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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 82733 matches for " John David Hull "
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Observational Study of a Multi-Active Ingredient Over-the-Counter Cold Remedy Following Active Pharmacist Recommendation  [PDF]
Gillian Lisa Phillipson, John David Hull, Boles?aw Samoliński
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.71005
Abstract: Real-world user satisfaction with a fixed dose combination over-the-counter cold remedy (Vicks Symptomed Complete Cytrynowy hot drink; VSCC) was evaluated in a prospective, non-comparative, observational study involving 176 pharmacies in Poland from February to April 2015. 1391 participants completed a questionnaire in the pharmacy and several paper questionnaires at home following use of the product at their own discretion. Participants returned their completed questionnaires to the pharmacy. 1356 participants were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. Participants highly valued the advice from their pharmacist (97%, P < 0.0001, important vs. not important) and thought the quality of that advice was good (93%, P < 0.0001, good/very good vs. very bad-fair). 96% of participants found VSCC to be effective in some way against their cold symptoms (P < 0.0001, effective vs. not effective) and 68% of them stated that it was better than any other cold therapy they had used before (P < 0.0001, better/best vs. same/worse). Adverse event reporting was very low.
A Survey of the Experience and Impact of Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections on People in Six Countries in the 2011/2012 Common Cold and Flu Season  [PDF]
John David Hull, Ian Paul Barton, Jennifer Torgersen, Christine Marie McNeil
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2013.34026
Abstract: Introduction: Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTIs) are the most common infectious diseases of humankind. While usually mild and self-limiting, they are characterized by a series of simultaneously occurring symptoms/ signs that are sufficiently disruptive to sufferers’ normal activities in which medication is frequently sought. While the literature has many examples of epidemiological studies on these infections, there are few reports on patient experience and impact. This study was designed to investigate these aspects of Common Cold/Flu across six countries. Methods: A minimum of 500 adults aged 18 and older were recruited in each of six countries (Brazil, China, Germany, India, Russia, and the US) using customary survey research sampling techniques. Single 30-minute (online) or 40-minute door-to-door quantitative questionnaires with c. 50 questions were completed with each participant by the global research firm Ipsos. Main Findings: Across countries, incidence and seasonality of infections reported to this study were consistent with published data. There appears to be a need for patient education on the causes and transmission routes of respiratory infections. Getting good quality sleep and being able to continue with daily activities as an infection resolves are significant drivers to therapy. The most common non-prescription therapies reported were multi-ingredient products in line with the simultaneously occurring multi-symptom nature of the condition(s). Conclusions: This study indicated that acute URTIs exert a significant deleterious effect on sufferers. Public health education, possibly best undertaken by Pharmacists has the potential to impact the extent of virus transmission by ensuring that people know the true cause of the infection, how it is transmitted and how best to combat this. The several simultaneously occurring symptoms encourage sufferers to seek multi-ingredient remedies to allow them to continue with normal activities as their infection resolves naturally.
The clinical characteristics of three subgroups of non-functioning pituitary adenomas  [PDF]
Adam Hull, Stephen D. Milhollin, John E. Vena, David V. LaBorde
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2014.41009
Abstract:

Introduction: Despite the fact that non-functioning pituitary adenomas do not overproduce hormones, many will stain positive for a particular pituitary hormone, which can be used to differentiate these adenomas into subgroups. If these different sub-groups behave differently in terms of post surgical progression of disease (PSPD) rates or other clinical variables, then better treatment and prognosis could be predicted. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Patients who have undergone surgery for removal of a non-functioning pituitary adenoma at Emory University Hospital served as the source for all data used in this study (n = 184). Data were collected from a database of electronic medical records (EMRs) for these patients in 2010 documenting clinical and demographic variables including treatment and PSPD. Results: Risk for PSPD did not differ by adenoma subtypes: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH+), luteinizing hormone (LH+), or those that do not stain positive for any hormone (non-functioning, or NF?) (p = 0.971). There were two clinical characteristics statistically related to adenoma subtype: altered mental status and the anterior-posterior (AP) dimension of pre-operative adenomas. PSPD was related to several clinical characteristics, including gender, previous adenoma, post-operative residual, and follow-up time.

