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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 228169 matches for " John N. Caviness "
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A Cognitive-Perceptual Approach to Conceptualizing Speech Intelligibility Deficits and Remediation Practice in Hypokinetic Dysarthria
Kaitlin L. Lansford,Julie M. Liss,John N. Caviness,Rene L. Utianski
Parkinson's Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/150962
Abstract: Hypokinetic dysarthria is a common manifestation of Parkinson's disease, which negatively influences quality of life. Behavioral techniques that aim to improve speech intelligibility constitute the bulk of intervention strategies for this population, as the dysarthria does not often respond vigorously to medical interventions. Although several case and group studies generally support the efficacy of behavioral treatment, much work remains to establish a rigorous evidence base. This absence of definitive research leaves both the speech-language pathologist and referring physician with the task of determining the feasibility and nature of therapy for intelligibility remediation in PD. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel framework for medical practitioners in which to conceptualize and justify potential targets for speech remediation. The most commonly targeted deficits (e.g., speaking rate and vocal loudness) can be supported by this approach, as well as underutilized and novel treatment targets that aim at the listener's perceptual skills. 1. Introduction Hypokinetic dysarthria, a common manifestation of Parkinson’s disease (PD), affects roughly 90% of the patient population [1, 2]. Moreover, hypokinetic dysarthria is a prominent feature of more severe and medically refractory parkinsonian disorders (e.g., progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple systems atrophy). Hypokinetic dysarthria is characterized perceptually by varying degrees of reduced pitch variation (monotonicity), reduced loudness, breathy voice, imprecise consonants, variable speaking rate, and short rushes of speech [1, 3, 4]. Reduced intelligibility occurs when these abnormal speech features interfere with the listener’s ability to understand the spoken message. Intelligibility deficits can significantly reduce quality of life, contribute to depression and feelings of isolation, and hinder the ability to maintain gainful employment [5, 6]. Unlike trunk and limb motor impairments in PD, speech deficits typically do not respond vigorously to pharmacological or surgical interventions (see [7, 8] for reviews of the literature). Thus behavioral treatments to improve speech intelligibility constitute the bulk of speech treatment for this population. Behavioral interventions by speech-language pathologists primarily aim to reduce or compensate for the underlying speech deficits to improve speech intelligibility [1]. Despite a growing body literature that generally supports the efficacy of various interventions, much work remains to establish a rigorous evidence base [9–11].
SMG1 Identified as a Regulator of Parkinson’s Disease-Associated alpha-Synuclein through siRNA Screening
Adrienne Henderson-Smith, Donald Chow, Bessie Meechoovet, Meraj Aziz, Sandra A. Jacobson, Holly A. Shill, Marwan N. Sabbagh, John N. Caviness, Charles H. Adler, Erika D. Driver-Dunckley, Thomas G. Beach, Hongwei Yin, Travis Dunckley
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077711
Abstract: Synucleinopathies are a broad class of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the presence of intracellular protein aggregates containing α-synuclein protein. The aggregated α-synuclein protein is hyperphosphorylated on serine 129 (S129) compared to the unaggregated form of the protein. While the precise functional consequences of S129 hyperphosphorylation are still being clarified, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that S129 phosphorylation is an early event in α-synuclein dysfunction and aggregation. Identifying the kinases and phosphatases that regulate this critical phosphorylation event may ultimately prove beneficial by allowing pharmacological mitigation of synuclein dysfunction and toxicity in Parkinson’s disease and other synucleinopathies. We report here the development of a high-content, fluorescence-based assay to quantitate levels of total and S129 phosphorylated α-synuclein protein. We have applied this assay to conduct high-throughput loss-of-function screens with siRNA libraries targeting 711 known and predicted human kinases and 206 phosphatases. Specifically, knockdown of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinase SMG1 resulted in significant increases in the expression of pS129 phosphorylated α-synuclein (p-syn). Moreover, SMG1 protein levels were significantly reduced in brain regions with high p-syn levels in both dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD). These findings suggest that SMG1 may play an important role in increased α-synuclein pathology during the course of PDD, DLB, and possibly other synucleinopathies.
