Abstract:
this paper uses an intertemporal general equilibrium asset pricing model to study the term structure of interest rates. in this model, anticipations, risk aversion, investment alternatives, and preferences about the timing of consumption all play a role in determining bond prices. many of the factors tradicionally mentioned as infl uencing the term structure are thus include in a way which is fully consistent with maximizing behavior and rational expectations. the model leads to specifi c formulas of bond prices which are well suited for empirical testing.

Abstract:
In das paper 1 consider the reliability condition in Alvin Platinga’s proper functionalist account of epistemic warrant I begin by reviewing m some detail the features of the reliability condition as Platinga has articulated a From there, 1 consider what is needed to ground or secure the sort of reliability which Plantinga has m mind, and argue that what is needed is a significant causal condition which has generally been overlooked Then, after identifying eight versions of the relevant sort of reliability, I exam me each alternative as to whether as requirement, along with Platinga’s other proposed conditions, would give us a satisfactory account of epistemic warrant I conclude that there is bale to no hope of formulating a reliability condition that would yield a satisfactory analysts of the sort Plantinga desires

Abstract:
We develop a tractable model of realization utility that studies the role of reference-dependent S-shaped preferences in a dynamic investment setting with reinvestment. Our model generates both voluntarily realized gains and losses. It makes specific predictions about the volume of gains and losses, the holding periods, and the sizes of both realized and paper gains and losses that can be calibrated to a variety of statistics, including the Odean measure of the disposition effect. Our model also predicts several anomalies including, among others, the flattening of the capital market line and a negative price for idiosyncratic risk.

Dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum) is well adapted to the Black Belt region of the
southeastern US, and information on its productivity and nutritive quality as
influenced by fertility is needed. In each yr of a 2-yr study, an existing
dallisgrass pasture that had been subdivided into 48 plots of 9.3 m^{2} each was fertilized with the equivalent of 34 (34N), 67 (67N), 101 (101N) or
134 (134N) kg N/ha from poultry litter (PL) or commercial fertilizer (CF; NH_{4}NO_{3}).
In both years, primary-growth and vegetative regrowth forage was harvested in
mid-August and late September, respectively, and forage from each harvest was
clipped to either a 5- or 10-cm stubble height. Forage cut to a 5-cm height
yielded 71% more (P < 0.001) DM
than forage cut to a 10-cm height, but forage dry matter (DM) yields were not
different between CF and PL treatments across years and fertilization rates.
Concentration of crude protein (CP) was greater (P = 0.002) for CF than PL forage and increased for both fertilizer
sources with increasing rates of N application. Forage concentrations of
cell-wall constituents were not different between CF and PL treatments. Forage
amended with CF had a higher concentration of Ca, Mg and Mn than PL-amended
forage; however, forage amended with PL had a higher concentration of P and K
than CF-amended forage. There was no effect of fertilizer source on forage
concentration of Al, Cu or Zn. Results indicate that PL and CF were comparable for
supporting productivity and nutritive quality of dallisgrass on Black Belt
soils.

Abstract:
Virtual high throughput screening (VHTS) was performed to assess possible interactions which might occur between commercially available triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cations and estrogen receptor α (ERα) that could be exploited to design novel ERα modulators. One application of TPP cations is for delivering bioactive molecules to targets in mitochondria as the large membrane potential of mitochondria leads cations to accumulate inside them. The estrogen receptors (ERs) α and β, normally activated by the endogenous hormone 17β-estradiol, are responsible for controlling transcription of nuclear DNA necessary for human development and reproduction. ERs are also associated with the plasma membrane and have been found in the mitochondria of a variety of cell types. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are synthetic compounds which are used to modulate ER activity. Different SERMs display varying combinations of agonistic, antagonistic and neutral effects upon estrogen receptors depending upon the tissue type and cellular location of the receptor. Thus, they are being employed to treat a range of ER-related disorders. A common feature shared by many SERMs is the close arrangement of three aromatic rings similar to TPP cations. Given this structural similarity, the estrogenic activity of triphenyl phosphonium salts was investigated using the automated docking program eHiTS. Compounds were docked into ten different crystal structures of ERα. Structures were chosen based upon eHiTS ability to accurately identify the majority of estrogenically active compounds given a set of active and decoy molecules. The results of the VHTS suggest hybrids of TPP cations and known SERMs could serve as potent mitochondrial SERMs.

