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Notification Services for the Server-Based Certificate Validation Protocol  [PDF]
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2009.25042
Abstract: The Server-Based Certificate Validation Protocol allows PKI clients to delegate to a server the construction or validation of certification paths. The protocol’s specification focuses on the communication between the server and the client and its security. It does not discuss how the servers can efficiently locate the necessary PKI resources like certificate or certificate revocation lists. In this paper we concentrate on this topic. We present a simple and effective method to facilitate locating and using various PKI resources by the servers, without modifying the protocol. We use the extension mechanism of the protocol for notifying the servers about PKI repositories, certificates, and revocations. We specify the tasks of the servers and certificate issu-ers and define the messages that are exchanged between them. A proof of concept is given by implementing an SCVP server, a client, and the proposed method in Java.
Mineral and Trace Element Concentrations in Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Leaf, Fruit and Fruit Juice  [PDF]
Simla Basar, Johannes Westendorf
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.38155
Abstract: Fruit and leaf of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) have been used traditionally as food and for medicinal purposes by South Pacific populations since over two thousand years. Recently noni fruit juice became very popular as health beverage worldwide. Manufacturers and distributors of noni juice often praise the high content of minerals and trace elements in conjunction with the geological situation of the origin of the raw noni material. We therefore performed an investigation about the metal concentration of noni fruit, leaf and soil samples from 42 different locations in French Polynesia, and of 16 commercial noni juices. Median concentrations of metals in noni fruit, leaf and fruit juice appeared in a normal range compared to other fruits, however, the variance between different locations was considerable. Noni fruits from lime soil were poorer compared to volcanic soil in most metals. Self-prepared noni juices did generally not serve for more then 10% of the daily requirement of trace elements and minerals per 100 ml. The metal concentration in noni fruit puree was higher compared to clear juice and reached 10% and 34% of the daily requirement in 100 ml for manganese and chromium respectively. The concentrations of toxic metals (As, Cd, Pb) were below 2% of the maximum permitted levels (MPL) in all of these juices. For one of the commercial noni juices the MPL for lead was exceeded (170%) and some others were close to it. Most metals showed a good correlation regarding the concentration in noni fruit versus leaf, but not for soil versus fruit or juice. The concentration of magnesium, manganese, zinc and germanium in the commercial juices was highly correlated to the potassium concentration, indicating that these elements are useful to detect a dilution of noni juices.
Effects of Positive Psychology Interventions in Depressive Patients—A Randomized Control Study  [PDF]
Reinhard Pietrowsky, Johannes Mikutta
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312158
Abstract: Effects of Positive Psychology (PP) have been shown in several studies to alleviate depressive symptoms in patients suffering from major depression or dysthymia when administered within psychotherapy. The present study served to test for the effects of two interventions from PP (best possible self, three good things) when practised by depressive patients for three weeks without any other concomitant psychotherapy. Seventeen depressive patients were randomly assigned to either the PP group or the control group. Patients in the PP group wrote down the best possible self for one week and then three good things for another two weeks. Patients in the control group wrote down images of the future of mankind for one week and early memories for two weeks. Prior to the intervention and again after it had finished, depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect, optimism, and resilience were assessed. While in both groups of patients well-being and resilience increased and depressive symptoms declined, the decline of depressive symptoms and the increase of positive affect and resilience were more pronounced in the PP group. The results support the notion that even a short intervention using PP alone alleviates depressive symptoms and increases well-being. Although the effects were of marginal significance, this may be attributed to the relatively small sample size. Likewise, the use of an Intent-to-Treat analysis may have affected the PP group more than the control group, indicating an underestimation of the potency of PP in the present study.
Higher Education for Complex Real-World Problems and Innovation: A Tribute to Heufler’s Industrial Design Approach  [PDF]
Gerald Steiner, Johannes Scherr
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.47A2016
Abstract: This article appraises an internationally top ranked higher education program in industrial design, whose stated mission is to enhance students’ ability to deal with complex real-world problems and thereby develop (sustainable) innovation. At the outset, we discuss in general terms—in our view—the indispensable essentials of a higher education program that specifically aims to equip students with the competences needed to successfully deal with such complex real-world problems. In the second part, we specifically examine Heufler’s SchoolofIndustrial DesigninGraz(Austria), its development and characteristics. A summary of general implications for higher education and lessons learnt from this top industrial design program concludes the article. Our analysis suggests that the school’s success is based on a few key cornerstones: 1) The program has a clear mission, which has been communicated early on, internally and externally; 2) Strong leadership, which enables continuity and high-quality output (e.g., attracts high-quality input reflected in the profile of applicants to the program); 3) Real-world projects with co-leadership from industry; 4) Provision of a supportive learning environment which extends beyond lecture times and which is conducive for collaborative creativity; and 5) Faculty are professional experts who focus on problemand project based learning approaches which aim at the joint development of personal, professional domain, systemic, creativity, and sociocultural (collaborative) competence of the students. The authors of this article have been involved with Heufler’sSchoolofIndustrial Designsince its establishment in 1995; they speak on behalf of Gerhard Heufler, the founder and head of this program, who unexpectedly passed away in April 2013. His remarkable leadership has enabled an extraordinary program in higher education with the explicit aim to provide students with competences needed to successfully deal with complex real-world problems.
