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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 241254 matches for " John L. Johnson "
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The risk of obesity by assessing infant growth against the UK-WHO charts compared to the UK90 reference: findings from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study
William Johnson, John Wright, No?l Cameron
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-104
Abstract: Mixed effects models were applied to serial weight and length data from 2181 infants (1187 White; 994 Pakistani) in the Born in Bradford birth cohort study to produce curves from 10?days to 15?months of age. Individual monthly estimates were converted to Z-scores and were plotted by sex and ethnic group. The relative risks (RR) of traits indicative of childhood obesity, including high BMI and rapid weight gain, using the UK-WHO charts compared to the previously used UK90 reference were calculated for all infants together and for White and Pakistani infants separately.Both ethnic groups demonstrated patterns of growth similar to the UK-WHO charts in length but not in weight. The resulting pattern for BMI was remarkable, with an average gain of 1.0 Z-score between two and 12?months of age. The UK-WHO charts were significantly (p?<?0.05) more likely than the UK90 reference to classify BMI above the 91st centile after age six months (RR 1.427-2.151) and weight and BMI gain between birth (one month for BMI) and 12?months of age greater than two centile bands (RR 1.214 and 1.470, respectively).The change to the UK-WHO charts means that normal UK infants risk being diagnosed as being on a trajectory toward childhood obesity. National estimates of obesity will have to be recalculated for previous years to allow longitudinal comparison. The new charts do not allow a focused prevention effort for targeting programmes at infants most at risk of becoming obese, because the use of the 91st or 98th centile on the UK-WHO charts will identify many more infants as being at risk than the same centiles on the UK90 reference. Now more than ever, research is needed to develop a large scale childhood obesity prevention programme which could ideally be integrated with routine infant growth monitoring practice.Routine growth assessment is a fundamental part of the monitoring of child health in the United Kingdom (UK) [1]. Growth in weight, length, and head circumference is measured by chil
Mastectomy Scar Boost Results in Low Risk of Locoregional Recurrence in the Setting of Close or Involved Surgical Margins  [PDF]
Laura Johnson, Natalie Lichter, Mamie Hextall, Patricia L. Watkins, Tarek A. Dufan, John M. Watkins
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.52020

Background: Several Phase III randomized trials have demonstrated improved local control and survival for post-mastectomy radiotherapy in patients with high-risk pathologic features. Close or involved surgical margins were not included as high-risk in these protocols, but have been associated with increased risk of local failure; however, the impact of a boost dose following chestwall radiotherapy in this setting remains to be determined. Methods: Retrospective single-institution outcomes analysis for patients with close or involved surgical margins treated with post-operative radiotherapy is followed by a boost. Results: Between 2003 and 2011, 34 patients were identified for inclusion in the present study. The median chestwall dose was 5040 cGy (range 5000 - 5040) and median boost dose was 1080 cGy (900 - 1620). At a median follow-up of 38.4 months (10.2 - 115.6; with 29% more than 5 years), 28 patients were alive without evidence of recurrence, 3 were alive with recurrent disease (1 chestwall), and 3 had died (none with recurrent disease). The 3-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survivals were 96.9%, 93.9%, and 93.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Chestwall radiotherapy plus boost results in low risk of early locoregional recurrence for women with close or involved surgical margin(s) at mastectomy. Further investigation of PMRT with or without boost in this setting is warranted.