Low pH gel intranasal sprays inactivate influenza viruses in vitro and protect ferrets against influenza infection
Paul Rennie, Philip Bowtell, David Hull, Duane Charbonneau, Robert Lambkin-Williams, John Oxford
Respiratory Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-8-38
Abstract: Inactivation of influenza A and avian reassortment influenza was determined using in vitro solutions tests. Low pH nasal sprays were tested using the ferret model with an influenza A Sydney/5/97 challenge. Clinical measures were shed virus, weight loss and body temperature.The virus inactivation studies showed that influenza viruses are rapidly inactivated by contact with acid buffered solutions at pH 3.5. The titre of influenza A Sydney/5/97 [H3N2] was reduced by at least 3 log cycles with one minute contact with buffers based on simple acid mixtures such as L-pyroglutamic acid, succinic acid, citric acid and ascorbic acid. A pH 3.5 nasal gel composition containing pyroglutamic acid, succinic acid and zinc acetate reduced titres of influenza A Hong Kong/8/68 [H3N2] by 6 log cycles, and avian reassortment influenza A/Washington/897/80 X A Mallard/New York/6750/78 [H3N2] by 5 log cycles, with 1 min contact.Two ferret challenge studies, with influenza A Sydney/5/97, demonstrated a reduction in the severity of the disease with early application of low pH nasal sprays versus a saline control. In the first study there was decreased weight loss in the treatment groups. In the second study there were reductions in virus shedding and weight loss, most notably when a gelling agent was added to the low pH formulation.These findings indicate the potential of a low pH nasal spray as an adjunct to current influenza therapies, and warrant further investigation in humans.Pandemic influenza, whether from new avian strains or from reassortment within existing strains, is of growing concern [1-3]. If an influenza pandemic of a virulent strain were to emerge, it would rapidly spread around the globe with potential to overwhelm health services. The logistics of mass distribution, coupled with the known limitations of current treatments, mean there is a risk that recommended therapeutic strategies against influenza may leave a significant proportion of the population underprotected [2].
Development of potential manufacturing routes for substituted thiophenes – Preparation of halogenated 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid derivatives as building blocks for a new family of 2,6-dihaloaryl 1,2,4-triazole insecticides
Hull John W,Romer Duane R,Podhorez David E,Ash Mezzie L
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1860-5397-3-23
Abstract: Background Dow AgroSciences has been investigating a new family of functionalized 2,6-dihaloaryl 1,2,4-triazole insecticides featuring specifically targeted insecticidal activities coupled with low mammalian toxicity. With broad spectrum control of both chewing and sap-feeding pests in mind, this family of compounds has been under investigation for aphid, mite, and whitefly control in food crop protection as well as ornamental applications. Two specific targets for development have been the 2,6-dihalo 1,2,4-triazoles XR-693 and XR-906, which require a supply of the halogenated 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid derivatives 1, 2, and 3 for assembly of the C-ring portion of the triazole products. Results Potential manufacturing routes to three halogenated 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid derivatives 4-bromo-3-methyl-2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride 1, 3,4,5-trichloro-2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride 2, and 3,4,5-trichloro-2-thiophenecarbonitrile 3 from commercially available thiophene raw materials have been developed and demonstrated on a laboratory scale. A one-pot bromination/debromination procedure developed for 3-methylthiophene gave 2,4-dibromo-3-methylthiophene. Carboxylic acid functionality was then introduced either by a Grignard metallation followed by carbonation with CO2, or by a palladium catalyzed carbonylation procedure under CO pressure. The vapor phase chlorination of 2-thiophenecarbonitrile with chlorine gas at 500°C with an average residence time of 6 seconds gave 3,4,5-trichloro-2-thiophenenitrile 3 in a 69% distilled yield, a process that was carried out on a multi-kilogram scale in the laboratory. Finally, a route for the preparation of 3,4,5-trichloro-2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride 2 was developed from