The Solution of the Eigenvector Problem in Synchrotron Radiation Based Anomalous Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering  [PDF]
Guenter Johannes Goerigk
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2013.34012
Abstract: In the last three decades Synchrotron radiation became an indispensable experimental tool for chemical and structural analysis of nano-scaled properties in solid state physics, chemistry, materials science and life science thereby rendering the explanation of the macroscopic behavior of the materials and systems under investigation. Especially the techniques known as Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering provide deep insight into the materials structural architecture according to the different chemical components on lengths scales starting just above the atomic scale (≈1 nm) up to several 100 nm. The techniques sensitivity to the different chemical components makes use of the energy dependence of the atomic scattering factors, which are different for all chemical elements, thereby disentangling the nanostructure of the different chemical components by the signature of the elemental X-ray absorption edges i.e. by employing synchrotron radiation. The paper wants to focus on the application of an algorithm from linear algebra in the field of synchrotron radiation. It provides a closer look to the algebraic prerequisites, which govern the system of linear equations established by these experimental techniques and its solution by solving the eigenvector problem. The pair correlation functions of the so-called basic scattering functions are expressed as a linear combination of eigenvectors.
Time-Temperature Charge Function of a High Dynamic Thermal Heat Storage with Phase Change Material  [PDF]
Johannes Goeke, Andreas Henne
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2015.72004
Abstract: A thermal heat storage system with an energy content of 40 kWh and a temperature of 58°C will be presented. This storage system is suitable for supporting the use of renewable energies in buildings and for absorbing solar heat, heat from co-generation and heat pumps or electric heat from excess wind and solar power. The storage system is equipped with a plate heat exchanger that is so powerful that even with small temperature differences between the flow temperature and the storage temperature a high load dynamic is achieved. The storage system has a performance of 2.8 kW at 4 K and 10.6 kW at a temperature difference of 10 K. Thus, large performance variations in solar thermal systems or CHP plants can be buffered very well. Further a storage charge function Q(T, t) will be presented to characterize the performance of the storage.
The Significance of Solutions Obtained from Ill-Posed Systems of Linear Equations Constituted by Synchrotron Radiation Based Anomalous Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering  [PDF]
Günter Johannes Goerigk
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2018.81007
Abstract: Synchrotron radiation based experimental techniques known as Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (ASAXS) provide deep insight into the nanostructure of uncountable material systems in condensed matter research i.e. solid state physics, chemistry, engineering and life sciences thereby rendering the origin of the macroscopic functionalization of the various materials via correlation to its structural architecture on a nanometer length scale. The techniques constitute a system of linear equations, which can be treated by matrix theory. The study aims to analyze the significance of the solutions of the stated matrix equations by use of the so-called condition numbers first introduced by A. Turing, J. von Neumann and H. Goldstine. Special attention was given for the comparison with direct methods i.e. the Gaussian elimination method. The mathematical roots of ill-posed ASAXS equations preventing matrix inversion have been identified. In the framework of the theory of von Neumann and Goldstine the inversion of certain matrices constituted by ASAXS gradually becomes impossible caused by non-definiteness. In Turing’s theory which starts from more general prerequisites, the principal minors of the same matrices approach singularity thereby imposing large errors on inversion. In conclusion both theories recommend for extremely ill-posed ASAXS problems avoiding inversion and the use of direct methods for instance Gaussian elimination.
Different Rationales of Coalition Formation and Incentives for Strategic Voting  [PDF]
Eric Linhart, Johannes Raabe
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/am.2018.97058
Research on strategic voting has mainly focused on electoral system effects but largely neglected the impact of different rationales of coalition formation. Based on a formal model of rational party choice and a simulation study, we systematically investigate this impact and explore the implications. We show that the logic of the underlying coalition formation procedure clearly affects the degree to which the electorate is exposed to strategic incentives regarding the vote choice. The key implications are that sincere voting is more often in the voter’s best interest if parties are policy-seeking and if there is increased uncertainty during the stage of coalition formation. Furthermore, we explore how different types of coalition formation affect strategic incentives across the policy space.
Empirical Review of Standard Benchmark Functions Using Evolutionary Global Optimization  [PDF]
Johannes M. Dieterich, Bernd Hartke
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.330215
Abstract: We have employed a recent implementation of genetic algorithms to study a range of standard benchmark functions for global optimization. It turns out that some of them are not very useful as challenging test functions, since they neither allow for a discrimination between different variants of genetic operators nor exhibit a dimensionality scaling resembling that of real-world problems, for example that of global structure optimization of atomic and molecular clusters. The latter properties seem to be simulated better by two other types of benchmark functions. One type is designed to be deceptive, exemplified here by Lunacek’s function. The other type offers additional advantages of markedly increased complexity and of broad tunability in search space characteristics. For the latter type, we use an implementation based on randomly distributed Gaussians. We advocate the use of the latter types of test functions for algorithm development and benchmarking.
Traditional Dietary Recommendations for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Do They Meet the Needs of Our Patients?
Johannes Scholl
Cholesterol , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/367898
Abstract: The characteristics of patients with CVD have changed: whereas smoking prevalence declines, obesity and metabolic syndrome are on the rise. Unfortunately, the traditional low-fat diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) still seems to be the “mainstream knowledge” despite contradicting evidence. But lowering LDL-cholesterol by the wrong diet even may be counterproductive, if sd-LDL is raised and HDL is lowered. New insights into the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and its influence on the effects of dietary changes have led to a better approach: (1) the higher a patient's insulin resistance, the more important is the glycemic load of the diet. (2) Fat quality is much more important than fat quantity. (3) The best principle for a reduced calorie intake is not fat counting, but a high volume diet with low energy density, which means fibre rich vegetables and fruits. (4) And finally, satiation and palatability of a diet is very important: there is no success without the patient's compliance. Thus, the best approach to the dietary prevention of CVD is a Mediterranean style low-carb diet represented in the LOGI pyramid. Dietary guidelines for the prevention of CVD should to be revised accordingly.
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