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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 148453 matches for " Joel B. Talcott "
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Interval Timing in Children: Effects of Auditory and Visual Pacing Stimuli and Relationships with Reading and Attention Variables
Emma E. Birkett, Joel B. Talcott
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042820
Abstract: Motor timing tasks have been employed in studies of neurodevelopmental disorders such as developmental dyslexia and ADHD, where they provide an index of temporal processing ability. Investigations of these disorders have used different stimulus parameters within the motor timing tasks that are likely to affect performance measures. Here we assessed the effect of auditory and visual pacing stimuli on synchronised motor timing performance and its relationship with cognitive and behavioural predictors that are commonly used in the diagnosis of these highly prevalent developmental disorders. Twenty-one children (mean age 9.6 years) completed a finger tapping task in two stimulus conditions, together with additional psychometric measures. As anticipated, synchronisation to the beat (ISI 329 ms) was less accurate in the visually paced condition. Decomposition of timing variance indicated that this effect resulted from differences in the way that visual and auditory paced tasks are processed by central timekeeping and associated peripheral implementation systems. The ability to utilise an efficient processing strategy on the visual task correlated with both reading and sustained attention skills. Dissociations between these patterns of relationship across task modality suggest that not all timing tasks are equivalent.
Postural Control Is Not Systematically Related to Reading Skills: Implications for the Assessment of Balance as a Risk Factor for Developmental Dyslexia
H?vard Loras, Hermundur Sigmundsson, Ann-Katrin Stensdotter, Joel B. Talcott
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098224
Abstract: Impaired postural control has been associated with poor reading skills, as well as with lower performance on measures of attention and motor control variables that frequently co-occur with reading difficulties. Measures of balance and motor control have been incorporated into several screening batteries for developmental dyslexia, but it is unclear whether the relationship between such skills and reading manifests as a behavioural continuum across the range of abilities or is restricted to groups of individuals with specific disorder phenotypes. Here were obtained measures of postural control alongside measures of reading, attention and general cognitive skills in a large sample of young adults (n = 100). Postural control was assessed using centre of pressure (CoP) measurements, obtained over 5 different task conditions. Our results indicate an absence of strong statistical relationships between balance measures with either reading, cognitive or attention measures across the sample as a whole.
The Dyslexia Candidate Locus on 2p12 Is Associated with General Cognitive Ability and White Matter Structure
Thomas S. Scerri, Fahimeh Darki, Dianne F. Newbury, Andrew J. O. Whitehouse, Myriam Peyrard-Janvid, Hans Matsson, Qi W. Ang, Craig E. Pennell, Susan Ring, John Stein, Andrew P. Morris, Anthony P. Monaco, Juha Kere, Joel B. Talcott, Torkel Klingberg, Silvia Paracchini
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050321
Abstract: Independent studies have shown that candidate genes for dyslexia and specific language impairment (SLI) impact upon reading/language-specific traits in the general population. To further explore the effect of disorder-associated genes on cognitive functions, we investigated whether they play a role in broader cognitive traits. We tested a panel of dyslexia and SLI genetic risk factors for association with two measures of general cognitive abilities, or IQ, (verbal and non-verbal) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort (N>5,000). Only the MRPL19/C2ORF3 locus showed statistically significant association (minimum P = 0.00009) which was further supported by independent replications following analysis in four other cohorts. In addition, a fifth independent sample showed association between the MRPL19/C2ORF3 locus and white matter structure in the posterior part of the corpus callosum and cingulum, connecting large parts of the cortex in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. These findings suggest that this locus, originally identified as being associated with dyslexia, is likely to harbour genetic variants associated with general cognitive abilities by influencing white matter structure in localised neuronal regions.
