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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 251480 matches for " John R Cockcroft "
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Does pulmonary rehabilitation address cardiovascular risk factors in patients with COPD?
Nichola S Gale, James M Duckers, Stephanie Enright, John R Cockcroft, Dennis J Shale, Charlotte E Bolton
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-11-20
Abstract: Thirty-two stable patients with COPD commenced rehabilitation, and were compared with 20 age and gender matched controls at baseline assessment. In all subjects, aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) an independent non-invasive predictor of cardiovascular risk, blood pressure (BP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fasting glucose and lipids were determined. These measures, and the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) were repeated in the patients who completed pulmonary rehabilitation.On commencement of rehabilitation aortic PWV was increased in patients compared with controls (p < 0.05), despite mean BP, age and gender being similar. The IL-6 was also increased (p < 0.05). Twenty-two patients completed study assessments. In these subjects, rehabilitation reduced mean (SD) aortic PWV (9.8 (3.0) to 9.3 (2.7) m/s (p < 0.05)), and systolic and diastolic BP by 10 mmHg and 5 mmHg respectively (p < 0.01). Total cholesterol and ISWT also improved (p < 0.05). On linear regression analysis, the reduction in aortic PWV was attributed to reducing the BP.Cardiovascular risk factors including blood pressure and thereby aortic stiffness were improved following a course of standard multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an increasing cause of global morbidity and mortality [1] of which cardiovascular (CV) disease accounts for approximately 30% of the excess mortality in patients [2]. Such patients have multiple risk factors for CV disease including exposure to significant cigarette smoke, physical inactivity and metabolic disorders [3]. In addition, arterial stiffness measured by aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an independent predictor of CV risk [4,5], which is increased in patients with COPD [6].In the general population, addressing physical activity and nutritional optimisation, both components of multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation, are associated with reducing the CV risks such as blood pressure (BP) and
Cardiovascular and musculoskeletal co-morbidities in patients with alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency
James M Duckers, Dennis J Shale, Robert A Stockley, Nichola S Gale, Bronwen AJ Evans, John R Cockcroft, Charlotte E Bolton
Respiratory Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-11-173
Abstract: We studied 19 patients with PiZZ A1ATD COPD and 20 age, sex and smoking matched controls, all subjects free from known cardiovascular disease. They underwent spirometry, haemodynamic measurements including aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), an independent predictor or cardiovascular risk, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine body composition and bone mineral density.The aPWV was greater in patients: 9.9(2.1) m/s than controls: 8.5(1.6) m/s, p = 0.03, despite similar mean arterial pressure (MAP). The strongest predictors of aPWV were age, FEV1% predicted and MAP (all p < 0.01). Osteoporosis was present in 8/19 patients (2/20 controls) and was previously unsuspected in 7 patients. The fat free mass and bone mineral density were lower in patients than controls (p < 0.001).Patients with A1ATD related COPD have increased aortic stiffness suggesting increased risk of cardiovascular disease and evidence of occult musculoskeletal changes, all likely to contribute hugely to overall morbidity and mortality.The systemic manifestations in chronic respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be multiple and include a persistent systemic inflammatory state, excess cardiovascular disease, bone thinning and low skeletal muscle mass; each associated with considerable morbidity and mortality[1-3]. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is an established genetic risk factor estimated to occur in 1-2% of patients with COPD, though generally under-recognised and the co-morbidities in this condition have not explored [4]. Characterisation of the genetic and proteonomic basis of the A1ATD status has supported the protease-antiprotease theory of lung injury, as abnormally low levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) leads to unopposed protease activity and destruction of the elastin matrix within the lung, resulting in emphysema. In usual COPD, the emphysematous extent has been related to the cardiovascular and bone alterations [5,6].In addition to i
Deconstructing the Web –a curriculum for media students
Clint Cockcroft
South African Journal of Information Management , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/sajim.v2i2/3.96
Abstract:
The remnants of galaxy formation from a panoramic survey of the region around M31
Alan W. McConnachie,Michael J. Irwin,Rodrigo A. Ibata,John Dubinski,Lawrence M. Widrow,Nicolas F. Martin,Patrick Cote,Aaron L. Dotter,Julio F. Navarro,Annette M. N. Ferguson,Thomas H. Puzia,Geraint F. Lewis,Arif Babul,Pauline Barmby,Olivier Bienayme,Scott C. Chapman,Robert Cockcroft,Michelle L. M. Collins,Mark A. Fardal,William E. Harris,Avon Huxor,A. Dougal Mackey,Jorge Penarrubia,R. Michael Rich,Harvey B. Richer,Arnaud Siebert,Nial Tanvir,David Valls-Gabaud,Kimberly A. Venn
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1038/nature08327
Abstract: In hierarchical cosmological models, galaxies grow in mass through the continual accretion of smaller ones. The tidal disruption of these systems is expected to result in loosely bound stars surrounding the galaxy, at distances that reach $10 - 100$ times the radius of the central disk. The number, luminosity and morphology of the relics of this process provide significant clues to galaxy formation history, but obtaining a comprehensive survey of these components is difficult because of their intrinsic faintness and vast extent. Here we report a panoramic survey of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). We detect stars and coherent structures that are almost certainly remnants of dwarf galaxies destroyed by the tidal field of M31. An improved census of their surviving counterparts implies that three-quarters of M31's satellites brighter than $M_V < -6$ await discovery. The brightest companion, Triangulum (M33), is surrounded by a stellar structure that provides persuasive evidence for a recent encounter with M31. This panorama of galaxy structure directly confirms the basic tenets of the hierarchical galaxy formation model and reveals the shared history of M31 and M33 in the unceasing build-up of galaxies.
