oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2019 ( 518 )

2018 ( 706 )

2017 ( 702 )

2016 ( 973 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 404170 matches for " Joanna M Ward "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /404170
Display every page Item
BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a population-based study of male breast cancer
Victoria M Basham, Julian M Lipscombe, Joanna M Ward, Simon A Gayther, Bruce AJ Ponder, Douglas F Easton, Paul DP Pharoah
Breast Cancer Research , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/bcr419
Abstract: We have carried out a population-based study of 94 MBC cases collected in the UK. We screened genomic DNA for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and used family history data from these cases to calculate the risk of breast cancer to female relatives of MBC cases. We also estimated the contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 to this risk.Nineteen cases (20%) reported a first-degree relative with breast cancer, of whom seven also had an affected second-degree relative. The breast cancer risk in female first-degree relatives was 2.4 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–4.0) the risk in the general population. No BRCA1 mutation carriers were identified and five cases were found to carry a mutation in BRCA2. Allowing for a mutation detection sensitivity frequency of 70%, the carrier frequency for BRCA2 mutations was 8% (95% CI = 3–19). All the mutation carriers had a family history of breast, ovarian, prostate or pancreatic cancer. However, BRCA2 accounted for only 15% of the excess familial risk of breast cancer in female first-degree relatives.These data suggest that other genes that confer an increased risk for both female and male breast cancer have yet to be found.Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease and little is known about its aetiology. However, female first-degree relatives of MBC cases are at increased risk of breast cancer [1,2,3,4,5,6], which suggests that there is an inherited component to the disease. Several genes that are associated with a high lifetime risk of breast cancer in women have been identified during the past decade. One of these, BRCA2, has also been shown to confer a significant risk of breast cancer in men, and a recent study found the risk of breast cancer in male BRCA2 mutation carriers from multiple case breast/ovarian cancer families to be 80-fold higher than in the general population [7]. This equates to a 7% risk of breast cancer by age 80. The prevalence of BRCA2 mutations in MBC cases unselected for family history has been estimated in
Housing, Health, and Ageing in Texas Colonias and Informal Subdivisions  [PDF]
Francisca Bogolasky, Peter M. Ward
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2018.61004
Abstract:
Literature on housing and health outcomes among the elderly generally covers issues such as the relationship between housing quality and health; the intersection between place and space at different stages in the life course; and the impact of public policy to mitigate negative morbidity and mental health outcomes. However, there is little research about the ways in which certain types of informally developed neighborhoods such as colonias and informal homestead subdivisions offer micro-level spaces and housing arrangements that are conducive to family building, household extension, and care for aging parents, but which also have negative outcomes especially for the elderly by exacerbating certain chronic health problems and impaired mobility. In short, space and place matters. This paper provides an overview of the literature on the intersection between housing and health, and drawing upon Texas survey data we explore how low-income (largely) Hispanic households access home ownership through informal homesteading and self-help in two informal subdivisions in Central Texas. Viewed across the life course, this colonia-type housing is associated with a number of particular negative health and mobility impacts especially among the elderly, while at the same time providing an affordable and socially embedded residential alternative of living through old age.
Overestimating Fish Counts by Non-Instantaneous Visual Censuses: Consequences for Population and Community Descriptions
Christine Ward-Paige,Joanna Mills Flemming,Heike K. Lotze
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011722
Abstract: Increasingly, underwater visual censuses (UVC) are used to assess fish populations. Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of protected areas for increasing fish abundance or provided insight into the natural abundance and structure of reef fish communities in remote areas. Recently, high apex predator densities (>100,000 individuals·km?2) and biomasses (>4 tonnes·ha?1) have been reported for some remote islands suggesting the occurrence of inverted trophic biomass pyramids. However, few studies have critically evaluated the methods used for sampling conspicuous and highly mobile fish such as sharks. Ideally, UVC are done instantaneously, however, researchers often count animals that enter the survey area after the survey has started, thus performing non-instantaneous UVC.
