oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2019 ( 67 )

2018 ( 101 )

2017 ( 102 )

2016 ( 153 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 34295 matches for " John Adams "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /34295
Display every page Item
Immiserizing Credit: Challenging the Efficacy of Microfinance  [PDF]
Frank Raymond, John Adams
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.48058
Abstract:

Despite a dearth of theoretical studies, there is widespread perception that microfinance is an enormously useful tool for economic development. However, an increasing number of households in lesser developed countries are facing the same debt squeeze as those in the developed world, but are less able to manage debt responsibilities. The consequences are much more dramatic for LDC households because a much larger portion of household income is necessary for subsistence. As such, microfinance can become immiserizing for poor families with few assets. We develop a dynamic model that allows households to use credit markets in order to augment household consumption or capital. Results indicate a proclivity for households to increase debt over time, challenging the efficacy of microfinance as a sustainable tool for development.

Economía institucional y economía de la elección social: afinidades y conflictos (traducción) Institucional economics and social choice economics: commonalities and conflicts
Adams John
Cuadernos de Economía , 1998,
Abstract: Este artículo examina las semejanzas y diferencias economía institucional y economía de la elección pública; el interes común por el papel del gobierno en la sociedad y en la economía, el reconocimiento de poder y los grupos de interés son esenciales en la conformación de la economía y sus resultados, y la ídea de que los actores económicos no se confabulan para obtener el bien común; y su visión diferente de los seres humanos, la naturaleza del gobierno, la evolución de las instituciones, la valoración y el bienestar. El profesor Adams sostiene que la teoría de la elección social es una amenaza para los institucionalistas y que ha planteado preguntas válidas y fascinantes a que estos deben responder con argumentos no doctrinariosque superen su visión laxa e ingenua del gobierno. Para ello deben retomar y superar la obra de John R. Commons, a quien considera superior a Veblen y Ayres en su comprensión del papel de las instituciones en la conformación de la cultura, la política y los interes económicos, y precursor de gran parte de las discusiones contemporáneas, aunque los teóricos de la elección social y los neoinstitucionalistas no reconozcan ese antecedente. This article examines the similarities and differences between institucional economics and public choice economics; the common interest in a role for the government in society and in the economy, the recognition that power and interest groups are essential in the formation of the economy and its results, and the idea that economic actors don't conspire to obtain the common good; and their different visions of human beings, the nature of government, teh evolution of institutions, value, and welfare. Professor Adams sustains that social choice theory is a threat to the institutionalists and that it has raised valid andfascina ting questions to which they should respond with non-doctrinaire arguments which transcend their lax and ingenuous vision of government. To do that, they should go back to and improve on the work of John Commons, whom he considers the forma tion of cul ture, politics, and economic interest, and a precursor to many of the contemporary debetes, even though the theorists of social choice and the neoinstitutionalists don't recognize this predecessor.
Improving health outcomes with better patient understanding and education
Robert John Adams
Risk Management and Healthcare Policy , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S7500
Abstract: oving health outcomes with better patient understanding and education Review (7661) Total Article Views Authors: Robert John Adams Published Date October 2010 Volume 2010:3 Pages 61 - 72 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S7500 Robert John Adams The Health Observatory, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital Campus, The University of Adelaide, Woodville, South Australia, Australia Abstract: A central plank of health care reform is an expanded role for educated consumers interacting with responsive health care teams. However, for individuals to realize the benefits of health education also requires a high level of engagement. Population studies have documented a gap between expectations and the actual performance of behaviours related to participation in health care and prevention. Interventions to improve self-care have shown improvements in self-efficacy, patient satisfaction, coping skills, and perceptions of social support. Significant clinical benefits have been seen from trials of self-management or lifestyle interventions across conditions such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the focus of many studies has been on short-term outcomes rather that long term effects. There is also some evidence that participation in patient education programs is not spread evenly across socio economic groups. This review considers three other issues that may be important in increasing the public health impact of patient education. The first is health literacy, which is the capacity to seek, understand and act on health information. Although health literacy involves an individual’s competencies, the health system has a primary responsibility in setting the parameters of the health interaction and the style, content and mode of information. Secondly, much patient education work has focused on factors such as attitudes and beliefs. That small changes in physical environments can have large effects on behavior and can be utilized in self-management and chronic disease research. Choice architecture involves reconfiguring the context or physical environment in a way that makes it more likely that people will choose certain behaviours. Thirdly, better means of evaluating the impact of programs on public health is needed. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework has been promoted as one such potential approach.
