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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 566782 matches for " Johannes E. A. Stauder "
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How the Brain Process Stimulus-Response Conflict? New Insights from Lateralized Readiness Potentials Scalp Topography and Reaction Times  [PDF]
Marc E. Lavoie, Johannes E. A. Stauder
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.31014
Abstract:
Stimulus-Response Compatibility (SRC) refers to the fact that some tasks are performed easier and better than others because of the way stimuli and responses are paired with each other. To assess the brain responses to stimulus-response conflicts, we investigated the behavioral (accuracy and Reaction Times: RTs) as well as the physiological response (Lateralized Readiness Potentials: LRP) modulations in a positional blocked and a conditional mixed design in twelve university students. Results revealed that the performance was less accurate and the RTs, as well as the LRP onset, were delayed under the mixed conditional design. A greater compatibility effect was also noted on accuracy, RTs and LRP onset latency in the mixed design. Consistent with these findings, smaller peak activation at fronto-central areas suggests that more selective inhibition is needed in a mixed design context. Despite a smaller activation, the topographical distribution is similar in both designs. These results indicate that the translation time between stimulus- and response codes are greater under the mixed instruction, while the similar LRP topography suggests that common neural structures underlie LRPs in response to both type of designs.
Kritieke elemente in die opleiding van onderwysers in Opvoeding vir Vrede binne die konteks van uitkomsgebaseerde onderwys
A.E. Carl, D. Johannes
South African Journal of Education , 2003,
Abstract: Critical elements in the training of teachers in Peace Education within the context of outcomes-based education. Within the context of change in South Africa, there are various challenges and problems such as poverty, hunger, unemployment and housing shortages. These problems, added to other socio-political and cultural factors, contribute to the escalation of crime in our country. Although the moratorium on crime statistics affects the accuracy thereof, it is clear that violence against children has increased since 1994. As the most important role models (in schools), teachers are responsible for preparing learners to think critically and creatively about social problems and to cope with conflict and violence. Teachers have to empower them to make a positive contribution in their environment. Peace Education can be incorporated as an alternative process in developing specific positive attitudes and values in learners. Learners are also offered the opportunity to handle personal, political and community conflicts in a peaceful manner. Teachers can empower learners in Peace Education by using outcomes-based education. Identifying the critical elements of Peace Education, with reference to the training of teachers, is therefore of the utmost importance. (South African Journal of Education: 2003 22(3): 162-170)
El funcionalismo como ideología colonista
Jacks Stauder
Nueva antropología , 1976,
Abstract:
Evaluation of Plant and Fungal Extracts for Their Potential Antigingivitis and Anticaries Activity
D. A. Spratt,M. Daglia,A. Papetti,M. Stauder,D. O'Donnell,L. Ciric,A. Tymon,B. Repetto,C. Signoretto,Y. Houri-Haddad,M. Feldman,D. Steinberg,S. Lawton,P. Lingstr m,J. Pratten,E. Zaura,G. Gazzani,C. Pruzzo,M. Wilson
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/510198
Abstract: The link between diet and health has lead to the promotion of functional foods which can enhance health. In this study, the oral health benefits of a number of food homogenates and high molecular mass and low molecular mass fractions were investigated. A comprehensive range of assays were performed to assess the action of these foods on the development of gingivitis and caries using bacterial species associated with these diseases. Both antigingivitis and anticaries effects were investigated by assays examining the prevention of biofilm formation and coaggregation, disruption of preexisting biofilms, and the foods' antibacterial effects. Assays investigating interactions with gingival epithelial cells and cytokine production were carried out to assess the foods' anti- gingivitis properties. Anti-caries properties such as interactions with hydroxyapatite, disruption of signal transduction, and the inhibition of acid production were investigated. The mushroom and chicory homogenates and low molecular mass fractions show promise as anti-caries and anti-gingivitis agents, and further testing and clinical trials will need to be performed to evaluate their true effectiveness in humans.
Extrapolated High-Order Propagators for Path Integral Monte Carlo Simulations
Robert E. Zillich,Johannes M. Mayrhofer,Siu A. Chin
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1063/1.3297888
Abstract: We present a new class of high-order imaginary time propagators for path-integral Monte Carlo simulations by subtracting lower order propagators. By requiring all terms of the extrapolated propagator be sampled uniformly, the subtraction only affects the potential part of the path integral. The negligible violation of positivity of the resulting path integral at small time steps has no discernable affect on the accuracy of our method. Thus in principle arbitrarily high order algorithms can be devised for path-integral Monte Carlo simulations. We verify this claim is by showing that fourth, sixth, and eighth order convergence can indeed be achieved in solving for the ground state of strongly interacting quantum many-body systems such as bulk liquid $^4$He.
Gonad shielding in paediatric pelvic radiography: disadvantages prevail over benefit
Marij J. Frantzen,Simon Robben,Alida A. Postma,Johannes Zoetelief,Joachim E. Wildberger,Gerrit J. Kemerink
Insights into Imaging , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13244-011-0130-3
Abstract: With modern optimised X-ray systems, the reduction of the detriment adjusted risk by gonad shielding is negligibly small. Given the potential consequences of loss of diagnostic information, of retakes, and of shielding of automatic exposure-control chambers, gonad shielding might better be discontinued.
