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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 33326 matches for " John Rubin "
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Hypoparathyroidism: clinical features, skeletal microstructure and parathyroid hormone replacement
Rubin, Mishaela R.;Bilezikian, John P.;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27302010000200019
Abstract: objective: hypoparathyroidism is a disorder in which parathyroid hormone is deficient in the circulation due most often to immunological destruction of the parathyroids or to their surgical removal. the objective of this work was to define the abnormalities in skeletal microstructure as well as to establish the potential efficacy of pth(1-84) replacement in this disorder. subjects and methods: standard histomorphometric and μct analyses were performed on iliac crest bone biopsies obtained from patients with hypoparathyroidism. participants were treated with pth(1-84) for two years. results: bone density was increased and skeletal features reflected the low turnover state with greater bv/tv, tb. wi and ct. wi as well as suppressed ms and bfr/bs as compared to controls. with pth(1-84), bone turnover and bone mineral density increased in the lumbar spine. requirements for calcium and vitamin d fell while serum and urinary calcium concentrations did not change. conclusion: abnormal microstructure of the skeleton in hypoparathyroidism reflects the absence of pth. replacement therapy with pth has the potential to correct these abnormalities as well as to reduce the requirements for calcium and vitamin d.
Posterior predictive p-values and the convex order
Patrick Rubin-Delanchy,Daniel John Lawson
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: Posterior predictive p-values are a common approach to Bayesian model-checking. This article analyses their frequency behaviour, that is, their distribution when the parameters and the data are drawn from the prior and the model respectively. We show that the family of possible distributions is exactly described as the distributions that are less variable than uniform on [0,1], in the convex order. In general, p-values with such a property are not conservative, and we illustrate how the theoretical worst-case error rate for false rejection can occur in practice. We describe how to correct the p-values to recover conservatism in several common scenarios, for example, when interpreting a single p-value or when combining multiple p-values into an overall score of significance. We also handle the case where the p-value is estimated from posterior samples obtained from techniques such as Markov Chain or Sequential Monte Carlo. Our results place posterior predictive p-values in a much clearer theoretical framework, allowing them to be used with more assurance.
Infrastructure Enhancement to Support Value-Added Bioproduct Recovery  [PDF]
Jason S. Gordon, John B. Auel, Nia Blair-Agyeman, Iris B. Montague, Rubin Shmulsky
Natural Resources (NR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2018.94009
Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to identify and make available new and existing information to facilitate more effective response by individuals, organizations, and government entities when storms and other forms of catastrophic disturbance lead to unplanned influxes of downed timber and woody debris across the southeastern United States. To this end, this project explored attitudes and behaviors of stakeholders regarding their post disaster timber salvage experiences. Findings are reported from twelve focus group sessions with forestry decision makers, including landowners, loggers, foresters, and agency representatives. Data were analyzed using an iterative coding process that organized large quantities of text into fewer categories and identified emergent themes. Relationships between themes and categories were described within and across cases based on their concurrence, antecedents, or consequences. This technique was followed by a content analysis focusing on discovering underlying meanings and understanding explicit versus euphemistic terms. Findings center around economic limitations and opportunities, social networks in resource utilization, and diverse interpretations of the disaster event. As well, findings demonstrate how risk perceptions and disaster experience interact to construct social meanings for disaster and associated preparedness activities. Implications include value-added utilization options for woody storm debris that have been pursued in past storm events and lessons learned that can inform future decisions.
Modern Immunosuppressive Therapy in Kidney Transplantation  [PDF]
Rubin Zhang
Open Journal of Organ Transplant Surgery (OJOTS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojots.2013.32005
Abstract:

Immunosuppressive therapy is a key component for successful kidney transplantation. It is commonly believed that more intensive immunosuppression is needed initially to prevent rejection episodes and less immunosuppression is subsequently maintained to minimize the overall risk of infection and malignancy. The selection of drugs should be guided by a comprehensive assessment of the immunologic risk, patient comorbidities, financial cost, drug efficacy and adverse effects. Lymphocyte-depleting antibody induction is recommended for patients with high immunologic risk, while IL-2R antibody can be used for low or moderate risk patients. Patients with very low risk may be induced with intravenous steroids without using an antibody. A maintenance regimen typically consists of a low-dose of steroid combined with two of the four class drugs: calcineurin inhibitor (tacrolimus or cyclosporine), antimetabolite (mycophenolate mofetil or enteric coated mycophenolate sodium), mTOR inhibitor (sirolimus or everolimus) and costimulation blocker (belatacept). Currently in the USA, the most popular maintenance is the combination of corticosteroid, mycophenolic acid and tacrolimus. Steroid minimization, or calcineurin inhibitor free or withdrawal should be limited to the highly selected patients with low immunological risk. Recently, the novel biological agent belatacept-based maintenance has demonstrated a significantly better renal function and improved cardiovascular and metabolic profile, which may provide hope for an ultimate survival benefit.

