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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5783 matches for " Joel Schwartz "
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Is there adaptation in the ozone mortality relationship: A multi-city case-crossover analysis
Antonella Zanobetti, Joel Schwartz
Environmental Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-7-22
Abstract: We applied a case-crossover design in 48 US cities to examine the ozone effect by season, by month and by age groups, particularly focusing on whether there was an adaptation effect.We found that the same day ozone effect was highest in summer with a 0.5% (95% CI: 0.38, 0.62) increase in total mortality for 10 ppb increase in 8-hr ozone, whilst the effect decrease to null in autumn and winter. We found higher effects in the months May- July with a 0.46% (95% CI: 0.24, 0.68) increase in total mortality for 10 ppb increase in ozone in June, and a 0.65% (95% CI: 0.47, 0.82) increase in mortality during July. The effect decreased in August and became null in September. We found similar effects from the age group 51–60 up to age 80 and a lower effect in 80 years and older.The mortality effects of ozone appear diminished later in the ozone season, reaching the null effect previously reported in winter by September. More work should address this issue and examine the biological mechanism of adaptation.While early attention to the acute effects of air pollution on mortality rates focused on particles, previous [1,2] and more recent studies have reported associations with ozone. [3-6] In general, these studies reported associations with ozone, but the associations seemed to be primarily restricted to the summer period [7].There is ample evidence that short-term ozone exposure is associated with decrements in lung functions, increased respiratory symptoms, and lung inflammation [8]. Some studies showed also that the effect is higher in asthmatic or in individuals with already impaired respiratory function [9-11]. A key finding of these studies was the existence of an adaptive response. For example, several studies found reduced effects of ozone on lung function later in the ozone season [12-15].Despite this considerable literature on adaptation [12,16,17] of inflammatory and pulmonary responses to ozone, and the link, in cohort studies, between lung function and mortality ris
Influenza epidemics, seasonality, and the effects of cold weather on cardiac mortality
Stephanie von Klot, Antonella Zanobetti, Joel Schwartz
Environmental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-11-74
Abstract: The authors obtained counts of daily cardiac deaths and of emergency hospital admissions of the elderly for influenza during 1992–2000. Quasi-Poisson regression models were conducted estimating the association between daily cardiac mortality, and temperature.Controlling for influenza admissions provided a more parsimonious model with better Generalized Cross-Validation, lower residual serial correlation, and better captured Winter peaks. The temperature-response function was not greatly affected by adjusting for influenza. The pooled estimated increase in risk for a temperature decrease from 0 to ?5°C was 1.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.1%). Influenza accounted for 2.3% of cardiac deaths over this period.The results suggest that including epidemic data explained most of the irregular seasonal pattern (about 18% of the total seasonal variation), allowing more parsimonious models than when adjusting for seasonality only with smooth functions of time. The effect of cold temperature is not confounded by epidemics.Epidemiological studies have shown that extremes in ambient temperature are associated with short term increases in mortality [1-4]. While cold weather is associated with increased winter time deaths, it is unlikely to explain the seasonal pattern of rising and falling mortality rates. To see this, consider Figure 1 (upper panel), which shows the daily temperature vs. time in Detroit and Honolulu, and Figure 1 (lower panel), which shows a smoothed plot of the percent difference from the mean mortality rate in each city. There are similar patterns of winter time increase in both cities despite Honolulu having both an order of magnitude lower oscillation in temperature and much higher winter time temperatures than Detroit.Therefore, most time series studies of the effects of temperature or air pollution have used functions of time, such as trigonometric functions [5], natural splines [6-9] and smoothing functions [2,10-12] to capture the potential confou
Modifiers of short-term effects of ozone on mortality in eastern Massachusetts - A case-crossover analysis at individual level
Cizao Ren, Steve Melly, Joel Schwartz
Environmental Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-9-3
Abstract: This study used a case-crossover design to examine whether impacts of ozone on mortality were modified by socioeconomic status coded at the tract or characteristics at an individual level in eastern Massachusetts, US for a period May-September, 1995-2002, with a total of 157,197 non-accident deaths aging 35 years or older. We used moving averages of maximal 8-hour concentrations of ozone monitored at 8 stationary stations as personal exposure.A 10 ppb increase in the four-day moving average of maximal 8-hour ozone was associated with 1.68% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51%, 2.87%), 1.96% (95% CI: -1.83%, 5.90%), 8.28% (95% CI: 0.66%, 16.48%), 0.44% (95% CI: -1.45%, 2.37%), -0.83% (95% CI: -2.94%, 1.32%), -1.09% (95% CI: -4.27%, 2.19%) and 6.5% (95% CI: 1.74%, 11.49%) changes in all natural deaths, respiratory disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, heart diseases, acute myocardial infarction and