Common Variants in Left/Right Asymmetry Genes and Pathways Are Associated with Relative Hand Skill
William M. Brandler,Andrew P. Morris,David M. Evans,Thomas S. Scerri,John P. Kemp,Nicholas J. Timpson,Beate St Pourcain,George Davey Smith,Susan M. Ring,John Stein,Anthony P. Monaco,Joel B. Talcott,Simon E. Fisher,Caleb Webber ,Silvia Paracchini
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003751
Abstract: Humans display structural and functional asymmetries in brain organization, strikingly with respect to language and handedness. The molecular basis of these asymmetries is unknown. We report a genome-wide association study meta-analysis for a quantitative measure of relative hand skill in individuals with dyslexia [reading disability (RD)] (n = 728). The most strongly associated variant, rs7182874 (P = 8.68×10?9), is located in PCSK6, further supporting an association we previously reported. We also confirmed the specificity of this association in individuals with RD; the same locus was not associated with relative hand skill in a general population cohort (n = 2,666). As PCSK6 is known to regulate NODAL in the development of left/right (LR) asymmetry in mice, we developed a novel approach to GWAS pathway analysis, using gene-set enrichment to test for an over-representation of highly associated variants within the orthologs of genes whose disruption in mice yields LR asymmetry phenotypes. Four out of 15 LR asymmetry phenotypes showed an over-representation (FDR≤5%). We replicated three of these phenotypes; situs inversus, heterotaxia, and double outlet right ventricle, in the general population cohort (FDR≤5%). Our findings lead us to propose that handedness is a polygenic trait controlled in part by the molecular mechanisms that establish LR body asymmetry early in development.
The Immune System: the ultimate fractionated cyber-physical system
Carolyn Talcott
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.4204/EPTCS.129.18
Abstract: In this little vision paper we analyze the human immune system from a computer science point of view with the aim of understanding the architecture and features that allow robust, effective behavior to emerge from local sensing and actions. We then recall the notion of fractionated cyber-physical systems, and compare and contrast this to the immune system. We conclude with some challenges.
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Thermal Gradient of a Solid Rectangular Fin with Embossing’s for Aerospace Applications  [PDF]
Joel Hemanth, K. B. Yogesh
Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology (AAST) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aast.2018.33004
Fins are the extended surfaces through which heat transfer takes place by conduction and convection to keep the base surface cool. Fins of various configurations are presently used ranging from automobile engines to cooling of chip in a computer. Fins used presently are solid with different shapes but in the present research such solid fins are compared with solid fins having maximum of 10 numbers of embossing’s that further increases the surface area for maximum heat transfer. Importance in this research is given to variation of temperature along the length of the fins which in turn gives rate of heat transfer. Thus this research is under taken to increase the efficiency of fins (by extracting heat from the base surface) which is highly demanded today for air cooled engines, compressors, refrigerators etc. In the present research, SOLID70 element and SURF152 elements are used for FE analysis. Methodology involves 3D rectangular fin modelling and meshing, creation of surf elements for the modeling, applying the boundary conditions and source temperature, applying the material property (aluminum) to obtain the steady state thermal contours. FEA results are finally compared with analytic and experimental values for validity. In the present research, a solid rectangular aluminum fin and the same rectangular fin with 2, 4, 8 and 10 embossing’s were compared through finite element analysis for its temperature distribution along the length. FEA analysis of the present research showed that fins having embossing’s were more efficient compared to that a simple solid fin. Hence it is concluded from the present research that embossing’s at preferred locations further increases the rate of heat transfer. From the present analysis it is concluded that the mathematical and FEA for a solid rectangular fin without embossing’s are converging within ±1.2°C and rectangular fin with 10 embossing’s is converging within ±1.4°C and hence the validity.
The Syn-Anti Equilibrium of Guanosine Cyclic 3',5'- Monophosphate and 8-Sustituted Derivatives: A Theoretical Study
Boletín de la Sociedad Chilena de Química , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0366-16442000000300004
Abstract: abstract the syn-anti conformational equilibrium for a series of nine cyclic nucleotides was studied at semiempirical am1 level. the am1 results indicate that for guanosine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate and their derivatives substituted at 8-position, the syn-conformers are more stable than the anti ones. for purine derivatives without an amino group at position 2, which participate in a hydrogen bonding with the axial oxygen of the phosphate group, the anti conformation is preferred. the am1 results suggest that syn-anti equilibruim is a dominant factor for the binding of cyclic nucleotides to cyclic phosphodiesterases. reinterpretation of experimental results for the competitive inhibition of c-gmp-stimulated phosphodiesterase was performed.