The PITP family of phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins
Justin Hsuan, Shamshad Cockcroft
Genome Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2001-2-9-reviews3011
Abstract: Two families of proteins are able specifically to transfer phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in eukaryotic cells (Figure 1), namely the PITP and Sec14p families [1]. They share no obvious sequence or structural similarity, but ectopically expressed PITPs can rescue sec14 mutants in yeast. Likewise, in functional studies in mammalian cells, ectopically expressed Sec14p can be used to compensate for the loss of PITPs [2,3]. Whereas Sec14p isoforms are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, members of the PITP family appear to be absent from plants and fungi. It is likely that endogenous Sec14p and PITP family members normally have distinct biological roles, and the two families should not be confused. Accordingly, PITPs define a discrete family, which forms the subject of this review.The first mammalian PITP was identified as a 35 kDa protein with 271 amino acids and no sequence similarity to any known protein [4]. Three subfamilies can now be defined (Figure 2) and all isoforms have an amino-terminal PITP-like domain. Non-systematic nomenclature has arisen as a result of the different methods by which each isoform was identified. All three types occur in humans: the first comprises the small PITPα and PITPβ proteins, which were identified by virtue of their transfer activity in vitro; the second comprises the large rdgBα (also called M-RdgB1, Nir2 and PITPnm) and Nir3 (also called M-RdgB2) proteins; and the third type comprises the rdgBβ protein, which is intermediate in size and was identified by homology to rdgBα [5]. The rdgB acronym is derived from a retinal degeneration mutant phenotype (type B) in Drosophila, and the Nir acronym is derived from a reported interaction with the amino-terminal domain of the Pyk2 tyrosine kinase (Pyk2 N-terminal domain-interacting receptor). A third protein, termed Nir1, was also identified, but this lacks a PITP domain [6]. Mammalian rdgBα is 39% identical in sequence to Drosophila rdgB, and mammalian Nir3 is 46% identical
Asthma and Therapeutics: Recombinant Therapies in Asthma
Donald W Cockcroft
Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1710-1492-1-1-34
Abstract: As previously reviewed [1], pharmacotherapy for asthma has changed dramatically in the past 100 years. At the turn of the century, therapy for acute asthma included mainly narcotics (eg, heroin, morphine) and sedatives (chloral hydrate), agents now considered contraindicated in acute asthma. Inhalants were also advocated for acute asthma, including amyl nitrate, ether, turpentine, ammonia, stramonium smoke, and even tobacco! The only pharmaceutical acting directly on the airways was atropine. Epinephrine, a nonselective α and β agonist, identified early in the 1900s and synthesized shortly thereafter, rapidly became the standard therapy for acute asthma administered subcutaneously at the rate of a minim a minute. Ephedrine, an old nonselective α and β agonist extracted from a Chinese herb, ma huang, was not widely used until well into the twentieth century, when it was usually combined with theophylline and barbiturates. Isoproterenol, a selective β (mixed β1 - β2) agonist, proved to be an effective bronchodilator [2] and was used by inhalation (nebulization), as was racemic epinephrine. The introduction of the pressurized metered-dose inhaler (MDI) about 40 years ago revolutionized the management of asthma. Epinephrine and isoproterenol soon became available in an MDI, the latter most widely prescribed. Modifications to sympathomimetics resulted in increasingly long-acting increasingly selective β2 agonists, the most widely prescribed of which was salbutamol, introduced in 1967. Further modifications have resulted in the ultra-long-acting inhaled β2 agonists salmeterol and formoterol. Anticholinergics also have a long history of use in the Far East; atropine-containing tobaccos made from Datura stramonium were used for thousands of years in India. This remarkable remedy was brought from India to the United Kingdom about 200 years ago. Atropine has been available for over 150 years and was mentioned in Osler's textbook 100 years ago; however, atropine seems never to
Cómo el imperialismo estadounidense confronta sus debilidades y los desafíos latinoamericanos