Clinical Management of Kidney Allograft Dysfunction  [PDF]
Rubin Zhang
Open Journal of Organ Transplant Surgery (OJOTS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojots.2014.42002
Abstract: Allograft dysfunction is a common problem after kidney transplant. Allograft rejection is an important entity, and timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for caring transplant recipients. Hyperacute rejection is mediated by the preformed donor specific antibody, while accelerated acute rejection represents an anamnestic response by memory B and T cells. They occur early after transplant. Acute cellular rejection is relatively common and usually responds to pulse corticosteroids or antithymocyte globulin (ATG). The complexity of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) as well as its detrimental effect has been increasingly recognized. The treatment of acute AMR requires a combination of several modalities, such as plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption, IVIG, corticosteroids, rituximab and ATG. After treatment of rejection episode, the maintenance immunosuppressive drugs should be adjusted to prevent further acute rejection and/or evolution into chronic active rejection. Chronic rejection is not reversible and it has been recognized as the most important cause of chronic graft dysfunction and failure.
A survey of Chinese herbal ingredients with liver protection activities
Rubin Wang, John Kong, Dali Wang, Linda Lien, Eric Lien
Chinese Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8546-2-5
Abstract: Seven different physicochemical parameters (MW, Clog P, CMR, μ, Ehomo, Elumo and Hf) and four major biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral/antitumor and immunomodulating) are discussed in this review. It is hoped that the discussion may provide some leads in the development of new hepatoprotective drugs.It is well recognized that liver is one of the most important organs in the biotransformation of food, drugs, endogenous and exogenous substances. Profuse supply of blood and the presence of many redox systems (e.g. cytochromes and various enzymes) enable liver to convert these substances into different kinds of inactive, active or even toxic metabolites. The burden of metabolism and exposure to dangerous chemicals make liver vulnerable to a variety of disorders, such as acute or chronic inflammation, toxin-/drug-induced hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatitis after viral infection.For centuries, many herbs have been used as natural remedies for the prevention and/or treatment of liver diseases. Various herbs and herbal products are believed to have liver protective functions and widely used in clinical practice in the West as well as East. In the First Edition of PDR for Herbal Medicine [1], for example, a total of 49 herbal products were listed under the preparations for clinical use in liver and gall bladder complaints and 32 products for liver disorders. Some complex Chinese herbal formulae, such as Pro-liver Pill (Yanggan Wan)[2], Liver Care (Himalaya Drug Co, Bangalore, India), Liv-52 [3], Jianpi Wenshen Pill (Jianpi Wenshen Wan) [4], Binggan capsules (Binggan Jiaonang) [5], Binggan Tang [6], Yizhu decoction(Yizhu Koufuye) [7], Yiergan Tang [8] and Xiaochaihu Tang (Sho-saiko-to or SST,) [9], have been reported to have significant therapeutic effects on liver protection or treatment of liver diseases. It is yet to be established as to which of the herbs and their active ingredients in these formulae contribute most to the activities of liver
Anabolic skeletal therapy for osteoporosis
Girotra, Monica;Rubin, Mishaela R.;Bilezikian, John P.;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27302006000400019
Abstract: antiresorptive agents for osteoporosis are a cornerstone of therapy, but anabolic drugs have recently widened our therapeutic options. by directly stimulating bone formation, anabolic agents reduce fracture incidence by improving bone qualities besides increasing bone mass. in this article, we review the role of anabolic treatment for osteoporosis. the only anabolic agent currently approved in the united states for osteoporosis, teriparatide [recombinant human parathyroid hormone(1-34)], has clearly emerged as a major approach to selected patients with osteoporosis. teriparatide increases bone density and bone turnover, improves microarchitecture, and changes bone size. the incidence of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures is reduced. teriparatide is approved for both postmenopausal women and men with osteoporosis who are at high risk for fracture. other potential anabolic therapies for osteoporosis, including other forms of parathyroid hormone, strontium ranelate, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1, are also reviewed in this article.
Asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism
Bilezikian, John P.;Rubin, Mishaela;Silverberg, Shonni J.;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27302006000400010
Abstract: primary hyperparathyroidism is a common disorder of mineral metabolism characterized by incompletely regulated, excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone from one or more of the parathyroid glands. in adults with the disease, a single, benign adenoma is seen approximately 80 percent of the time, with multiple gland involvement comprising most of the remaining patients. very rarely, a parathyroid cancer is responsible but it is seen in less than 0.5 percent of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. in this article, we will review important clinical and diagnostic features of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism as well as considerations for surgical or medical management of the disease.
A Myhill-Nerode theorem for automata with advice
Alex Kruckman,Sasha Rubin,John Sheridan,Ben Zax
Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.4204/eptcs.96.18
Abstract: An automaton with advice is a finite state automaton which has access to an additional fixed infinite string called an advice tape. We refine the Myhill-Nerode theorem to characterize the languages of finite strings that are accepted by automata with advice. We do the same for tree automata with advice.
Experimental and Theoretical Considerations of Electrolyte Conductivity in Glucose Alkaline Fuel Cell  [PDF]
Lea Mor, Zeev Rubin
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2012.31015
Abstract: The paper focuses on the conductivity of the fuel cell electrolyte in a membraneless glucose-fueled alkaline fuel cell. The electrolyte conductivity is interpreted using simple physical models, considering either the empirical behavior of the solution’s viscosity, or the consideration of ions and molecules colliding in solutions. The conductivity is expressed as a function of KOH and glucose concentrations. The physical properties of the species (i.e. radii, thermal velocity) and the chemical equilibrium constant of the reaction that glucose undergoes in an alkaline solution can be estimate by comparing the experimental results with the theory.
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