This paper argues that a hypothetical “dark” particle (a black hole
with the reduced Planck mass and arbitrary temperature) gives a simple
explanation to the open question of dark energy and has a relic density of only
17% more than the commonly accepted value. By considering an additional near-horizon
boundary of the black hole, set by its quantum length, the black hole can
obtain an arbitrary temperature. Black-body radiation is still present and fits
as the source of the Universe’s missing energy. Support for this hypothesis is
offered by showing that a stationary solution to the black hole’s length scale
is the same if derived from a quantum analysis in continuous time, a quantum
analysis in discrete time, or a general relativistic analysis.

The thermal diffusion of a free particle is a random process and generates entropy at a rate equal to twice the particle’s temperature, (in natural units of information per second). The rate is calculated using a Gaussian process with a variance of which is a combination of quantum and classical diffusion. The solution to the quantum diffusion of a free particle is derived from the equation for kinetic energy and its associated imaginary diffusion constant; a real diffusion constant (representing classical diffusion) is shown to be . We find the entropy of the initial state is one natural unit, which is the same amount of entropy the process generates after the de-coherencetime, .

In the governing thought, I find an equivalence between
the classical information in a quantum system and the integral of that system’s
energy and time, specifically , in natural units. I solve this relationship in four
ways: the first approach starts with the Schrodinger Equation and applies the
Minkowski transformation; the second uses the Canonical commutation relation;
the third through Gabor’s analysis of the time-frequency plane and Heisenberg’s
uncertainty principle; and lastly by quantizing Brownian motion within the
Bernoulli process and applying the Gaussian channel capacity. In support I give
two examples of quantum systems that follow the governing thought: namely the
Gaussian wave packet and the electron spin. I conclude with comments on the
discretization of space and the information content of a degree of freedom.

Abstract:
The formation and interaction of ultracold polar molecules is a topic of active research. Understanding possible reaction paths and molecular combinations requires accurate studies of the fragment and product energetics. We have calculated accurate gradient optimized ground state structures and zero point corrected atomization energies for the trimers and tetramers formed by the reaction of KRb with KRb and corresponding isolated atoms. The K${}_2$Rb andKRb${}_2$ trimers are found to have global minima at the $C_{2v}$ configurationwith atomization energies of 6065 and 5931 cm${}^{-1}$ while the tetramer is found to have two stable planar structures, of $D_{2h}$ and $C_s$ symmetry, which have atomization energies of 11131 cm${}^{-1}$ an 11133 cm${}^{-1}$, respectively. We have calculated the minimum energy reaction path for the reaction KRb+KRb to K$_2+$Rb$_2$ and found it to be barrierless.

Abstract:
We have measured the isotope shift of the narrow quadrupole-allowed 5 2S1/2 - 4 2D5/2 transition in 86Sr+ relative to the most abundant isotope 88Sr+. This was accomplished using high-resolution laser spectroscopy of individual trapped ions, and the measured shift is Delta-nu_meas^(88,86) = 570.281(4) MHz. We have also tested a recently developed and successful method for ab-initio calculation of isotope shifts in alkali-like atomic systems against this measurement, and our initial result of Delta-nu_calc^(88,86) = 457(28) MHz is also presented. To our knowledge, this is the first high precision measurement and calculation of that isotope shift. While the measurement and the calculation are in broad agreement, there is a clear discrepancy between them, and we believe that the specific mass shift was underestimated in our calculation. Our measurement provides a stringent test for further refinements of theoretical isotope shift calculation methods for atomic systems with a single valence electron.