The absence of cruelty is not the presence of humanness: physicians and the death penalty in the United States
Zivot Joel B
Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1747-5341-7-13
Abstract: The death penalty by lethal injection is a legal punishment in the United States. Sodium Thiopental, once used in the death penalty cocktail, is no longer available for use in the United States as a consequence of this association. Anesthesiologists possess knowledge of Sodium Thiopental and possible chemical alternatives. Further, lethal injection has the look and feel of a medical act thereby encouraging physician participation and comment. Concern has been raised that the death penalty by lethal injection, is cruel. Physicians are ethically directed to prevent cruelty within the doctor-patient relationship and ethically prohibited from participation in any component of the death penalty. The US Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty is not cruel per se and is not in conflict with the 8th amendment of the US constitution. If the death penalty is not cruel, it requires no further refinement. If, on the other hand, the death penalty is in fact cruel, physicians have no mandate outside of the doctor patient relationship to reduce cruelty. Any intervention in the name of cruelty reduction, in the setting of lethal injection, does not lead to a more humane form of punishment. If physicians contend that the death penalty can be botched, they wrongly direct that it can be improved. The death penalty cocktail, as a method to reduce suffering during execution, is an unverifiable claim. At best, anesthetics produce an outward appearance of calmness only and do not address suffering as a consequence of the anticipation of death on the part of the condemned.
The Syn-Anti Equilibrium of Guanosine Cyclic 3',5'- Monophosphate and 8-Sustituted Derivatives: A Theoretical Study
Boletín de la Sociedad Chilena de Química , 2000,
Abstract: ABSTRACT The syn-anti conformational equilibrium for a series of nine cyclic nucleotides was studied at semiempirical AM1 level. The AM1 results indicate that for guanosine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate and their derivatives substituted at 8-position, the syn-conformers are more stable than the anti ones. For purine derivatives without an amino group at position 2, which participate in a hydrogen bonding with the axial oxygen of the phosphate group, the anti conformation is preferred. The AM1 results suggest that syn-anti equilibruim is a dominant factor for the binding of cyclic nucleotides to cyclic phosphodiesterases. Reinterpretation of experimental results for the competitive inhibition of c-GMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase was performed. Se estudió el equilibrio syn-anti de una serie de nueve nucleótidos cíclicos utilizando el método AM1. Los resultados indican que para el 3',5'-monofosfato cíclico de guanosina y sus derivados sustituídos en la posición 8, el isómero syn es más estable que el isómero anti. Los derivados de purina que no poseen un grupo amino en la posición 2, el cual puede participar en enlace de hidrógeno con el oxígeno axial del grupo fosfato, prefieren la conformación anti. Los resultados obtenidos por el método AM1 sugieren que el equilibrio syn-anti es un factor dominante para la union de nucleótidos cíclicos a fosfodiesterasas. Según esto se hizo un nuevo análisis de los resultados de la inhibición competitiva de la fosfosdiesterasa cíclica estimulada por c-GMP
Identification of Candidate Genes for Dyslexia Susceptibility on Chromosome 18
Thomas S. Scerri,Silvia Paracchini,Andrew Morris,I. Laurence MacPhie,Joel Talcott,John Stein,Shelley D. Smith,Bruce F. Pennington,Richard K. Olson,John C. DeFries,Anthony P. Monaco
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013712
Abstract: Six independent studies have identified linkage to chromosome 18 for developmental dyslexia or general reading ability. Until now, no candidate genes have been identified to explain this linkage. Here, we set out to identify the gene(s) conferring susceptibility by a two stage strategy of linkage and association analysis.
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