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an important component in water-balance and irrigation scheduling models.
While the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method
has become the de facto standard for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo), it is a complex
method requiring several weather parameters. Required weather data are
oftentimes unavailable, and alternative
methods must be used. Three alternative ETo methods, the FAO-56
Reduced Set, Hargreaves, and Turc methods, were evaluated for use in
Mississippi, a humid region of the USA, using only measurements of air temperature.
The Turc equation, developed for use with measured temperature and solar radiation,
was tested with estimated radiation and found to provide better estimates of FAO-56 ETo than the other methods. Mean bias errors of 0.75,
0.28, and -0.19 mm, mean
absolute errors of 0.92, 0.68, and 0.62 mm,
and percent errors of 22.5%, 8.5%, and -5.7% were found for daily estimates for
the FAO-56 Reduced Set, Hargreaves,
and Turc methods, respectively.
S100B protein is released by astrocytes into the brain extracellular fluid following acute brain injury and elevated levels in CSF and serum have been shown to correlate with patient outcome following traumatic brain injury. A prospective study of brain extracellular fluid (ECF) and serum S100B levels in 12 patients with severe head injury (GCS ≤ 8) was undertaken using intracerebral microdialysis to investigate whether a correlation with ECF S100B and outcome could be confirmed. Patient outcomes were assessed at 6 months using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and divided into two outcome groups: group A, 8 survivors with either a good recovery or moderate disability (GOS scores of 4 or 5); and group B, 4 patients who died (GOS 1). Peak serum levels of S100B were significantly greater in group B (mean 6.03 ng/ml) compared with group A (mean 0.73 ng/ml) (P = 0.009). Group A had a mean peak S100B in the extracellular compartment of 186 ng/ml compared to 150 ng/ml in group B. There was no significant difference between the mean peak brain ECF S100B concentrations for the 2 outcome groups (P = 0.932). We confirm that intracerebral microdialysis can be used to sample S100B concentrations from brain extracellular fluid and our results suggest that the ECF S100B levels were variable and that there was no significant difference between the good outcome and poor outcome groups. In contrast, the serum levels of S100B of patients with a poor outcome were significantly higher than those with a good outcome.