting instead to rewrite the street prostitution offence. Since then the murder of somewhere between 200 and 300 street prostitutes has prompted renewed calls for law reform. The debate on law reform culminated in 2006 with a parliamentary review that saw all four federal political parties agreeing that Canada’s prostitution laws are “unacceptable,” but unable to agree about how to change them. The majority report held that consenting adult prostitution should be legal, while the minority report held that it should be prohibited. In 2007 the Standing Committee on the Status of Women recommended that Canada adopt the Nordic model of demand-side prohibition. As the deadlock continues, women in the street sex trade continue to be murdered. Faced with this deadly inertia, two groups of sex workers have challenged several Criminal Code sections relating to prostitution, arguing that they violate several of their Constitutional rights, including their right to “life, liberty and security of the person”. The paper concludes with an update on the progress of the Charter challenges now before the courts.
Analysis of Service Processes Characteristics across a Range of Enterprises  [PDF]
John Maleyeff
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2009.21004
Abstract: The structure of services processes was explored using a database of 168 service processes that existed within a wide range of enterprises. The results indicate that applications within service science are not limited to the service industry and that service processes have many similar characteristics. The similarities exist across industry sectors (i.e., manu-facturing, service), customer types (i.e., internal, external) and enterprise size (large, SME). A few differences exist and their importance is discussed. It is suggested that an important field within the multidisciplinary umbrella of service science is organizational behavior.
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