Improving health outcomes with better patient understanding and education
Robert John Adams
Risk Management and Healthcare Policy , 2010,
Abstract: Robert John AdamsThe Health Observatory, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital Campus, The University of Adelaide, Woodville, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: A central plank of health care reform is an expanded role for educated consumers interacting with responsive health care teams. However, for individuals to realize the benefits of health education also requires a high level of engagement. Population studies have documented a gap between expectations and the actual performance of behaviours related to participation in health care and prevention. Interventions to improve self-care have shown improvements in self-efficacy, patient satisfaction, coping skills, and perceptions of social support. Significant clinical benefits have been seen from trials of self-management or lifestyle interventions across conditions such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the focus of many studies has been on short-term outcomes rather that long term effects. There is also some evidence that participation in patient education programs is not spread evenly across socio economic groups. This review considers three other issues that may be important in increasing the public health impact of patient education. The first is health literacy, which is the capacity to seek, understand and act on health information. Although health literacy involves an individual’s competencies, the health system has a primary responsibility in setting the parameters of the health interaction and the style, content and mode of information. Secondly, much patient education work has focused on factors such as attitudes and beliefs. That small changes in physical environments can have large effects on behavior and can be utilized in self-management and chronic disease research. Choice architecture involves reconfiguring the context or physical environment in a way that makes it more likely that people will choose certain behaviours. Thirdly, better means of evaluating the impact of programs on public health is needed. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework has been promoted as one such potential approach.Keywords: self-management, health literacy, patient education, behavioral economics, program evaluation
Anti-yeast activities of Origanum oil against human pathogenic yeasts  [PDF]
Amber Adams, Satyanshu Kumar, John Clauson, Shivendra Sahi
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.22016
Abstract: Outbreak of autoimmune diseases by pathogenic yeasts has led to a serious medical threat. As these organisms evolve resistance to existing antifungal drugs, the concern could be further compounded. The realm of plant derived products offers a wide spectrum of potentially valuable alternatives to the existing synthetic fungicides. Essential oils from sev-eral medicinal plants have been shown to exhibit pharmacological attributes. In the present study, anti-yeast properties of Oregano essential oil (OEO) were examined in vitro against four human patho-genic yeasts i.e., Candida albicans, Cryptococcus al-bidus, Cryptococcus neoformans and Rhodotorula ru-brum. OEO concentration of 200 μg/mL was found to be growth inhibitory against all four yeasts examined, thereby showing its potential to function as a natural anti-yeast agent.
Relationship between body mass index and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D stronger among Caucasians than African Americans in NHANES adults 2001-2006  [PDF]
Lenore Arab, John S. Adams, Heeyoung Kim, Alice Kohlmeier
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2012.21002
Abstract: The rapid decline in circulating levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in both African Americans and Caucasians in the US population remains unexplained, and appears to parallel the obesity epidemic. The cross sectional data on 7349 Caucasian and African American adults between 21 and 69 years of age from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES) 2001 to 2006 were used to model by race, with smoothing functions, the true relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in men and women. Weighted regressions of determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were analyzed. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is negatively associated with BMI linearly above an inflection point at 20 kg/m2 and positively associated below a BMI of 20 kg/m2. The gender- and age-adjusted regression coefficients of BMI on 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels demonstrate a 50% lower coefficient (r = –0.18 ng/ml/ BMI unit) among African Americans than among Caucasians (r = –0.36 ng/ml/BMI unit). These relationships were as great in men as in women and were replicated when waist circumference was used as a surrogate for visceral fat levels. The extent to which BMI is a strong predictor of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels depends upon BMI being greater than 20 kg/m2. The hockey stick shape of the BMI 25-hydroxyvitamin D relationship needs to be taken into account when adjusting serum values for BMI. Both this inflection and reduction in serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the population may be due to sequestration in an increasing adipose tissue reservoir. The interpretation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels as a biomarker of vitamin D adequacy requires appropriate adjustment of body fat mass.