Mouse Zygotes Respond to Severe Sperm DNA Damage by Delaying Paternal DNA Replication and Embryonic Development
Joanna E. Gawecka, Joel Marh, Michael Ortega, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Monika A. Ward, W. Steven Ward
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056385
Abstract: Mouse zygotes do not activate apoptosis in response to DNA damage. We previously reported a unique form of inducible sperm DNA damage termed sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF). SCF mirrors some aspects of somatic cell apoptosis in that the DNA degradation is mediated by reversible double strand breaks caused by topoisomerase 2B (TOP2B) followed by irreversible DNA degradation by a nuclease(s). Here, we created zygotes using spermatozoa induced to undergo SCF (SCF zygotes) and tested how they responded to moderate and severe paternal DNA damage during the first cell cycle. We found that the TUNEL assay was not sensitive enough to identify the breaks caused by SCF in zygotes in either case. However, paternal pronuclei in both groups stained positively for γH2AX, a marker for DNA damage, at 5 hrs after fertilization, just before DNA synthesis, while the maternal pronuclei were negative. We also found that both pronuclei in SCF zygotes with moderate DNA damage replicated normally, but paternal pronuclei in the SCF zygotes with severe DNA damage delayed the initiation of DNA replication by up to 12 hrs even though the maternal pronuclei had no discernable delay. Chromosomal analysis of both groups confirmed that the paternal DNA was degraded after S-phase while the maternal pronuclei formed normal chromosomes. The DNA replication delay caused a marked retardation in progression to the 2-cell stage, and a large portion of the embryos arrested at the G2/M border, suggesting that this is an important checkpoint in zygotic development. Those embryos that progressed through the G2/M border died at later stages and none developed to the blastocyst stage. Our data demonstrate that the zygote responds to sperm DNA damage through a non-apoptotic mechanism that acts by slowing paternal DNA replication and ultimately leads to arrest in embryonic development.
Concordance of sibling's recall of measures of childhood socioeconomic position
Michael M Ward
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-11-147
Abstract: This cross-sectional study examined reports by 1280 adult sibling pairs in the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States of seven measures of childhood socioeconomic position: father's occupation (in 9 categories), father having a professional occupation, father being a supervisor at work, father's education level, mother's education level, receipt of welfare payments, and subjective appraisal of being better or worse off financially than others.Concordance was high for father's professional occupation (0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96, 0.98), father's occupation in 9 categories (0.76; 95% CI 0.73, 0.80), and receipt of welfare payments (0.95; 95% CI 0.93, 0.97). Concordance was lower for father's and mother's education level, and lowest for subjective appraisal of socioeconomic position (0.60; 95% CI 0.57, 0.64). Concordance of parental education was lower for sibling pairs with high school educations or less.Concordance of recalled measures of childhood socioeconomic position by siblings is generally but not uniformly high.Studies of socioeconomic determinants of health have increasingly adopted a life-course perspective, examining associations not only of current socioeconomic position but also of measures of childhood socioeconomic position [1,2]. Although some longitudinal cohort studies have collected data on childhood socioeconomic position prospectively, this approach is often not feasible in clinical and epidemiological studies. Most studies assess childhood socioeconomic position retrospectively using recall by study participants [3-5].Few studies have assessed the validity of recall of measures of childhood socioeconomic position. In a British survey, the occupation of the subject's father was accurately recalled after 50 years by 12 of 18 subjects, but recall was assessed by a detailed interview that first established personal life histories [6]. A larger British study reported that childhood social class, based on the father's o
Unpackaging residential segregation: the importance of scale and informal market processes
Ward, Peter M.;
Investigaciones geográficas , 2009,
Abstract: this paper addresses two principal issues: a) the scale at which one examines urban segregation; and b) how informality, specifically accessibility to land markets and the process of land appropriation by low-income groups in latin american cities, influences segregation patterns. using mexico city as a case study for latin america, it shows that macro residential segregation levels are not becoming more polarized as many believe, due to informality of the market place and the weak state intervention through planning and zoning. however, there is a hardening of boundaries between adjacent neighborhoods as people turn to gated communities, largely for security reasons. case study material from three mexican cities are presented to examine how the nature of residential land costs and market segmentation contributes to segregation in latin american cities. in a second case study, data from peri-urban low-income self-build settlements (colonias) in texas cities demonstrate how existing inequality patterns can be reproduced by differential access to land markets. they further argue a case that such isolated (rural) settlements serving nearby urban labor market, should also be included in any analysis of urban segregation patterns, even if they do not form part of the contiguous urban area.