Ruprecht 147: The oldest nearby open cluster as a new benchmark for stellar astrophysics
Jason L. Curtis,Angie Wolfgang,Jason T. Wright,John M. Brewer,John A. Johnson
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/145/5/134
Abstract: Ruprecht 147 is a hitherto unappreciated open cluster that holds great promise as a standard in fundamental stellar astrophysics. We have conducted a radial velocity survey of astrometric candidates with Lick, Palomar, and MMT observatories and have identified over 100 members, including 5 blue stragglers, 11 red giants, and 5 double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s). We estimate the cluster metallicity from spectroscopic analysis, using Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME), and find it to be [M/H] = +0.07 \pm 0.03. We have obtained deep CFHT/MegaCam g'r'i' photometry and fit Padova isochrones to the (g' - i') and 2MASS (J - K) CMDs using the \tau^2 maximum-likelihood procedure of Naylor (2009), and an alternative method using 2D cross-correlations developed in this work. We find best fits for isochrones at age t = 2.5 \pm 0.25 Gyr, m - M = 7.35 \pm 0.1, and A_V = 0.25 \pm 0.05, with additional uncertainty from the unresolved binary population and possibility of differential extinction across this large cluster. The inferred age is heavily dependent by our choice of stellar evolution model: fitting Dartmouth and PARSEC models yield age parameters of 3 Gyr and 3.25 Gyr respectively. At approximately 300 pc and 3 Gyr, Ruprecht 147 is by far the oldest nearby star cluster.
Tobacco use patterns in traditional and shared parenting families: a gender perspective
Joan L Bottorff, Mary T Kelly, John L Oliffe, Joy L Johnson, Lorraine Greaves, Anna Chan
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-239
Abstract: As part of a longitudinal, grounded-theory study with 28 couples to examine the place of tobacco in the lives of new parents, each parent participated in one or two individual, semi-structured interviews during the first three years postpartum. Grounded theory methods and a gender relations framework were used to analyze transcribed data.Two different parenting styles that couples adhered to were identified. These parenting styles reflected performances of femininities and masculinities, and were associated with particular smoking patterns. Traditional parenting reinforced by women's alignment with emphasized femininities and men's alignment with hegemonic masculinities placed women with smoking partners at risk for relapse. Women's actions to be supportive partners facilitated couples' continued smoking. In shared parenting dyads, egalitarian practices tended to support successful transitions to smoke-free homes. Women's ability to exert more influence around family decision making, and the acceptance of new masculine identities associated with fatherhood were influential. In non-smoking dyads where the mother, father, or both reduced or stopped smoking, we observed a subtext of potential conflict in the event either the mother or father relapsed.Decisions about tobacco use are made within relationships and social contexts that vary based on each individual's relationship to tobacco, divisions of domestic labour and childcare, and other activities that impact tobacco use. Sensitive approaches to tobacco reduction for women and men must be developed building on greater understanding of gender relations and how tobacco use is integrated in spousal and parental roles.The ideals of contemporary parenting now carry the social expectation that smoking is incompatible with being a good parent, especially for mothers [1]. Despite this anti-smoking social climate, in Canada smoking prevalence among young adults aged 20-24 years has increased to 27% [2], exceeding the 21% pr
Dysregulation of Glutathione Homeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases
William M. Johnson,Amy L. Wilson-Delfosse,John. J. Mieyal
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4101399
Abstract: Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are increasingly implicated in the induction and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Friedreich’s ataxia. In this review background is provided on the steady-state synthesis, regulation, and transport of glutathione, with primary focus on the brain. A brief overview is presented on the distinct but vital roles of glutathione in cellular maintenance and survival, and on the functions of key glutathione-dependent enzymes. Major contributors to initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are considered, including oxidative stress, protein misfolding, and protein aggregation. In each case examples of key regulatory mechanisms are identified that are sensitive to changes in glutathione redox status and/or in the activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes. Mechanisms of dysregulation of glutathione and/or glutathione-dependent enzymes are discussed that are implicated in pathogenesis of each neurodegenerative disease. Limitations in information or interpretation are identified, and possible avenues for further research are described with an aim to elucidating novel targets for therapeutic interventions. The pros and cons of administration of N-acetylcysteine or glutathione as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the potential utility of serum glutathione as a biomarker, are critically evaluated.