Low Control over Palatable Food Intake in Rats Is Associated with Habitual Behavior and Relapse Vulnerability: Individual Differences
Johannes W. de Jong, Karin E. Meijboom, Louk J. M. J. Vanderschuren, Roger A. H. Adan
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074645
Abstract: The worldwide obesity epidemic poses an enormous and growing threat to public health. However, the neurobehavioral mechanisms of overeating and obesity are incompletely understood. It has been proposed that addiction-like processes may underlie certain forms of obesity, in particular those associated with binge eating disorder. To investigate the role of addiction-like processes in obesity, we adapted a model of cocaine addiction-like behavior in rats responding for highly palatable food. Here, we tested whether rats responding for highly palatable chocolate Ensure would come to show three criteria of addiction-like behavior, i.e., high motivation, continued seeking despite signaled non-availability and persistence of seeking despite aversive consequences. We also investigated whether exposure to a binge model (a diet consisting of alternating periods of limited food access and access to highly palatable food), promotes the appearance of food addiction-like behavior. Our data show substantial individual differences in control over palatable food seeking and taking, but no distinct subgroup of animals showing addiction-like behavior could be identified. Instead, we observed a wide range extending from low to very high control over palatable food intake. Exposure to the binge model did not affect control over palatable food seeking and taking, however. Animals that showed low control over palatable food intake (i.e., scored high on the three criteria for addiction-like behavior) were less sensitive to devaluation of the food reward and more prone to food-induced reinstatement of extinguished responding, indicating that control over palatable food intake is associated with habitual food intake and vulnerability to relapse. In conclusion, we present an animal model to assess control over food seeking and taking. Since diminished control over food intake is a major factor in the development of obesity, understanding its behavioral and neural underpinnings may facilitate improved management of the obesity epidemic.
Cognitive processing load during listening is reduced more by decreasing voice similarity than by increasing spatial separation between target and masker speech
Adriana A. Zekveld,Mary Rudner,Sophia E. Kramer,Johannes Lyzenga,Jerker R?nnberg
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00088
Abstract: We investigated changes in speech recognition and cognitive processing load due to the masking release attributable to decreasing similarity between target and masker speech. This was achieved by using masker voices with either the same (female) gender as the target speech or different gender (male) and/or by spatially separating the target and masker speech using HRTFs. We assessed the relation between the signal-to-noise ratio required for 50% sentence intelligibility, the pupil response and cognitive abilities. We hypothesized that the pupil response, a measure of cognitive processing load, would be larger for co-located maskers and for same-gender compared to different-gender maskers. We further expected that better cognitive abilities would be associated with better speech perception and larger pupil responses as the allocation of larger capacity may result in more intense mental processing. In line with previous studies, the performance benefit from different-gender compared to same-gender maskers was larger for co-located masker signals. The performance benefit of spatially-separated maskers was larger for same-gender maskers. The pupil response was larger for same-gender than for different-gender maskers, but was not reduced by spatial separation. We observed associations between better perception performance and better working memory, better information updating, and better executive abilities when applying no corrections for multiple comparisons. The pupil response was not associated with cognitive abilities. Thus, although both gender and location differences between target and masker facilitate speech perception, only gender differences lower cognitive processing load. Presenting a more dissimilar masker may facilitate target-masker separation at a later (cognitive) processing stage than increasing the spatial separation between the target and masker. The pupil response provides information about speech perception that complements intelligibility data.
1R(1B)代换系和1BL/1RS易位系的麦谷朊高分子亚基的SDS-PAGE电泳及其特点
Johannes,H.E.Moonen,A.C.Zeven,张京
麦类作物学报 , 1986, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1009-1041.1986.03.053
Abstract: 引言过去小麦育种家在改良小麦的过程中,无意地将黑麦的1R染色体转移到了小麦的染色体组中,这种转移,可以通过抗病性表现、减数分裂期间的染色体形态和籽粒蛋白的电泳分析加以识别.小麦的主要籽粒蛋白、麦谷朊和麸朊是由部分同源的染色体1和6上的基因控制的(Payne等,1982年综述).在小麦的第1组染色体的短臂上,带有ω和γ麸朊的编码基因,而在它们的短臂上存在麦谷朊的高分子亚基基因.Lawrence等(1981)证明,黑麦的部分
Cumulative lactate and hospital mortality in ICU patients
Paul A van Beest, Lukas Brander, Sebastiaan PA Jansen, Johannes H Rommes, Micha l A Kuiper, and Peter E Spronk
Annals of Intensive Care , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2110-5820-3-6
Abstract: Hyperlactatemia is associated with in-hospital mortality in a heterogeneous ICU population. In our patients, lactate peak values predicted in-hospital mortality equally well as lactate-time-integral of arterial blood lactate levels above the upper normal threshold.
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