James D. Cockcroft
Historia Actual Online , 2005,
Abstract: Hay una dialéctica de poder y debilidad en el imperialismo estadounidense. El poder militar es innegable, pero hay debilidades estructurales. Estas vulnerabilidades son económicas, políticas y aún militares, fácilmente vistas en Iraq con la compleja resistencia del pueblo iraquí y en el crecimiento desigual, pero combinado, de los movimientos sociales y anti-guerra en América Latina y otras partes del mundo. Debido al fracaso del neoliberalismo y a las nubes que se extienden por el horizonte de la crisis económica mundial, el capitalismo contemporáneo refuerza todas las formas posibles de jerarquización y, de manera más obvia, las que se basan en el género y la raza. Busca una "solución final" a sus problemas de la forma más jerarquizada existente, es decir, la militar. Bajo el mando del presidente Bush y sus consejeros y amigos, el imperialismo confronta la crisis de su propia legitimidad y la de su ideología de globalización neoliberal, o globocolonización, con no sólo una respuesta militar sino un complejo de tácticas sofisticadas.
A revolu o mexicana: cem anos depois A revolu o mexicana: cem anos depois
James D. Cockcroft
Revista Espa?o Acadêmico , 2010,
Abstract: Tanto ontem como hoje, o povo do México coloca-se contra o sistema econ mico em vigor e suas elites no poder. Para compreender as for as e fraquezas desses movimentos populares e conduzir a uma análise histórica mais aprofundada, é preciso abordar algumas de suas características. Tanto ontem como hoje, o povo do México coloca-se contra o sistema econ mico em vigor e suas elites no poder. Para compreender as for as e fraquezas desses movimentos populares e conduzir a uma análise histórica mais aprofundada, é preciso abordar algumas de suas características
Visionaries from the East as Guiding Principles for Western Education  [PDF]
Stephen R. White, John Janowiak
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.31002
Abstract: Our analysis of western education is not a “how to” prescription. It is a meaningful and reflective theoretical position as to “what is” the meaning of education, to us. Thus this work is a unique look at the collaboration as a constructive “process,” theoretically an endeavor of reflection, over that of a detailed pragmatic narration of education. Therefore, we believe, it is in spirit of the act of collaboration as process of knowledge revelation. Given this our analysis does not address each and every question posed, specifically, but is a work that sheds light and illuminates the process of education and in doing so does cast a pragmatic shadow over all the questions of interest for this issue. In short, we believe that this work of ours is visionary in scope and relevance.
Corporate Character Formation and CSR: The Function of Habit and Practice in the Mining Industry  [PDF]
John R. Owen, Deanna Kemp
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.45030
Abstract:

The mining industry provides a rich context through which to engage the practical and ethical limits of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Recent debates in organizational ethics have drawn attention to institutional constraints which inhibit awareness raising and ethical practice within corporate settings. During the last decade, the mining industry has come under increasing pressure to improve its environmental, social and ethical performance. In an effort to respond to these more ethically-orientated external expectations, the mining industry has developed a range of internal regulatory mechanisms and process, which can be applied individually or in conjunction with other companies and organizations. This combination of internal and external drivers indicates a growing imperative for mining companies to ground CSR principles in their day-to-day operating practices. The challenge is to avoid organizational rules and procedures for CSR that lack depth and meaning and which fail to result in the wise and courageous use of personal agency. Instead mining companies must work to establish appropriate mechanisms that will see ethical norms adopted as organizational principles that guide, and result in, improved corporate conduct. Using the Aristotelean notion of “character formation”, the authors offer practical considerations for how this might occur in the mining industry.

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