Relationship of Dietary Soy Protein to Daidzein Metabolism by Cultures of Intestinal Microfloras from Monkeys  [PDF]
Fatemeh Rafii, John B. Sutherland, Brad M. Bridges, Miseon Park, Michael R. Adams
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.32039
Abstract: Soybeans have been shown to contain larger concentrations of isoflavones than other plant foods. The colonic micro-floras of some individuals metabolize isoflavones, including the soy phytoestrogen daidzein, to compounds with altered estrogenic activity that may affect health. Monkeys have been used as models to predict the effect of colonic microorganisms on the metabolism of phytoestrogens. We studied the effect of consumption of a diet rich in soy protein on the metabolism of added daidzein by the intestinal microfloras of monkeys. The metabolism of daidzein by cultures of the colonic microfloras from eight males and eight females of Macaca fascicularis, 6 - 12 years old, consuming diets containing either soy or casein, and two males and three females of Macaca nemestrina, 3 - 5 months old, consuming infant formula, was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses. Cultures from ten of the 16 adult monkeys and all five infant monkeys metabolized the added daidzein within 24 h. Daidzein was metabolized within 48 h by cultures from five other monkeys, but it remained even after 72 h in a culture from one female monkey on a casein diet. Equol and dihydrodaidzein were the only metabolites found. Individual variation among monkeys in the efficiency of daidzein metabolism was observed, but there appeared to be no correlation between diet and daidzein metabolism by the intestinal microflora. The intestinal microfloras of most monkeys tested were efficient in the biotransformation of daidzein to equol, regardless of the animals’ consumption of soy protein. Differences in the metabolism of isoflavones by the colonic microfloras of humans and experimental animals should be considered when extrapolating results from animals to humans.
Shifting Private Timberland Ownership in South Carolina: Implications for Management Intensity  [PDF]
John E. Hatcher Jr. Hatcher Jr., Thomas J. Straka, Richard A. Harper, Tim O. Adams
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2012.24035
Abstract: Beginning in the late 1970’s forest industry timberland gained the eye of financial investors. Diamond International and Crown Zellerbach were early firms that were purchased for the “break-up value” of their timberland. Timberland was perceived as undervalued by investors and made forest industry firms attractive takeover targets. This started a process where forest industry divested of its timberland. Some firms formed separate entities for its timberland base. Acquisitions and mergers became popular in the industry. Some forest industry companies converted to real estate investment trusts, for tax and defensive reasons. Large institutional investors became interested in timberland as means to diversify their portfolios and increase financial performance. Timber management investment organizations developed to manage and procure timberland for these institutional investors. Today little of the forest industry timberland remains with vertically-integrated forest products companies. South Carolina’s forest industry timberland decreased by about 800,000 ha since 1993 (or nearly 90%). This has implications for the state’s timber supply. Forest industry timberlands were some of the most productive and intensively managed forests in the state. We address how forest management might change on this timberland and how long-term timber supply might be impacted in the state.
Hot Spacetimes for Cold Atoms
Allan Adams,Koushik Balasubramanian,John McGreevy
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/1126-6708/2008/11/059
Abstract: Building on our earlier work and that of Son, we construct string theory duals of non-relativistic critical phenomena at finite temperature and density. Concretely, we find black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity whose asymptotic geometries realize the Schroedinger group as isometries. We then identify the non-relativistic conformal field theories to which they are dual. We analyze the thermodynamics of these black holes, which turn out to describe the system at finite temperature and finite density. The strong-coupling result for the shear viscosity of the dual non-relativistic field theory saturates the KSS bound.
Decapitating Tadpoles
Allan Adams,John McGreevy,Eva Silverstein
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: We propose that perturbative quantum field theory and string theory can be consistently modified in the infrared to eliminate, in a radiatively stable manner, tadpole instabilities that arise after supersymmetry breaking. This is achieved by deforming the propagators of classically massless scalar fields and the graviton so as to cancel the contribution of their zero modes. In string theory, this modification of propagators is accomplished by perturbatively deforming the world-sheet action with bi-local operators similar to those that arise in double-trace deformations of AdS/CFT. This results in a perturbatively finite and unitary S-matrix (in the case of string theory, this claim depends on standard assumptions about unitarity in covariant string diagrammatics). The S-matrix is parameterized by arbitrary scalar VEVs, which exacerbates the vacuum degeneracy problem. However, for generic values of these parameters, quantum effects produce masses for the nonzero modes of the scalars, lifting the fluctuating components of the moduli. Warning: in the case of string theory, the simple prescription discussed in this paper fails to decouple BRST trivial modes from the physical S-matrix. A procedure aimed at correcting this is under investigation.
Page 1 /34295
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.