stroke, respectively. We did not find any evidence that the associations were significantly modified by socioeconomic status or individual characteristics although small differences of estimates across subpopulations were demonstrated.Exposure to ozone was associated with specific cause mortality in Eastern Massachusetts during May-September, 1995-2002. There was no evidence that effects of ozone on mortality were significantly modified by socioeconomic status and individual characteristics.Substantial epidemiological evidence demonstrates that ambient ozone is associated with daily deaths and hospital admissions [1-5]. These associations are generally consistent across studies or robust to adjustment for secular time trends, short-term variation or weather conditions [6].Recently, interest in epidemiological studies has grown in how socioeconomic status (SES), individual characteristics (e.g., age, race and gender) and weather conditions modify associations of exposure to air pollution with mortality and hospital admissions. This issue is important in air pollution
The effects of socioeconomic status and indices of physical environment on reduced birth weight and preterm births in Eastern Massachusetts
Ariana Zeka, Steve J Melly, Joel Schwartz
Environmental Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-7-60
Abstract: A study of singleton births in Eastern Massachusetts was conducted between 1996 and 2002 to examine the association between indicators of traffic, land use, individual and area-based socioeconomic measures (SEM), and birth outcomes (birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm births), in a two-level hierarchical model.We found effects of both individual (education, race, prenatal care index) and area-based (median household income) SEM with all birth outcomes. The associations for traffic and land use variables were mainly seen with birth weight, with an exception for an effect of cumulative traffic density on small for gestational age. Race/ethnicity of mother was an important predictor of birth outcomes and a strong confounder for both area-based SEM and indices of physical environment. The effects of traffic and land use differed by level of education and median household income.Overall, the findings of the study suggested greater likelihood of reduced birth weight and preterm births among the more socially disadvantaged, and a greater risk of reduced birth weight associated with traffic exposures. Results revealed the importance of controlling simultaneously for SEM and environmental exposures as the way to better understand determinants of health.Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and its determinants, preterm births and intrauterine growth retardation have been associated with indicators of socioeconomic status and physical environment [1-3]. The issue stands high in the public health concerns due to the evidence that adverse health in early life can lead to later life diseases of childhood and adulthood [4-10].Socioeconomic status is a determinant of health in populations [11,12], and it has been linked to adverse birth outcomes [3,13-16]. It is likely that socioeconomic status is a measure of access to health care, empowerment, level of stress and violence, and likelihood of exposure to environmental factors, and among these air pollutio
Inhibition of EGFR Suppresses Ethyl Alcohol and Tobacco Cell Effects on Growth of Human Oral Keratinocytes and Human Papillomavirus 16 Entry as a Function of Furin  [PDF]
Joel L. Schwartz, Alexander Munaretto, Sirlata Bagchi, David Crowe, Gonzalo Izaguirre
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.61010
Abstract: Background: Reported are increased risks for malignant transformation in human oral keratinocytes (HOK) from ethyl alcohol (ETOH), tobacco products or human papilloma virus oncogenic subtype 16 (HPV 16) infections. We examined various HOK cell responses to these factors to show inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) also inhibits furin; proprotein convertase (FC) and HPV 16 entry in HOK. Methods: Immortalized HOK by HPV 16 (HPV 16B) or human telomerase (hTERT); primary foreskin keratinocytes (NHFK), primary HOK, buccal keratinocytes (NHBK) and oral SCC-25 were treated with dibenz[a,l]pyrene (DBP), anthraquinone; nitrosamine (NNAL) or ethyl alcohol (ETOH) and acetaldehyde (AA). ETOH was tested for synthesis of malondialdehyde (MDA) and alcohol dehydrogenase expression (ADH). ETOH, and PAH were evaluated by Western immunoblot for oncogene changes, and phosphorylated EGFR expression. Inhibition of EGFR by WZ4002 and Erlotinib and/or carcinogens effect on HPV 16 entry were studied. A green fluorescent pseudovirus (PsV); chloromethylketone (CMK) an inhibitor of furin activity and Western immunoblot of furin cell distribution further characterized HPV 16 entry. Results: ETOH (10 μM) increased expression of phosphorylated EGFR and HPV 16 entry through furin activity, and membrane, nuclear and cytoskeletal accumulations. CMK suppressed HPV 16 entry and blockage of ADH while aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enhanced HPV 16 entry. Similarly PAH, DBP (4-8 nM), anthraquinone (98 nM) and NNAL (6.9 μM) enhanced HPV 16 entry through furin activity and membrane, nuclear and cytoskeletal accumulations. Furthermore, WZ4002 and Erlotinib suppressed expressions of phosphorylated EGFR, FC activity, and HPV 16 entry. ETOH and DBP treatments also enhanced expressions of protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), and p21waf1 while depressed p16 and p27KIP1 expressions in HOK/HPV 16B cells. Conclusion: EGFR inhibitors are candidates for suppression of alcohol and tobacco effects on EGFR phosphorylated expression; keratinocyte growth, and HPV 16 entry and prevention treatment for HPV related diseases.
