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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 174334 matches for " John B Baimba "
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Healthcare seeking for diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia among children in four poor rural districts in Sierra Leone in the context of free health care: results of a cross-sectional survey
Theresa Diaz, Asha S George, Sowmya R Rao, Peter S Bangura, John B Baimba, Shannon A McMahon, Augustin Kabano
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-157
Abstract: In July 2010 we undertook a cross-sectional household cluster survey and qualitative research. Caregivers of children under five years of age were interviewed about healthcare seeking. We evaluated the association of various factors with not seeking health care by obtaining adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence limits using a multivariable logistic regression model. Focus groups and in-depth interviews of young mothers, fathers and older caregivers in 12 villages explored household recognition and response to child morbidity.The response rate was 93% (n=5951). Over 85% of children were brought for care for all conditions. However, 10.8% of those with diarrhoea, 36.5% of those with presumed pneumonia and 41.0% of those with fever did not receive recommended treatment. In the multivariable models, use of traditional treatments was significantly associated with not seeking outside care for all three conditions. Qualitative data showed that traditional treatments were used due to preferences for locally available treatments and barriers to facility care that remain even after FHCI.We found high healthcare seeking rates soon after the FHCI; however, many children do not receive recommended treatment, and some are given traditional treatment instead of seeking outside care. Facility care needs to be improved and the CCM program should target those few children still not accessing care.
TAX ELASTICITY IN SIERRA LEONE: A TIME SERIES APPROACH
Brima Ibrahim Baimba Kargbo,Festus O. Egwaikhide
International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues , 2012,
Abstract: The fiscal authorities in Sierra Leone introduced series of reforms in the tax system ranging from continual revisions in tax rate to harmonization and instituting new taxes that are relatively easy to collect. Despite these measures, the output of the tax system as measured by the tax/GDP ratio remains very low averaging 11 per cent contributing to higher fiscal deficits. This study examined the base elasticity of the tax system in Sierra Leone and its major handles using annual data covering the period between 1977and 2009.The Singer method of dummy variables was employed in order to make adjustment for the effect of discretionary tax measures and then compare buoyancy and elasticity measures. The empirical results indicated that buoyancy estimates were higher than elasticity estimates; and that short-run elasticities were lower than the static long-run elasticities. Estimation results further showed that discretionary tax measures were effective in mobilizing additional tax revenues and that the tax system was inelastic during the period.
Is Alzheimer’s Disease an Adaptability Disorder? What Role Does Happiness Have in Treatment, Management and Prevention  [PDF]
John B. Myers
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2015.53020
Abstract: A case presentation indicating the importance of “happiness” in childhood causing memory block until the patent presented with probable mixed vascular and neurodegenerative memory loss at 60 years of age is presented to highlight the role of emotional factors in causing the disease. The question of whether Alzheimer’s disease is an adaptability disorder is raised, given the patient blocked out her memory of her childhood experience. The importance of “happiness” as a treatment goal raises issues of advocacy and Guardianship as well as capacity, which is addressed by actual case reference and court action in defence of the patient’s rights to have their wishes respected and observed. Functional mental capacity assessment, using the Functional Mental State Measure (FMSM) gives a greater indication of neuronal reserve than standard cognitive testing, as it helps to unravel the dilemma associated with pure cognitive assessment in Alzheimer’s Disease as well as vascular dementia patients and patients who, despite retained and intact functional capacity and ability to express their wishes, i.e. “best interest”, are “wrongly” placed under Guardianship. Maladaptive responses, to control the change in external environment that are sensed or perceived, and which lead to disorder or to susceptibility to disease, exemplify a General Systems Theory approach, in which appropriate and adequate responses to environmental change, in behavioural terms, by a person, whether independently, or as the recipient or giver, or both, leads to functional interaction and happiness.