Gender and HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis: presentation and outcome at one year after beginning antituberculosis treatment in Uganda
Peter Nsubuga, John L Johnson, Alphonse Okwera, Roy D Mugerwa, Jerrold J Ellner, Christopher C Whalen
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-2-4
Abstract: We enrolled and followed up a cohort of 105 male and 109 female HIV-infected adults on treatment for initial episodes of culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis between March 1993 and March 1995. A favorable outcome was defined as being cured and alive at one year while an unfavorable outcome was not being cured or dead. Subjects were followed-up by serial medical examinations, complete blood counts, serum β2 microglobulin, CD4+ cell counts, sputum examinations, and chest x-rays.Male patients were older, had higher body mass indices, and lower serum β2 microglobulin levels than female patients at presentation. At one year, there was no difference between male and female patients in the likelihood of experiencing a favorable outcome (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.89–1.17). This effect persisted after controlling for symptoms, serum β2 microglobulin, CD4+ cell count, and severity of disease on chest x-ray (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.54–2.13) with a repeated measures model.While differences existed between males and females with HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis at presentation, the outcomes at one year after the initiation of tuberculosis treatment were similar in Uganda. Women in areas with a high HIV and tuberculosis prevalence should be encouraged to present for screening at the first sign of tuberculosis symptoms.Tuberculosis is estimated to cause at least three million deaths per year worldwide [1] and also accounts for more than one-quarter of all preventable adult deaths in developing countries [2]. Infection with the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) is thought to be the single most important factor that has contributed to the increased incidence of tuberculosis globally in the last decade [2]. Tuberculosis is now the leading cause of death among HIV-infected individuals worldwide and accounts for at least 40% of deaths among HIV-infected persons in Africa [3]. Furthermore, tuberculosis kills more women than any other infectious disease, including malaria and AIDS [4].Repor
Digital clubbing in tuberculosis – relationship to HIV infection, extent of disease and hypoalbuminemia
Henry Ddungu, John L Johnson, Marek Smieja, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-6-45
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was carried out among patients with smear-positive TB recruited consecutively from the medical and TB wards and outpatient clinics at a public hospital in Uganda. The presence of clubbing was assessed by clinical signs and measurement of the ratio of the distal and inter-phalangeal diameters (DPD/IPD) of both index fingers. Clubbing was defined as a ratio > 1.0. Chest radiograph, serum albumin and HIV testing were done.Two hundred patients (82% HIV-infected) participated; 34% had clubbing by clinical criteria whilst 30% had clubbing based on DPD/IPD ratio. Smear grade, extensive or cavitary disease, early versus late HIV disease, and hypoalbuminemia were not associated with clubbing. Clubbing was more common among patients with a lower Karnofsky performance scale score or with prior TB.Clubbing occurs in up to one-third of Ugandan patients with pulmonary TB. Clubbing was not associated with stage of HIV infection, extensive disease or hypoalbuminemia.Digital clubbing is a well described finding in various pulmonary, cardiovascular, neoplastic, infectious, hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal diseases[1]. However, tuberculosis (TB) is not listed in the differential diagnosis of clubbing in some major modern textbooks of medicine[2]. In an earlier study in Nigeria, MacFarlane et al reported clubbing in 21% of patients with pulmonary TB and noted associations with severity of disease, cavitary TB and Hypoalbuminemia[3].Few recent studies and none to our knowledge during the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic have examined the prevalence of finger clubbing in patients with pulmonary TB and its relationship to HIV co-infection, severity and chronicity of TB disease, and nutritional status. TB is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa with a case rate exceeding 377 per 100,000 population per year in Uganda[4]. Forty thousand six hundred and ninety-five new TB cases (19,088 smear-positive) were registered with the Uganda National
Comparative validation of the IPAQ and the 7-Day PAR among women diagnosed with breast cancer
Marilyn Johnson-Kozlow, James F Sallis, Elizabeth A Gilpin, Cheryl L Rock, John P Pierce
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-3-7