Balancing the Energy Budget of Short-Period Giant Planets: Evidence for Reflective Clouds and Optical Absorbers
Joel C. Schwartz,Nicolas B. Cowan
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv470
Abstract: We consider fifty transiting short-period giant planets for which eclipse depths have been measured at multiple infrared wavelengths. The aggregate dayside emission spectrum of these planets exhibits no molecular features, nor is brightness temperature greater in the near-infrared. We combine brightness temperatures at various infrared wavelengths to estimate the dayside effective temperature of each planet. We find that dayside temperatures are proportional to irradiation temperatures, indicating modest Bond albedo and no internal energy sources, plus weak evidence that dayside temperatures of the hottest planets are disproportionately high. We place joint constraints on Bond albedo, $A_{B}$, and day-to-night transport efficiency, $\varepsilon$, for six planets by combining thermal eclipse and phase variation measurements (HD 149026b, HD 189733b, HD 209458b, WASP-12b, WASP-18b, and WASP-43b). We confirm that planets with high irradiation temperatures have low heat transport efficiency, and that WASP-43b has inexplicably poor transport; these results are statistically significant even if the precision of single-eclipse measurements has been overstated by a factor of three. Lastly, we attempt to break the $A_{B}$-$\varepsilon$ degeneracy for nine planets with both thermal and optical eclipse observations, but no thermal phase measurements. We find a systematic offset between Bond albedos inferred from thermal phase variations ($A_{B} \approx 0.35$) and geometric albedos extracted from visible light measurements ($A_{g} \approx 0.1$). These observations can be reconciled if most hot Jupiters have clouds that reflect 30-50 per cent of incident near-infrared radiation, as well as optical absorbers in the cloud particles or above the cloud deck.
Fine particulate air pollution and its components in association with cause-specific emergency admissions
Antonella Zanobetti, Meredith Franklin, Petros Koutrakis, Joel Schwartz
Environmental Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-8-58
Abstract: We estimated the association between daily PM2.5 and emergency hospital admissions for cardiac causes (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure (CHF), respiratory disease, and diabetes in 26 US communities, for the years 2000-2003. Using meta-regression, we examined how this association was modified by season- and community-specific PM2.5 composition, controlling for seasonal temperature as a surrogate for ventilation.For a 10 μg/m3 increase in 2-day averaged PM2.5 concentration we found an increase of 1.89% (95% CI: 1.34- 2.45) in CVD, 2.25% (95% CI: 1.10- 3.42) in MI, 1.85% (95% CI: 1.19- 2.51) in CHF, 2.74% (95% CI: 1.30- 4.2) in diabetes, and 2.07% (95% CI: 1.20- 2.95) in respiratory admissions. The association between PM2.5 and CVD admissions was significantly modified when the mass was high in Br, Cr, Ni, and Na+, while mass high in As, Cr, Mn, OC, Ni, and Na+ modified MI, and mass high in As, OC, and SO42- modified diabetes admissions. For these species, an interquartile range increase in their relative proportion was associated with a 1-2% additional increase in daily admissions per 10 μg/m3 increase in mass.We found that PM2.5 mass higher in Ni, As, and Cr, as well as Br and OC significantly increased its effect on hospital admissions. This result suggests that particles from industrial combustion sources and traffic may, on average, have greater toxicity.Many studies have shown that ambient particulate air pollution (PM), generally measured as particles with aerodynamic diameter less then 10 micrometers (PM10), is associated with increased risk of hospital admissions for broadly defined cardiovascular or respiratory causes [1-6]. Similar relationships have been reported in locations reflecting a wide range of particle composition, and concentrations of gaseous co-pollutants [7-11].Diabetics are more susceptible to particles and previous panel studies and time series analyses have shown this [12-14].While previous studies have primarily us
Particulate air pollution and survival in a COPD cohort
Antonella Zanobetti, Marie-Abele C Bind, Joel Schwartz
Environmental Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-7-48
Abstract: Using hospital discharge data, we constructed a cohort of persons discharged alive with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using Medicare data between 1985 and 1999. 12-month averages of PM10 were merged to the individual annual follow up in each city. We applied Cox's proportional hazard regression model in each city, with adjustment for individual risk factors.We found significant associations in the survival analyses for single year and multiple lag exposures, with a hazard ratio for mortality for an increase of 10 μg/m3 PM10 over the previous 4 years of 1.22 (95% CI: 1.17–1.27).Persons discharged alive for COPD have substantial mortality risks associated with exposure to particles. The risk is evident for exposure in the previous year, and higher in a 4 year distributed lag model. These risks are significantly greater than seen in time series analyses.Worldwide studies have shown the short-term effect of particulate pollution (PM) on hospital admissions and deaths from respiratory causes [1-6].Epidemiologic studies indicate that hospitalizations for respiratory causes are strongly related to PM exposure. Several hypotheses have been advanced for possible underlying mechanisms [7]. For example, PM may impair ventilation in COPD patients by causing airway narrowing and increasing the work of breathing [8]. In addition some particles can cause epithelial cell damage, pulmonary edema, and eventually fibrosis [9].Particles may be deposited in the extra thoracic airways (mouth, nose, larynx), in airways of the trachiobronchial regions and in the alveolar region where the gas exchange occurs [10].The respiratory tract deposition patterns depend on particle size and distribution within the inspired air. Biologic effects may be a function also of particle number, composition and the total surface area of the particle.Various factors have been shown to influence particle deposition, such as age, ventilation patterns and the presence of obstructive or inflammatory airwa