Erratum to “Is Alzheimer’s Disease an Adaptability Disorder? What Role Does Happiness Have in Treatment, Management and Prevention” [World Journal of Neuroscience 5 (2015) 180-188]  [PDF]
John B. Myers
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2015.54027
Abstract: A case presentation indicating the importance of “happiness” in childhood causing memory block until the patent presented with probable mixed vascular and neurodegenerative memory loss at 60 years of age is presented to highlight the role of emotional factors in causing the disease. The question of whether Alzheimer’s disease is an adaptability disorder is raised, given the patient blocked out her memory of her childhood experience. The importance of “happiness” as a treatment goal raises issues of advocacy and Guardianship as well as capacity, which is addressed by actual case reference and court action in defence of the patient’s rights to have their wishes respected and observed. Functional mental capacity assessment, using the Functional Mental State Measure (FMSM) gives a greater indication of neuronal reserve than standard cognitive testing, as it helps to unravel the dilemma associated with pure cognitive assessment in Alzheimer’s Disease as well as vascular dementia patients and patients who, despite retained and intact functional capacity and ability to express their wishes, i.e. “best interest”, are “wrongly” placed under Guardianship. A General Systems approach, which recognises functional interaction as optimal and withdrawal or inadequate and/or inappropriate response as not, provides further understanding of the relationship between emotional factors, memory and neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s) disease.
The Extent and Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Masito-Ugalla Ecosystem, Kigoma Region, Tanzania  [PDF]
John E. Makunga, Salome B. Misana
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2017.72018
Abstract: Deforestation and forest degradation has been observed to be rampant in Masito-Ugalla ecosystem, Kigoma Region, western part of Tanzania. This paper therefore, intended to assess the extent of deforestation and forest degradation in the area, and to determine their causes. A total of 101 respondents were considered as the sample size for this study. The methods used for data collection were household questionnaire interviews, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, analysis of satellite images and direct observation. The findings indicated that deforestation was occurring in the study area. Satellite data revealed diminished closed woodland, bushed grassland, forest and thickets between 1990 and 2014. On the contrary, settlement area, cultivated land and open woodland had increased during the same time frame. Proximate factors causing deforestation and forest degradation included agricultural expansion, wood extraction and expansion of settlement area. Underlying factors included population growth, poverty, poor levels of education, lack of employment, corruption and embezzlement of public funds by politicians and senior government officials; and high demand for fuel-wood. Biophysical drivers like incidences of unplanned wildfires and socio trigger events notably civil strife were also important. In order to minimize the problem and based on the factors augmenting deforestation and forest degradation in the Masito-Ugalla ecosystem and their coupled negative consequences, effective environmental conservation education, increased patrols, effective law enforcement and provision of alternative energy sources are necessary.
Traditional transfusion practices are changing
John B Holcomb
Critical Care , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/cc9009
Abstract: The data presented by Schochl and colleagues will be seen as intriguing, important, innovative, and controversial [1]. This paper builds on work by Dr Detmer Fries, published in a swine injury model in 2006 [2,3]. However, as with all retrospective studies, caution must be exercised before widespread adoption. The usual concerns apply as there is no control group, the data supporting the thromboelastometry goal-directed algorithm are not presented, and the risks of using and combining fibrinogen concentrates and plasma complex concentrates (PCCs) in trauma patients are unknown. Preclinical and clinical evidence to answer these questions is lacking and should be investigated.With regards to the study by Schochl and colleagues, I am concerned with the comparison of mortality rates in the small numbers of seriously injured patients collected over 5 years to that predicted by the trauma injury severity score (TRISS) and by the revised injury severity classification (RISC) score. It is very easy for such small data sets to suffer significant statistical problems when attempting to match injuries and initial physiology. It would have been preferable to at least construct a before and after design. Several questions are apparent: when the thromboelastometry was repeated, did the test results change (improve?) after transfusion of the proscribed agent? What was the timing of the fibrinogen and PCC concentrates in relation to red blood cells (RBCs)? How often was the fibrinogen or PCC given before the RBCs? How did mortality change over time, as the authors became more comfortable with their alternative resuscitation strategy?Despite these and many more questions, I sincerely congratulate the authors on forging ahead and introducing a novel resuscitation approach. The issues inherent in this retrospective study (and in every one of the recently published retrospective transfusion studies, including ours [4]) are significant and will only be resolved when prospective studies
Methods for improved hemorrhage control
John B Holcomb