Abstract: Participants were women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer and enrolled in the ongoing Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study. Women (N = 159, average age 57 years) wore an accelerometer for one week and then completed the IPAQ or the PAR.The validity correlation of the PAR was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the IPAQ (0.73 vs. 0.33, respectively). The PAR and IPAQ overestimated total physical activity by 13% vs. 247%, respectively. The PAR had better sensitivity (p = 0.14) and specificity (p < .01) than the IPAQ (100% vs. 71% and 84% vs. 59%, respectively) in predicting attainment of the ACSM physical activity guideline.The PAR was superior to the IPAQ in terms of validity, measurement bias, and screening statistics.Many physical activity self-report measures have been developed [1-3] but few studies have compared the performance of different measures [4]. When new measures are developed, it is particularly useful to compare their psychometric properties to well-established measures in similar samples. Two self-report measures designed to assess overall physical activity examined in the present study were the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (or PAR) [5,6] and the recently-introduced International Physical Activity Questionnaire (or IPAQ) [7].The PAR [5] has been validated in a number of studies [3] and the purpose of the present study was to compare its criterion-related validity and measurement bias to the long form of the IPAQ. The two self-report instruments (PAR and IPAQ) were validated by comparing their physical activity estimates to those obtained from an objective physical activity accelerometer; the psychometric properties of the two self-report instruments were then compared. As both the PAR and IPAQ were designed to assess physical activity in all domains (occupation, recreation, travel, and housework) over the past 7 days and have similar administration durations, the comparison of the newly-developed IPAQ against the often-used PAR was wa
Developing Prediction Equations and a Mobile Phone Application to Identify Infants at Risk of Obesity
Gillian Santorelli, Emily S. Petherick, John Wright, Brad Wilson, Haider Samiei, No?l Cameron, William Johnson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071183
Abstract: Background Advancements in knowledge of obesity aetiology and mobile phone technology have created the opportunity to develop an electronic tool to predict an infant’s risk of childhood obesity. The study aims were to develop and validate equations for the prediction of childhood obesity and integrate them into a mobile phone application (App). Methods and Findings Anthropometry and childhood obesity risk data were obtained for 1868 UK-born White or South Asian infants in the Born in Bradford cohort. Logistic regression was used to develop prediction equations (at 6±1.5, 9±1.5 and 12±1.5 months) for risk of childhood obesity (BMI at 2 years >91st centile and weight gain from 0–2 years >1 centile band) incorporating sex, birth weight, and weight gain as predictors. The discrimination accuracy of the equations was assessed by the area under the curve (AUC); internal validity by comparing area under the curve to those obtained in bootstrapped samples; and external validity by applying the equations to an external sample. An App was built to incorporate six final equations (two at each age, one of which included maternal BMI). The equations had good discrimination (AUCs 86–91%), with the addition of maternal BMI marginally improving prediction. The AUCs in the bootstrapped and external validation samples were similar to those obtained in the development sample. The App is user-friendly, requires a minimum amount of information, and provides a risk assessment of low, medium, or high accompanied by advice and website links to government recommendations. Conclusions Prediction equations for risk of childhood obesity have been developed and incorporated into a novel App, thereby providing proof of concept that childhood obesity prediction research can be integrated with advancements in technology.
Exploring the Potential for Automatic Extraction of Vegetation Phenological Metrics from Traffic Webcams
David E. Morris,Doreen S. Boyd,John A. Crowe,Caroline S. Johnson,Karon L. Smith
Remote Sensing , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/rs5052200
Abstract: Phenological metrics are of potential value as direct indicators of climate change. Usually they are obtained via either satellite imaging or ground based manual measurements; both are bespoke and therefore costly and have problems associated with scale and quality. An increase in the use of camera networks for monitoring infrastructure offers a means of obtaining images for use in phenological studies, where the only necessary outlay would be for data transfer, storage, processing and display. Here a pilot study is described that uses image data from a traffic monitoring network to demonstrate that it is possible to obtain usable information from the data captured. There are several challenges in using this network of cameras for automatic extraction of phenological metrics, not least, the low quality of the images and frequent camera motion. Although questions remain to be answered concerning the optimal employment of these cameras, this work illustrates that, in principle, image data from camera networks such as these could be used as a means of tracking environmental change in a low cost, highly automated and scalable manner that would require little human involvement.
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