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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 169052 matches for " John K. Pringle "
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Clinical Evaluation of an Oral Electrolyte Solution Formulated Based on Strong Ion Difference (SID) and Using Propionate as the Organic Anion in the Treatment of Neonatal Diarrheic Calves with Strong Ion Acidosis  [PDF]
Henry Stampfli, Olimpo Oliver, John K. Pringle
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.21006
Abstract: Background: It is postulated that the concentrations of the major strong ions (Na, K, and Cl) in oral electrolyte solutions play a major role in clinical efficacy of these solutions for rehydration and corrections of metabolic acid base derangements. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test prospectively the efficacy of an OES (OESexp) formulated based on concentration of strong ion difference (SID) and propionate in a group of calves with naturally occurring neonatal diarrhea and clinically detectable dehydration and acid base abnormalities. Animals: Ten client owned calves of varying breeds, 2 - 22 days old, presented to a veterinary teaching hospital with a history of naturally occurring acute undifferentiated diarrhea, progressive depression and dehydration for treatment. Methods: Clinical and laboratory parameters were measured pre and post two oral electrolyte treatments to assess efficacy of the experimental OES to correct clinical and clinico pathological parameters. For the clinical trial the calves served as their own controls. For control of safety of medication 4 normal calves were force fed 4 L of OESexp and followed over a 24 hour period. Results: All calves had severe diarrhea and metabolic acidosis. The metabolic acidosis observed in the plasma of these calves and reflected by pH, HCO3- SID and base deficit was corrected significantly towards reference ranges (p < 0.05) with two 2 L feedings 12 hours apart. Dehydration was significantly corrected and all calves were discharged 1 - 3 days post admission. Conclusion and Clinical Importance: The use of SID is a valid approach when formulating oral electrolytes solutions for use in calves with acute diarrhea and metabolic derangement. Sodium propionate is valid substitute for commonly used sodium base equivalents in North America in oral electrolyte solutions.
Evaluation of alternative methods for estimating reference evapotranspiration  [PDF]
Daniel K. Fisher, H. C. Pringle III
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.48A008

Evapotranspiration is an important component in water-balance and irrigation scheduling models. While the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method has become the de facto standard for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo), it is a complex method requiring several weather parameters. Required weather data are oftentimes unavailable, and alternative methods must be used. Three alternative ETo methods, the FAO-56 Reduced Set, Hargreaves, and Turc methods, were evaluated for use in Mississippi, a humid region of the USA, using only measurements of air temperature. The Turc equation, developed for use with measured temperature and solar radiation, was tested with estimated radiation and found to provide better estimates of FAO-56 ETo than the other methods. Mean bias errors of 0.75, 0.28, and -0.19 mm, mean absolute errors of 0.92, 0.68, and 0.62 mm, and percent errors of 22.5%, 8.5%, and -5.7% were found for daily estimates for the FAO-56 Reduced Set, Hargreaves, and Turc methods, respectively.

Improvements of organic aerosol representations and their effects in large-scale atmospheric models
H. Tost,K. J. Pringle
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012,
Abstract: Organics dominate the composition of the atmospheric aerosol, especially in the fine mode, influencing some of its characteristics such as the hygroscopicity, which is of climatic relevance for the Earth system. This study targets an improvement in the description of organic aerosols suitable for large-scale modelling, making use of recent developments based on laboratory and field measurements. In addition to the organic mass and particle number distribution, the proposed method keeps track of the oxidation state of the aerosol based on the OH exposure time, describing some of its chemical characteristics. This study presents the application of the method in a global chemistry climate model, investigates the sensitivity to process formulations and emission assignments, provides a comparison with observations and analyses the climate impact. Even though the organic aerosol mass distribution is hardly affected by the new formulation, it shows impacts (regionally of the order of 10 % to 20 %) on parameters directly influencing climate via the direct and indirect aerosol effects. Furthermore, the global distribution of the organic O:C ratio is analysed in detail, leading to different regimes in the oxidation state: low O:C ratios over the tropical continents due to small OH concentrations caused by OH depletion in chemical reactions, and enhanced oxidation states over the tropical oceans based on less OH scavengers and at high altitudes due to longer atmospheric residence time. Due to the relation between O:C ratio and the aerosol hygroscopicity the ageing results in a more physically and chemically consistent description of aerosol water uptake by the organic aerosol. In comparison with observations reasonable agreement for the O:C ratio within the limits of a global model of the simulations is achieved.