tetrachlorothiophene via either a lithiation reaction with n-butyllithium in MTBE solvent, or by a previously reported Grignard method using 1,2-dibromoethane as activator, followed by carbonation of the anion with CO2 to give the trichloro-2-thiophenecarboxylic acid, which was readily converted to the acid chloride 2 with SOCl2. Conclusion The successful development of efficient synthetic routes to the halogenated thiophene building blocks 4-bromo-3-methyl-2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride 1, 3,4,5-trichloro-2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride 2, and 3,4,5-trichloro-2-thiophenecarbonitrile 3 paved the way for the development of viable commercial processes for XR-693 and XR-906, members of a new class of 2,6-dihaloaryl 1,2,4-triazole insecticides that exhibit selective activity against aphids, mites, and whiteflies coupled with low mammalian toxicity. The proce
Efficacy of a Topical Aromatic Rub (Vicks VapoRub®)-Speed of Action of Subjective Nasal Cooling and Relief from Nasal Congestion  [PDF]
Ron Eccles, Martez Jawad, David L. Ramsey, J. David Hull
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2015.51002
Abstract: Vicks VapoRub® (VVR) is a pharmaceutical preparation containing a combination of levomenthol, eucalyptus oil, turpentine oil and camphor as active ingredients, and thymol, cedarwood oil, and white soft paraffin as excipients. VVR is a petrolatum-based ointment to be either applied topically to the chest, throat, and back or added to hot water and the aromatic vapours inhaled. When used topically, the actives are evaporated by body temperature and inspired. The main therapeutic effects are the feeling of relief from nasal congestion and relief from cough. These were primarily experienced by patients as the trigeminal and olfactory impact of the aromatics and were hypothesized to be experienced within minutes. This was a randomized, single-(Investigator) blind, controlled, 2-arm (VVR vs. petrolatum), parallel design pilot study in 50 otherwise healthy adult patients suffering from common cold and experiencing nasal congestion. Speed to detection of a sensation of nasal cooling and nasal decongestion was assessed following application of the recommended amount of product. The time to first experience of a sensation of nasal cooling was significantly (p < 0.001) faster for patients who received VVR compared to control (median times of 23 and 99 seconds respectively). VVR delivered a statistically significant sensation of nasal cooling at all times from 12 seconds to 15 minutes after product application. The time to first experience of a sensation of nasal decongestion was significantly (p = 0.0102) faster for patients who received VVR compared to control (median times of 62 and 126 seconds respectively). VVR delivered a statistically significant sensation of nasal decongestion at all times from 62 seconds to 15 minutes after product application. No adverse events were reported during the study. Conclusion: Patients using Vicks VapoRub® as directed experienced significant differences from control for sensation of nasal cooling in 12 seconds and the sensation of nasal decongestion in 62 seconds.
A Trapped Field of 17.6 T in Melt-Processed, Bulk Gd-Ba-Cu-O Reinforced with Shrink-Fit Steel
John H. Durrell,Anthony R. Dennis,Jan Jaroszynski,Mark D. Ainslie,Kysen G. B. Palmer,Yunhua Shi,Archie M. Campbell,John Hull,Mike Strasik,Eric Hellstrom,David A. Cardwell
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0953-2048/27/8/082001
Abstract: The ability of large grain, REBa$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{7-\delta}$ [(RE)BCO; RE = rare earth] bulk superconductors to trap magnetic field is determined by their critical current. With high trapped fields, however, bulk samples are subject to a relatively large Lorentz force, and their performance is limited primarily by their tensile strength. Consequently, sample reinforcement is the key to performance improvement in these technologically important materials. In this work, we report a trapped field of 17.6 T, the largest reported to date, in a stack of two, silver-doped GdBCO superconducting bulk samples, each of diameter 25 mm, fabricated by top-seeded melt growth (TSMG) and reinforced with shrink-fit stainless steel. This sample preparation technique has the advantage of being relatively straightforward and inexpensive to implement and offers the prospect of easy access to portable, high magnetic fields without any requirement for a sustaining current source.