Critical Care , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/cc2407
Abstract: Trauma is the leading cause of death from age 1 to 34 years and is the fifth leading cause of death overall in the USA [1]. However, because injury is primarily a disease of young people, trauma is the leading cause of years of potential life lost and cost to society. Traumatic injuries killed 147 891 people in the USA in 1995, with uncontrolled hemorrhage being the leading cause of potentially preventable death [1].Not all trauma victims who are bleeding can be saved with improved care. Many bleed to death before care reaches them. Unfortunately, some bleed to death during transport to appropriate care. Improving our ability to control hemorrhage in individuals with injuries that are otherwise survivable may represent the next major hurdle in reducing trauma mortality. New techniques, devices, and drugs for hemorrhage control are being developed and applied across the continuum of trauma care: prehospital, emergency room, and operative and postoperative critical care. To decrease the mortality from hemorrhage, modern methods of hemostasis should be applied not only in the operating room but also throughout the trauma care system. This brief review focuses on drugs directed at life-threatening hemorrhage rather than the more common 'bothersome' bleeding encountered routinely in ambulances, emergency departments (EDs), and operating rooms. To be truly efficacious in the acute trauma situation, these drugs must be simple to store and use, and must be rapidly effective. The most important of these new drugs are injectable hemostatics, fibrin foams, and dressings. The complementary hemorrhage control strategies of hypotensive resuscitation, damage control techniques, and angiographic embolization are beyond the scope of this limited review.Conventional prehospital care for hemorrhagic injury consists of maintenance of the airway and ventilation; control of accessible hemorrhage with bandages, direct pressure, and occasionally tourniquets; and treatment of shock with int
Career perspective: John B West
John B West
Extreme Physiology & Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2046-7648-1-11
Abstract: My introduction to high altitude occurred in 1960 when I learned that Sir Edmund Hillary was planning a physiological expedition to the Himalayas. I applied to the scientific leader Dr. Griffith Pugh and was accepted in spite of the fact that I had previously never done any climbing. The Silver Hut Expedition as it was called was unique in that a small group of physiologists spent several months during the winter and spring of 1960–1961 at an altitude of 5,800 m (19,000 ft), about 16 km south of Mt. Everest. There, we carried out an extensive physiological program on acclimatization in a sophisticated, well-insulated wooden building that was painted silver. As far as we were aware, nobody had lived for such a long period at such a high altitude before. Subsequently, measurements were extended up to an altitude of 7,440 m (24,400 ft) on Mt. Makalu, which has an altitude of 8,481 m. These included the highest measurements of maximal oxygen uptake that have been reported to date [1]. The physiological program was very productive with many articles in top-level journals [2].The primary purpose of the physiological program was to obtain a better understanding of the acclimatization process of lowlanders while they were living continuously at a very high altitude. The main areas of study were the cardiorespiratory responses to exercise under these conditions of extreme hypoxia, but measurements of blood, renal, and neuropsychometric function were made as well [3]. However, in the event, there was an unrelenting rapid loss of body weight, and the conclusion was that we would not have been able to remain at that altitude indefinitely.The success of this expedition prompted me to wonder whether it might be possible to obtain physiological measurements at the highest point on earth. There was abundant evidence that at this altitude, humans are very close to the limit of oxygen deprivation, and so, it was a fascinating physiological problem to determine how the body responds.
The geographic understanding of snail borne disease in endemic areas using satellite surveillance
Malone, John B.;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761995000200013
Abstract: the current status of research on use of earth observing satellite sensors and geographic ifnormation systems for control program management of schistosomiais and fascioliasis is reviewed.
THIRTY-FIVE YEARS OF UPPER MISSOURI RIVER BASIN PALEOPATHOLOGY
Gregg,John B.;
Chungará (Arica) , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562000000100012
Abstract: wet bones project consisted of speech/hearing evaluations performed on the native americans. the dry bones project were studies conducted on bones recovered from the region. during 35 years we examined skeletal remnants representing several cultures who existed in dakota territory during two millennia. the study of paleopathology was enhanced by salvage archaeology projects conducted before closure of dams across the river in the upper missouri river basin (umrb). climatic conditions were unfavorable to mummification, limiting the study to bones. we were stimulated by a symposium on paleopathology at national science foundation, chaired by s. jarcho (yale university) (1966). there emphasis was placed on demography and epidemiology. additional motivation by t.a. cockburn (detroit) (1977), who questioned whether ear disease, mastoiditis, and its complications, existed in proto united states, focused our attention on the dry bones study. the results of the dry bones project are presented here
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