Apparent Defect in Yeast Bud-Site Selection Due to a Specific Failure to Splice the Pre-mRNA of a Regulator of Cell-Type-Specific Transcription
Shanshan Tuo, Kenichi Nakashima, John R. Pringle
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047621
Abstract: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae normally selects bud sites (and hence axes of cell polarization) in one of two distinct patterns, the axial pattern of haploid cells and the bipolar pattern of diploid cells. Although many of the proteins involved in bud-site selection are known, it is likely that others remain to be identified. Confirming a previous report (Ni and Snyder, 2001, Mol. Biol. Cell 12, 2147–2170), we found that diploids homozygous for deletions of IST3/SNU17 or BUD13 do not show normal bipolar budding. However, these abnormalities do not reflect defects in the apparatus of bipolar budding. Instead, the absence of Ist3 or Bud13 results in a specific defect in the splicing of the MATa1 pre-mRNA, which encodes a repressor that normally blocks expression of haploid-specific genes in diploid cells. When Mata1 protein is lacking, Axl1, a haploid-specific protein critical for the choice between axial and bipolar budding, is expressed ectopically in diploid cells and disrupts bipolar budding. The involvement of Ist3 and Bud13 in pre-mRNA splicing is by now well known, but the degree of specificity shown here for MATa1 pre-mRNA, which has no obvious basis in the pre-mRNA structure, is rather surprising in view of current models for the functions of these proteins. Moreover, we found that deletion of PML1, whose product is thought to function together with Ist3 and Bud13 in a three-protein retention-and-splicing (RES) complex, had no detectable effect on the splicing in vivo of either MATa1 or four other pre-mRNAs.
Drift by drift: effective population size is limited by advection
John P Wares, James M Pringle
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-235
Abstract: Here we show that in advective environments such as oceans and rivers, the mean asymmetric transport of passively dispersed reproductive propagules will act to limit the effective population size in species with a drifting developmental stage. As advection increases, effective population size becomes decoupled from census size as the persistence of novel genetic lineages is restricted to those that arise in a small upstream portion of the species domain.This result leads to predictions about the maintenance of diversity in advective systems, and complements the "sweepstakes" hypothesis and other hypotheses proposed to explain cases of low allelic diversity in species with high fecundity. We describe the spatial extent of the species domain in which novel allelic diversity will be retained, thus determining how large an appropriately placed marine reserve must be to allow the persistence of endemic allelic diversity.The relationship between genetic diversity and population size offers a number of tantalizing insights into demographic influences on evolution [1-3]. While life history characteristics of species tend to make the effective population size (Ne) of a species much lower than the actual census size [4-6], neutral theory [7] predicts a proportional relationship between genetic diversity and Ne [3,8]. Research has shown many cases in which Ne as estimated from genetic markers is several orders of magnitude lower than would be predicted based on census size (N) and a species' reproductive traits [9], and it has been suggested that extremely high variance in reproductive success (the "sweepstakes" models of [1,6]) or genome-wide selective sweeps [10,11] may be causal mechanisms.Here, using the results of Pringle and colleagues [12,13] and a simple numerical model, we quantify Ne for populations whose dispersal is subject to persistent directional flow and find a complementary mechanism for the reduction of Ne. We do this in a linear domain, such as a benthic pop
Role of Endocytosis in Localization and Maintenance of the Spatial Markers for Bud-Site Selection in Yeast
Shanshan Tuo, Kenichi Nakashima, John R. Pringle
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072123
Abstract: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae normally selects bud sites (and hence axes of cell polarization) in one of two distinct patterns, the axial pattern of haploid cells and the bipolar pattern of diploid cells. These patterns depend on distinct sets of cortical-marker proteins that transmit positional information through a common signaling pathway based on a Ras-type GTPase. It has been reported previously that various proteins of the endocytic pathway may be involved in determining the bipolar pattern but not the axial pattern. To explore this question systematically, we constructed and analyzed congenic haploid and diploid deletion mutants for 14 genes encoding proteins that are involved in endocytosis. The mutants displayed a wide range of severities in their overall endocytosis defects, as judged by their growth rates and abilities to take up the lipophilic dye FM 4–64. Consistent with the previous reports, none of the mutants displayed a significant defect in axial budding, but they displayed defects in bipolar budding that were roughly correlated with the severities of their overall endocytosis defects. Both the details of the mutant budding patterns and direct examination of GFP-tagged marker proteins suggested that both initial formation and maintenance of the normally persistent bipolar marks depend on endocytosis, as well as polarized exocytosis, in actively growing cells. Interestingly, maintenance of the bipolar marks in non-growing cells did not appear to require normal levels of endocytosis. In some cases, there was a striking lack of correlation between the overall severities of the general-endocytosis defect and the bud-site selection defect, suggesting that various endocytosis proteins may differ in their importance for the uptake of various plasma-membrane targets.
Active galactic nuclei and the minor merger hypothesis
Philip Kendall,John Magorrian,J. E. Pringle
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2003.06776.x
Abstract: We have investigated the dynamics of the merging process in the minor merger hypothesis for active galactic nuclei. We find that for a satellite galaxy to be able to merge directly with the nucleus of the host galaxy (for example, to give rise to the compact dust discs which are seen in early type active galaxies) requires the initial orbit of the satellite to be well aimed. For the case of the host galaxy being a disc galaxy, if the initial orbits of the satellites are randomly oriented with respect to the host galaxy, then the orbits of those which reach the host nuclear regions in a reasonable time, are also fairly randomly oriented once they reach the nucleus. We note that this result might be able to provide an explanation of why the jet directions in the nuclei of Seyfert galaxies are apparently unrelated to the plane of the galaxy discs.