Efficacy of a Topical Aromatic Rub (Vicks VapoRub) on Effects on Self-Reported and Actigraphically Assessed Aspects of Sleep in Common Cold Patients  [PDF]
Nayantara Santhi, David Ramsey, Gill Phillipson, David Hull, Victoria L. Revell, Derk-Jan Dijk
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.72009
Abstract:
Common cold sufferers frequently report sleep disruption during the symptomatic period of infections. We examined the effects of treatment with a topical aromatic pharmaceutical ointment (Vicks VapoRub), on associated sleep disturbances. The effects of Vicks VapoRub versus placebo (petrolatum ointment) on subjective and objective measured sleep parameters were assessed in an exploratory study of 100 common cold patients, in a randomized, single blind, controlled, two-arm, parallel design study. The primary efficacy variable was subjective sleep quality measured with the SQSQ (Subjective Quality of Sleep Questionnaire). Additional measures included, ease of falling asleep and depth of sleep (measured with a post-sleep Visual Analog Scale), total sleep time, sleep onset latency, activity score, percentage of sleep, sleep efficiency (measured with actigraphy and SQSQ) and sleep quality index measured with a modified Karolinska Sleep Diary (KSD). The primary endpoint, “How was the quality of your sleep last night?” showed a statistically significant difference in change from baseline in favour of VapoRub treatment (p = 0.0392) versus placebo. Positive effects of VapoRub versus placebo were also observed for “How refreshed did you feel upon waking up?” (p = 0.0122) (SQSQ), “Did you get enough sleep?” (p = 0.0036) (KSD), “How was it to get up?” (p = 0.0120) (KSD) and “Do you feel well-rested?” (p = 0.0125) (KSD). No statistically significant changes from baseline versus placebo were detected in the Actiwatch endpoints. Vicks VapoRub when applied before retiring to bed can reduce subjective sleep disturbances during a common cold. The results of this exploratory study support the belief among patients that the use of VapoRub improves subjective sleep quality during common cold which was associated with more refreshing sleep.
morphforge: a toolbox for simulating small networks of biologically detailed neurons in Python
Michael J. Hull,David J. Willshaw
Frontiers in Neuroinformatics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fninf.2013.00047
Abstract: The broad structure of a modeling study can often be explained over a cup of coffee, but converting this high-level conceptual idea into graphs of the final simulation results may require many weeks of sitting at a computer. Although models themselves can be complex, often many mental resources are wasted working around complexities of the software ecosystem such as fighting to manage files, interfacing between tools and data formats, finding mistakes in code or working out the units of variables. morphforge is a high-level, Python toolbox for building and managing simulations of small populations of multicompartmental biophysical model neurons. An entire in silico experiment, including the definition of neuronal morphologies, channel descriptions, stimuli, visualization and analysis of results can be written within a single short Python script using high-level objects. Multiple independent simulations can be created and run from a single script, allowing parameter spaces to be investigated. Consideration has been given to the reuse of both algorithmic and parameterizable components to allow both specific and stochastic parameter variations. Some other features of the toolbox include: the automatic generation of human-readable documentation (e.g., PDF files) about a simulation; the transparent handling of different biophysical units; a novel mechanism for plotting simulation results based on a system of tags; and an architecture that supports both the use of established formats for defining channels and synapses (e.g., MODL files), and the possibility to support other libraries and standards easily. We hope that this toolbox will allow scientists to quickly build simulations of multicompartmental model neurons for research and serve as a platform for further tool development.
Approach to the diagnosis and management of suspected exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by primary care physicians
James H Hull, Peter J Hull, Jonathan P Parsons, John W Dickinson, Les Ansley
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-9-29
Abstract: An electronic survey was distributed to a random selection of family practitioners in England. The survey was designed to assess the frequency with which family practitioners encounter adults with exercise-related respiratory symptoms and how they would approach diagnostic work-up and management. The survey also evaluated awareness of and access to diagnostic tests in this setting and general knowledge of prescribing asthma treatments to competitive athletes.257 family practitioners completed the online survey. One-third of respondents indicated they encountered individuals with this problem at a frequency of more than one case per month. Over two-thirds of family practitioners chose investigation as an initial management strategy, while one-quarter would initiate treatment based on clinical information alone. PEFR pre- and post-exercise was the most commonly selected test for investigation (44%), followed by resting spirometry pre- and post-bronchodilator (35%). Short-acting β2-agonists were the most frequently selected choice of treatment indicated by respondents (90%).Family practitioners encounter individuals with exercise-related respiratory symptoms commonly and although objective testing is often employed in diagnostic work-up, the tests most frequently utilised are not the most accurate for diagnosis of EIB. This diagnostic approach may be dictated by the reported lack of access to more precise testing methods, or may reflect a lack of dissemination or awareness of current evidence. Overall the findings have implications both for the management and hence welfare of athletes presenting with this problem to family practitioners and also for the competitive athletes requiring therapeutic use exemption.Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is highly prevalent in athletes at all levels of competition and its diagnosis and treatment is important to ensure their well-being [1,2]. Accurate diagnosis is essential to avoid misclassification and inappropriate trea
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