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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 196174 matches for " John E Corkill "
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Frequency of conjugative transfer of plasmid-encoded ISEcp1 - blaCTX-M-15 and aac(6')-lb-cr genes in Enterobacteriaceae at a tertiary care center in Lebanon - role of transferases
Mohamad Harajly, Marie-Therese Khairallah, John E Corkill, George F Araj, Ghassan M Matar
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-9-19
Abstract: Conjugation experiments were done on 53 ESBL-producing and/or fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae and ESBL-producing S. sonnei isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing on parent and transconjugant isolates, and PCR amplifications on plasmid extracts of the resistance-encoding genes: blaCTX-M-15 with the ISEcp1 insertion sequence, the aac(6')-lb-cr and qnrS genes, as well as tra encoding transferases genes were done. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed to demonstrate whether conjugative isolates are clonal and whether they are linked epidemiologically to a particular source.Antimicrobial susceptibility testing on transconjugants revealed that 26 out of 53 (49%) ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were able to transfer antimicrobial resistance to the recipients. Transfer of high-level resistance to the transconjugants encoded by the blaCTX-M-15 gene downstream the ISEcp1 insertion sequence against 3rd generation cephalosporins, and of low-level resistance against ciprofloxacin, and variable levels of resistance against aminoglycosides encoded by aac(6')-lb-cr gene, were observed in transconjugants. tra encoding transferase genes were detected exclusively in conjugative isolates.In conclusion, the frequency of transfer of antimicrobial resistance in non clonal Enterobacteriaceae at the tertiary care center by conjugation was 49%. Conjugation occurred in isolates expressing the tra encoding transferase genes. Multiple conjugative strains harboring the plasmid encoded antimicrobial resistant genes were circulating in the medical center. Molecular epidemiology analysis showed that conjugative isolates are neither clonal nor linked to a particular site and transfer of antimicrobial resistance is by horizontal transfer of plasmids.Plasmid-encoded Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are increasingly spreading among Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates throughout the world due mostly to their presence on highly conjugative plas
Escherichia coli from community-acquired urinary tract infections resistant to fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum beta-lactams
Samuel Kariuki,1 Gunturu Revathi,2 John Corkill,3 John Kiiru,1 Joyce Mwituria,1Nazir Mirza,4 C. Anthony Hart.3
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli are increasingly becoming resistant to flouroquinolones and to other commonly available antimicrobials. We sought to investigate the genetic basis for fluoroquinolone and extended spectrum beta-lactam (ESBL) resistance in 17 fluoroquinolone-resistant (MIC of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin >32 μg/ml) E. coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs).Methods: We applied PCR and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) to characterize resistance genes and to determine clonal relatedness of strains, respectively.Results: Twelve of the 17 E. coli were resistant to multiple drugs, including ampicillin, co-amoxyclav, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and gentamicin and nalidixic acid and produced plasmid-mediated CTX-M-15 type ESBLs and CMY-2 AmpC type enzymes. The other 5 E. coli that were non-ESBL-producing were multiply resistant to ampicillin, nitrofurantoin, cefoxitin, nalidixic acid. Resistance to fluoroquinolones resulted from a combination of the presence of qnrA, qnrB, ciprofloxacin acetylating enzyme designated aac(6’)-1b-cr, and mutations in the two amino acid substitutions; 83 Serine (TCG) to Leucine (TTG) and 87 Aspartic acid (GAC) to Asparagine (AAC). Conclusion: Antibiogram patterns and PFGE of E. coli showed that these were community acquired UTI caused by pockets of clonally-related and some discreet strain types. Plasmid-mediated CTX-M-15 beta-lactamases and CMY-2 AmpC enzymes and fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli are becoming increasingly prevalent in hospitals in Kenya, posing a major challenge in the management of UTIs.
Inference in the Presence of Likelihood Monotonicity for Polytomous and Logistic Regression  [PDF]
John E. Kolassa
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2016.65024
Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of inference for a multinomial regression model in the presence of likelihood monotonicity. This paper proposes translating the multinomial regression problem into a conditional logistic regression problem, using existing techniques to reduce this conditional logistic regression problem to one with fewer observations and fewer covariates, such that probabilities for the canonical sufficient statistic of interest, conditional on remaining sufficient statistics, are identical, and translating this conditional logistic regression problem back to the multinomial regression setting. This reduced multinomial regression problem does not exhibit monotonicity of its likelihood, and so conventional asymptotic techniques can be used.
Lattice of Finite Group Actions on Prism Manifolds  [PDF]
John E. Kalliongis, Ryo Ohashi
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2012.23022
Abstract: The set of finite group actions (up to equivalence) which operate on a prism manifold M, preserve a Heegaard Klein bottle and have a fixed orbifold quotient type, form a partially ordered set. We describe the partial ordering of these actions by relating them to certain sets of ordered pairs of integers. There are seven possible orbifold quotient types, and for any fixed quotient type we show that the partially ordered set is isomorphic to a union of distributive lattices of a certain type. We give necessary and sufficent conditions, for these partially ordered sets to be isomorphic and to be a union of Boolean algebras.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder in disguise—Case report  [PDF]
John E. Berg, Jorid Grimeland
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.23026
Abstract: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may mimic other minor and major psychiatric disorders or symptoms. Psychomotor disturbances may also be seen in OCD. Symptoms and complaints could be misinterpreted. Differential diagnostic assessments would be difficult either if the person has OCD or another diagnostic entity with OCD related symptoms. If clinicians in residential or outpatient settings do not realize this, the patients may suffer from inadvertent pharmacological treatment efforts, to no avail. A representative case of the former is presented. Withdrawal of all psychotropic medications cold turkey did not increase symptom load during the following weeks, indicating little benefit from medications. Because of continued complaints from the patient, psychotropic medications were gradually reintroduced, without any improvement. OCD patients may not be helped by extensive use of psychotropics and doctors responsible for them should employ other methods of reducing OCD symptoms than lumping together diverse psychotropics. There is evidence for the value of intensive cognitive behaviour therapy, but also for addressing the social conditions of the patients.