Incidence of new coding for dry eye and ocular infection in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension patients treated with prostaglandin analogs: Retrospective analysis of three medical/pharmacy claims databases
Gail F Schwartz, Sameer Kotak, Jack Mardekian, Joel M Fain
BMC Ophthalmology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-11-14
Abstract: This was a retrospective study of three U.S.-based patient-centric medical/pharmacy claims databases (MedStat, PharMetrics, i3-Ingenix). Patients were eligible if they filled a prescription for latanoprost or travoprost-Z between October 2006 and Q2 2008 (prescription date = index date) AND were continuously enrolled 6 months prior through 12 months after the index date AND had any open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension diagnosis within 90 days prior to the index date AND did not have an ocular surface disease diagnosis during the 180 days prior to the index date AND if they had not had a prescription for the index agent in the 180 days prior to the index date. Time to incidence of new coding for ocular surface disease in the first year post-index was estimated with a composite endpoint: diagnosis of dry eye or ocular infection by ICD-9-CM or Current Procedural Terminology code OR by prescription for cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion or ocular antibiotics.In all, 15,933 patients were treated with latanoprost and 7670 with travoprost-Z. Over 1 year, 4.3% of latanoprost and 4.5% of travoprost-Z patients were identified with dry eye (p = 0.28), and 10.9% and 11.1%, respectively, were identified with an ocular infection (p = 0.79). The 1-year incidence of new coding for ocular surface disease also was similar across treatments (13.9% vs 14.3%, respectively; p = 0.48).The retrospective analysis of three large prescription databases revealed that open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension patients newly treated with latanoprost preserved with BAK or travoprost-Z preserved with SofZia did not differ statistically in rates of dry eye, ocular infection, or ocular surface disease (either dry eye or ocular infection) during the first year post-index. Claims-based analyses are limited by nonrandomization and the inability to account for over-the-counter use or samples.Ocular surface disease is an umbrella term that encompasses both dry eye disease (e.g., aqueous deficient a
Weather-based prediction of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in epidemic-prone regions of Ethiopia I. Patterns of lagged weather effects reflect biological mechanisms
Hailay D Teklehaimanot, Marc Lipsitch, Awash Teklehaimanot, Joel Schwartz
Malaria Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-3-41
Abstract: Daily average number of cases was modeled using a robust Poisson regression with rainfall, minimum temperature and maximum temperatures as explanatory variables in a polynomial distributed lag model in 10 districts of Ethiopia. To improve reliability and generalizability within similar climatic conditions, we grouped the districts into two climatic zones, hot and cold.In cold districts, rainfall was associated with a delayed increase in malaria cases, while the association in the hot districts occurred at relatively shorter lags. In cold districts, minimum temperature was associated with malaria cases with a delayed effect. In hot districts, the effect of minimum temperature was non-significant at most lags, and much of its contribution was relatively immediate.The interaction between climatic factors and their biological influence on mosquito and parasite life cycle is a key factor in the association between weather and malaria. These factors should be considered in the development of malaria early warning system.Malaria epidemics due to Plasmodium falciparum are reported frequently in the East African highlands [1-6]. Immunity to malaria in the populations of these epidemic-prone regions is often incomplete, so that epidemics cause high case fatality rates among all age groups. In 1958, a malaria epidemic covering over 250,000 square kilometers resulted in an estimated three million cases and 150,000 deaths in Ethiopia [2]. Since then, large scale epidemics of malaria have been noted every five to eight years. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of malaria early warning systems [7-9] to predict where and when malaria epidemics will occur, with adequate lead-time to target scarce resources for prevention activities. Unusual meteorological conditions, such as especially high rainfall or high temperature, are often cited retrospectively as the precipitating factors for epidemics [10,11]. There have also been formal attempts to predict epidemics by the u
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