Outcome following severe traumatic brain injury TBI correlates with serum S100B but not brain extracellular fluid S100B: An intracerebral microdialysis study  [PDF]
Craig D. Winter, Geraldine F. Clough, Ashley K. Pringle, Martin K. Church
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2013.32013

S100B protein is released by astrocytes into the brain extracellular fluid following acute brain injury and elevated levels in CSF and serum have been shown to correlate with patient outcome following traumatic brain injury. A prospective study of brain extracellular fluid (ECF) and serum S100B levels in 12 patients with severe head injury (GCS ≤ 8) was undertaken using intracerebral microdialysis to investigate whether a correlation with ECF S100B and outcome could be confirmed. Patient outcomes were assessed at 6 months using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and divided into two outcome groups: group A, 8 survivors with either a good recovery or moderate disability (GOS scores of 4 or 5); and group B, 4 patients who died (GOS 1). Peak serum levels of S100B were significantly greater in group B (mean 6.03 ng/ml) compared with group A (mean 0.73 ng/ml) (P = 0.009). Group A had a mean peak S100B in the extracellular compartment of 186 ng/ml compared to 150 ng/ml in group B. There was no significant difference between the mean peak brain ECF S100B concentrations for the 2 outcome groups (P = 0.932). We confirm that intracerebral microdialysis can be used to sample S100B concentrations from brain extracellular fluid and our results suggest that the ECF S100B levels were variable and that there was no significant difference between the good outcome and poor outcome groups. In contrast, the serum levels of S100B of patients with a poor outcome were significantly higher than those with a good outcome.

Development of an Open-Source Cloud-Connected Sensor-Monitoring Platform  [PDF]
Daniel K. Fisher, Reginald S. Fletcher, Saseendran S. Anapalli, H. C. Pringle III
Advances in Internet of Things (AIT) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ait.2018.81001
Abstract: Rapid advances in electronics and communications technologies offer continuously evolving options for sensing and awareness of the physical environment. Many of these advances are becoming increasingly available to “non-professionals,” that is, those without formal training or expertise in disciplines such as electronic engineering, computer programming, or physical sciences, via the open-source concept. The open-source concept of collaboration and sharing of ideas offers advantages including low cost, ease of use, extensive array of electronic technologies offered, and technical and programming support. Expansion of communications infrastructure, including wireless, cellular, and internet networks, continues to provide greater ability to be connected and share information over any distance in real time. A basic data-collection platform using open-source hardware and software and internet cloud components was developed and discussed. The simple and inexpensive platform was used to develop and implement an instrument system to remotely monitor soil-moisture status in agricultural fields. The monitoring system transferred data regularly from the field to an internet website via the cellular communications network. The system performed reliably over an entire growing season with no maintenance requirements. The basic platform can be modified to suit a user’s specific requirements, and offers options for automated collection, viewing, and sharing of remotely sensed data.
Validation of computerized diagnostic information in a clinical database from a national equine clinic network
Johanna C Penell, Brenda N Bonnett, John Pringle, Agneta Egenvall
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-51-50
Abstract: A random sample of 450 visits over the year 2002 (nvisits = 49,591) was taken from 18 nation wide clinics headed under one company. Computerized information for the visits selected and copies of the corresponding veterinary clinical records were retrieved. Completeness and correctness were determined using semi-subjective criteria. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with correctness for diagnosis.Three hundred and ninety six visits had veterinary clinical notes that were retrievable. The overall completeness and correctness were 91% and 92%, respectively; both values considered high. Descriptive analyses showed significantly higher degree of correctness for first visits compared to follow up visits and for cases with a diagnostic code recorded in the veterinary records compared to those with no code noted. The correctness was similar regardless of usage category (leisure/sport horse, racing trotter and racing thoroughbred) or gender.For the four body systems selected (joints, skin and hooves, respiratory, skeletal) the completeness varied between 71% (respiration) and 91% (joints) and the correctness ranged from 87% (skin and hooves) to 96% (respiration), whereas the specificity was >95% for all systems. Logistic regression showed that correctness was associated with type of visit, whether an explicit diagnostic code was present in the veterinary clinical record, and body system. Correctness for information on affected limb was 95% and varied with joint.Based on the overall high level of correctness and completeness the database was considered useful for research purposes. For the body systems investigated the highest level of completeness and correctness was seen for joints and respiration, respectively.Computerized information in medical databases offers potential for epidemiological and clinical research by providing, for example, longitudinal and cross-sectional data [1,2], finding cases[3,4] and determining incidence of disease [5]. Howe
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