Disassembled DJ-1 high molecular weight complex in cortex mitochondria from Parkinson's disease patients
Zhenyu Zhong, Hikmet Nural, Ping He, Gina Civarella, Thomas Beach, Lucia Sue, Charles Adler, Holly Shill, John Caviness, Weiming Xia, Yong Shen
Molecular Neurodegeneration , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1326-4-30
Abstract: After publication of this work [1], we noted that we inadvertently failed to include the complete list of all coauthors. The full list of authors has now been added and the Authors' contributions and competing interests section modified accordingly.The authors declare that they have no competing interests.ZZ prepared samples, performed western blot experiments and statistic analysis of the data as well as wrote manuscript. HN involved in analyzing the results and the statistical analysis, and revised the manuscript; PH participated in acquisition of data and performed immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry experiments. ZZ, HN and PH did trouble shooting to ensure experimental results reliable. GC helped revising the manuscript. TB and LS involved in collection of tissue used in this study; CA, HS and JC helped clarifying patients' clinical information. WX and YS designed experiments. YS supervised HN and PH in experiments and participated in preparation of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
A Solution of Kepler’s Equation  [PDF]
John N. Tokis
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.44062
Abstract: The present study deals with a traditional physical problem: the solution of the Kepler’s equation for all conics (ellipse, hyperbola or parabola). Solution of the universal Kepler’s equation in closed form is obtained with the help of the two-dimensional Laplace technique, expressing the universal functions as a function of the universal anomaly and the time. Combining these new expressions of the universal functions and their identities, we establish one biquadratic equation for universal anomaly (χ) for all conics; solving this new equation, we have a new exact solution of the present problem for the universal anomaly as a function of the time. The verifying of the universal Kepler’s equation and the traditional forms of Kepler’s equation from this new solution are discussed. The plots of the elliptic, hyperbolic or parabolic Keplerian orbits are also given, using this new solution.
Emergence of New Injectable Lipid Emulsions in the USA: Guidance for Pediatric Clinicians  [PDF]
Oscar R. Herrera, Lisa A. Caviness, Richard A. Helms
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.107060
Abstract: With the advent of new, particularly mixed-oil lipid emulsions approved by the United States Food & Drug Administration (FDA), clinicians have more options when choosing one as part of the parenteral nutrition support of patients. Lipid products long-standing availability in Europe and other parts of the world has certainly facilitated the process in the United States, where there was little evolution before 2014. These newer oil-based emulsions are finding their way to be used in pediatrics, as studies are being carried out that will result in pediatric labeling. Pediatric clinicians may find themselves wondering how these lipid emulsions are different from those that have come before; whether the same dosing or administration practices apply as with the traditional soybean-oil lipid emulsion, and if they can be used for other more emergent interventions. We present this review of the current lipid emulsions available in the U.S. market, highlighting the differences among them, as well as, providing some practical information for clinicians that can assist them in their day-to-day duties.
Measurement of Arsenic Species in Infant Rice Cereals by Liquid Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry  [PDF]
John D. Brockman, John W. N. Brown IV
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2012.310091
Abstract: Infant rice cereals were analyzed for total arsenic, inorganic arsenic (i-As) and the organic arsenic species monomethylarsonoic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). Total arsenic concentrations in the samples ranged from 110 ng/gup to 420 ng/g. The i-As in the rice cereals accounted for 33% to 77% of the total arsenic. The observed variability between infant rice cereals makes a dietary survey approach to accessing arsenic exposures difficult.