Climatological Characteristics of Historical and Future High-Wind Events in Alaska  [PDF]
Soumik Basu, John E. Walsh
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2018.84025
Abstract: High winds cause waves, storm surge, erosion and physical damage to infrastructure and ecosystems. However, there have been few evaluations of wind climatologies and future changes, especially change in high-wind events, on a regional basis. This study uses Alaska as a regional case study of climatological wind speed and direction. Eleven first-order stations across different subregions of Alaska provide historical data (1975-2005) for the observational climatology and for the calibration of Coupled Model Inter comparison Project (CMIP5) simulations, which in turn provide projections of changes in winds through 2100. Historically, winds exceeding 25 and 35 knots are most common in the Bering Sea coastal region of Alaska, followed by northern Alaska coastal areas. Autumn and winter are the seasons of most frequent high-wind occurrences in the coastal sites, while there is no distinct seasonal peak at the interior stations where high-wind events are less frequent. An examination of the sea level pressure pattern associated with the highest-wind event at each station reveals the presence of a strong pressure gradient associated with an extratropical cyclone in most cases. Northern coastal regions of Alaska are projected to experience increased frequencies of high-wind events during the cold season, especially late autumn and early winter, when reduced sea ice cover in the late century will leave coastal regions increasingly vulnerable to flooding and erosion.
Metals, Metalloids and Toxicity in Date Palms: Potential Environmental Impact  [PDF]
John R. Williams, Avin E. Pillay
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.25068
Abstract: This paper summarizes our studies on metal and metalloid uptake by the date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L., a tree of considerable importance in arid regions. The typical concentrations of 17 elements in the date palm are summarized and compared with existing data in the scientific literature. The role and toxicity of these elements are considered. Issues encountered by us during sample collection, pre-treatment and chemical analysis are described. Future studies are suggested.
Effect of Dietary EGCG on Normal and Vitamin E and Selenium Deficient Rats  [PDF]
Juan E. Andrade, John R. Burgess
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.48A020
Abstract: The tea catechin EGCG has been postulated to provide health benefits in humans, to some extent, as an antioxidant. The dose-response effect of dietary EGCG (0, 30, 60, or 120 mg/kg diet) was tested in rats under high versus low oxidative stress conditions that were created by feeding diets adequate in vitamin E and Se (Lox), or deficient in both (Hox) for six weeks. Effects on growth, quinone reductase (NQO1) activity, F2-isoprostanes and nutrient antioxidant amounts in the liver were evaluated as markers of nutrient deficiency and oxidative status. Under Hox conditions consumption of EGCG only at the lowest dose was partially associated with a protection against oxidative stress, reflected by a delay in growth deceleration, but no protection against lipid oxidation. Elevated liver NQO1 activity was observed in this group (>4-fold) increasing with the dose; but it was not associated with antioxidant protection. In contrast, under Lox conditions consumption of EGCG was associated with antioxidant activity reflected in a reduction (>30%) in F2-isoprostanes and protection of CoQ reduced status in the liver. Overall these results suggest that the antioxidant effect of EGCG in vivo depends on the level of oxidative stress and the presence of other nutrient antioxidants.
Psychometric properties of the interRAI subjective quality of life Instrument for mental health  [PDF]
Tess E. Naus, John P. Hirdes
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.53A084
A new Subjective Quality of Life (SQoL) Instrument for inpatient and community mental health settings was developed by the interRAI research collaborative to support evaluation of quality in mental health settings from the person’s perspective. Ratings of SQoL provide important information about the quality of service and patient experience with the care they receive. This information can help staff to improve approaches to each person’s plan of care in a manner that is meaningful to the individual. This study examined the reliability of the SQoL-MH. 83 inpatients from several clinical departments in a mental health center in South Western Ontario, Canada were randomly assigned to either be interviewed or complete the assessment on his or her own. Reliability was tested using Cronbach’s Alpha. A preliminary factor analysis points to four SQoL-MH subscales with very good internal consistency, ranging from 0.83 to 0.90. Once finalized, the Subjective Quality of Life instrument will be integral to the interRAI suite of instruments used to assess persons with mental health needs. A reliable and valid SQoL-MH instrument will allow mental health service providers to shape or modify care environments in order to enhance quality of life. In addition, the SQoL-MH instrument could also benefit advocacy groups who use reports on quality of life to influence social policy development and funding decisions.
Towards Ecological Civilization: Ideas from Azerbaijan  [PDF]
Urkhan Alakbarov, John E. S. Lawrence
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2015.33013
Abstract: This discussion/review article traces relationships between an innovative strategic, national approach to national human resources development and enhancing national capacity for a more ecologically knowledgeable, sensitive society in a former Soviet country. With stunning speed following independence, Azerbaijan managed its extractive industries (oil and natural gas) effectively, rising to the top globally in annual GDP growth. Its determination to translate “black gold to human gold (BGHG)” and to diversify its economy led to a broad decade-long effort to modernize linkages between education, training and livelihood preparation. A complex national strategy to achieve BGHG was put in place, involving among other components, national labor force surveys, accelerated skills development, and employment service reforms. Given the pressing need for cleanup of Soviet industrial detritus, as well as emerging awareness of environmental responsibility among all sectors, unique “eco-civil” initiatives were launched both in schools and in civil service training programs. The resulting mosaic of public and private sector cooperation in meeting the twin goals of BGHG and a more “eco-civil” society can serve as a model for the region and beyond.
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