Contemporary issues in the government and administration of Latin American megacities
Ward, Peter M.;
Revista de Administra??o de Empresas , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-75901996000300006
Abstract: this paper is the first to systematically analyze and compare the structures of city governance and administration for seven major cities in latin america, four of which are megacities (population of over 10 million), and three others are large national capitals. u.s. and u. k. models of city administration are reviewed as baseline models against which differences in latin american may be explored. structures of government in latin america show several important features and trends: 1) the lack of metropolitan (cross jurisdictional) authority; 2) the existence of strong mayors and weak councils"; 3) high levels of partisanship; 4) overlapping rather than interlocking bureaucracies; 5) pressures towards the privatization of city services, but continuing tension over the desirability of public versus private control; 6) greater fiscal responsibility and autonomy; and 7), a continuing marginalization of public participation in megacity governance.in spite of these features, many cities throughout the region (regardless of whether they are megacity size or national capitals), are actively intensifying their efforts to develop more effective, accountable and democratic governance structures.
Unpackaging residential segregation: the importance of scale and informal market processes
Peter M. Ward
Investigaciones geográficas , 2009,
Abstract: This paper addresses two principal issues: a) the scale at which one examines urban segregation; and b) how informality, specifically accessibility to land markets and the process of land appropriation by low-income groups in Latin American cities, influences segregation patterns. Using Mexico City as a case study for Latin America, it shows that macro residential segregation levels are not becoming more polarized as many believe, due to informality of the market place and the weak state intervention through planning and zoning. However, there is a hardening of boundaries between adjacent neighborhoods as people turn to gated communities, largely for security reasons. Case study material from three Mexican cities are presented to examine how the nature of residential land costs and market segmentation contributes to segregation in Latin American cities. In a second case study, data from peri-urban low-income self-build settlements (colonias) in Texas cities demonstrate how existing inequality patterns can be reproduced by differential access to land markets. They further argue a case that such isolated (rural) settlements serving nearby urban labor market, should also be included in any analysis of urban segregation patterns, even if they do not form part of the contiguous urban area.
Fitting ideals for finitely presented algebraic dynamical systems
M. Einsiedler,T. Ward
Mathematics , 1999, DOI: 10.1007/s000100050135
Abstract: We consider a class of algebraic dynamical systems introduced by Kitchens and Schmidt. Under a weak finiteness condition -- the Descending Chain Condition -- the dual modules have finite presentations. Using methods from commutative algebra we show how the dynamical properties of the system may be deduced from the Fitting ideals of a finite free resolution of the finitely presented module. The entropy and expansiveness are shown to depend only on the first Fitting ideal (and certain multiplicity data) which gives an easy computation: in particular, no syzygy modules need to be computed. For `square' presentations (in which the number of generators is equal to the number of relations) all the dynamics is visible in the first Fitting ideal and certain multiplicity data, and we show how the dynamical properties and periodic point behaviour may be deduced from the determinant of the matrix of relations.
Reverse Engineering from Assembler to Formal Specifications via Program Transformations
M. P. Ward
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: The FermaT transformation system, based on research carried out over the last sixteen years at Durham University, De Montfort University and Software Migrations Ltd., is an industrial-strength formal transformation engine with many applications in program comprehension and language migration. This paper is a case study which uses automated plus manually-directed transformations and abstractions to convert an IBM 370 Assembler code program into a very high-level abstract specification.
Page 1 /404170
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.