New Investigative Findings from the Debiased Converted-Measurement Kalman Filter  [PDF]
John N. Spitzmiller, Reza R. Adhami
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2010.27053
Abstract: The original algorithm for the 2-D debiased converted-measurement Kalman filter (CMKF) specified, with incorrect mathematical justification, a requirement for evaluating the average true bias and covari-ance with the best available polar estimate, rather than exclusively with the polar measurement. Even though this original algorithm yields better tracking performance than the debiased-CMKF algorithm which evaluates the average true bias and covariance exclusively with the polar measurement, this paper shows the specified requirement compromises the statistical consistency between the debiased converted measurement’s error and the average true covariance. To resolve this apparent contradiction, this paper provides the correct empirical explanation for the tracking-performance improvement obtained by the specified requirement.
Tracking with Estimate-Conditioned Debiased 2-D Converted Measurements  [PDF]
John N. Spitzmiller, Reza R. Adhami
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2010.23033
Abstract: This paper describes a new algorithm for the 2­D converted-measurement Kalman filter (CMKF) which estimates a target’s Cartesian state given polar position measurements. At each processing index, the new algorithm chooses the more accurate of (1) the sensor’s polar position measurement and (2) the CMKF’s Cartesian position prediction. The new algorithm then computes the raw converted measurement’s error bias and the corresponding debiased converted measurement’s error covariance conditioned on the chosen position estimate. The paper derives explicit expressions for the polar-measurement-conditioned bias and covariance and shows the resulting polar-measurement-conditioned CMKF’s mathematical equivalence with the 2­D modified unbiased CMKF (MUCMKF). The paper also describes a method, based upon the unscented transformation, for approximating the raw converted measurement’s error bias and the debiased converted measurement’s error covariance conditioned on the CMKF’s Cartesian position prediction. Simulation results demonstrate the new CMKF’s improved tracking performance and statistical credibility as compared to those of the 2­D MUCMKF.
Male Circumcision Does Not Reduce Sexual Function, Sensitivity or Satisfaction  [PDF]
Brian J. Morris, John N. Krieger
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2015.53007
Abstract: We disagree with Boyle’s recent article questioning our systematic review in Journal of Sexual Medicine in 2013 (Volume 10, pages 2644-2657). In particular, he disputed the quality ranking we assigned to 7 of the 36 articles that met our inclusion criteria. These had been ranked for quality by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) grading system. We found that, “the highest-quality studies suggest that medical male circumcision has no adverse effect on sexual function, sensitivity, sexual sensation or satisfaction.” This conclusion was supported by two randomized controlled trials, regarded as high-quality (1++) evidence and the majority of surveys and studies involving physiological measurements comparing uncircumcised and circumcised men. Here we explain why the 2 randomized controlled trials merit a 1++ ranking and why 4 reports that Boyle believes merit a higher ranking only meet the criteria set down for low quality (2?) evidence according to the SIGN system. We therefore stand by our conclusions. These are supported by a meta-analysis of sexual dysfunctions and by a recent detailed systematic review of the histological correlates of male sexual sensation.
Application of Geographic Information Systems in Groundwater Prospecting: A Case Study of Garissa County, Kenya  [PDF]
Christopher N. Muhwanga, John P. O. Obiero, Faith N. Karanja
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2018.104023
Abstract: Groundwater prospecting in Kenya has been haphazard and expensive due to lack of information on the appropriate areas for hydrogeological exploration and drilling of boreholes. Drilling in areas without prior knowledge about their groundwater potential has been leading to the drilling of numerous dry boreholes. In this study, we explored the use of Geographic Information System as a pre-analysis tool to identify zones with groundwater potential for Garissa Country. Factors that contributed to groundwater occurrence were identified as landcover, soil type and rock formation. The groundwater potential zones were generated by analysing thematic data of the three factors and integrating the musing Weighted Index Overlay Analysis (WIOA) method. The groundwater potential zones were validated by comparing the predicted potentials with actual yields of existing boreholes drilled within those areas. Results indicate that, whereas the model correctly predicted areas with low or no groundwater potential, it performed sparingly well when predicting areas with good groundwater potential. The study conclusively identified areas where groundwater prospecting should not be attempted and other alternative methods of surface water provision should be explored.
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