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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 403081 matches for " Joanna M McCauley "
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The dystrotelin, dystrophin and dystrobrevin superfamily: new paralogues and old isoforms
Hong Jin, Sipin Tan, Jane Hermanowski, Sabrina B?hm, Sabrina Pacheco, Joanna M McCauley, Marc J Greener, Yaniv Hinits, Simon M Hughes, Paul T Sharpe, Roland G Roberts
BMC Genomics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-19
Abstract: Features of the superfamily revealed by our survey include: a) Dystrotelin, an entirely novel branch of the superfamily, present in most vertebrates examined. Dystrotelin is expressed in the central nervous system, and is a possible orthologue of Drosophila DAH. We describe the preliminary characterisation of its function, evolution and expression. b) A novel vertebrate member of the dystrobrevin family, γ-dystrobrevin, an ancient branch now extant only in fish, but probably present in our own ancestors. Like dystrophin, zebrafish γ-dystrobrevin mRNA is localised to myosepta. c) The extent of conservation of alternative splicing and alternative promoter use in the dystrophin and dystrobrevin genes; alternative splicing of dystrophin exons 73 and 78 and α-dystrobrevin exon 13 are conserved across vertebrates, as are the use of the Dp116, Dp71 and G-utrophin promoters; the Dp260 and Dp140 promoters are tetrapod innovations. d) The evolution of the unique N-terminus of DRP2 and its relationship to Dp116 and G-utrophin. e) A C-terminally truncated common ancestor of dystrophin and utrophin in cyclostomes. f) A severely restricted repertoire of dystrophin complex components in ascidians.We have refined our understanding of the evolutionary history and isoform diversity of the five previously reported vertebrate superfamily members and describe two novel members, dystrotelin and γ-dystrobrevin. Dystrotelins, dystrophins and dystrobrevins are roughly equally related to each other. Vertebrates therefore have a repertoire of seven superfamily members (three dystrophins, three dystrobevins, and one dystrotelin), with one lost in tetrapods. Most invertebrates studied have one member from each branch. Although the basic shared function which is implied by the common architecture of these distantly related proteins remains unclear, it clearly permeates metazoan biology.Dystrophin, identified nearly 20 years ago as the protein deficient in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)[1], is
Economic system dynamics
Joseph L. McCauley,Cornelia M. Küffner
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society , 2004, DOI: 10.1155/s102602260431201x
Abstract: We provide here a qualitative summary of the main ideas from econophysics and finance theory, starting with a thorough criticism of the standard ideas taught in typical economics textbooks. The emphasis is on the Galilean or physicists' approach to market dynamics, as opposed to the standard nonempirical postulatory one.
Nitric oxide: a major determinant of mast cell phenotype and function
McCauley, SD;Gilchrist, M;Befus, AD;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762005000900003
Abstract: mast cells (mc) are important in the numerous physiological processes of homeostasis and disease. most notably, mc are critical effectors in the development and exacerbation of allergic disorders. nitric oxide (no) is a diatomic radical produced by nitric oxide synthase (nos), and has pluripotent cell signaling and cytotoxic properties. no can influence many mc functions. recent evidence shows the source of this no can be from the mast cell itself. governing the production of this endogenous no, through alterations in the expression of tetrahydrobiopterin (bh4), a nos cofactor, has stabilizing effects on mc degranulation. furthermore, no regulates the synthesis and secretion of de novo generated mediators, including leukotrienes and chemokines. these novel observations add to the growing body of knowledge surrounding the role of no in the mc.
Autophagy in mammalian cells
Kadija Abounit,Tiziano M Scarabelli,Roy B McCauley
World Journal of Biological Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.4331/wjbc.v3.i1.1
Abstract: Autophagy is a regulated process for the degradation of cellular components that has been well conserved in eukaryotic cells. The discovery of autophagy-regulating proteins in yeast has been important in understanding this process. Although many parallels exist between fungi and mammals in the regulation and execution of autophagy, there are some important differences. The pre-autophagosomal structure found in yeast has not been identified in mammals, and it seems that there may be multiple origins for autophagosomes, including endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and mitochondrial outer membrane. The maturation of the phagophore is largely dependent on 5’-AMP activated protein kinase and other factors that lead to the dephosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin. Once the process is initiated, the mammalian phagophore elongates and matures into an autophagosome by processes that are similar to those in yeast. Cargo selection is dependent on the ubiquitin conjugation of protein aggregates and organelles and recognition of these conjugates by autophagosomal receptors. Lysosomal degradation of cargo produces metabolites that can be recycled during stress. Autophagy is an important cellular safeguard during starvation in all eukaryotes; however, it may have more complicated, tissue specific roles in mammals. With certain exceptions, autophagy seems to be cytoprotective, and defects in the process have been associated with human disease.
Toward an Empirical Theory of Pulsar Emission XI. Understanding the Orientations of Pulsar Radiation and Supernova "Kicks"
Joanna M. Rankin
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/804/2/112
Abstract: Two entwined problems have remained unresolved since pulsars were discovered nearly 50 years ago: the orientation of their polarized emission relative to the emitting magnetic field and the direction of putative supernova ``kicks' relative to their rotation axes. The rotational orientation of most pulsars can be inferred only from the (``fiducial') polarization angle of their radiation, when their beam points directly at the Earth and the emitting polar fluxtube field is $\parallel$ to the rotation axis. Earlier studies have been unrevealing owing to the admixture of different types of radiation (core and conal, two polarization modes), producing both $\parallel$ or $\perp$ alignments. In this paper we analyze the some 50 pulsars having three characteristics: core radiation beams, reliable absolute polarimetry, and accurate proper motions. The ``fiducial' polarization angle of the core emission, we then find, is usually oriented $\perp$ to the proper-motion direction on the sky. As the primary core emission is polarized $\perp$ to the projected magnetic field in Vela and other pulsars where X-ray imaging reveals the orientation, this shows that the proper motions usually lie $\parallel$ to the rotation axes on the sky. Two key physical consequences then follow: first, to the extent that supernova ``kicks' are responsible for pulsar proper motions, they are mostly $\parallel$ to the rotation axis; and second that most pulsar radiation is heavily processed by the magnetospheric plasma such that the lowest altitude ``parent' core emission is polarized $\perp$ to the emitting field, propagating as the extraordinary (X) mode.
Optimization of ultrasound assessments of arterial function  [PDF]
Lee Stoner, Cary West, Danielle Morozewicz Cates, Joanna M. Young
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2011.13004
Abstract: Ultrasound technology is widely used to make assessments of arterial function. The delicate nature of these measurements requires that sources of errors are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess variability due to probe selection and optimization settings. Methods: Ten healthy 20 - 26 year old male and female subjects were tested. Brachial artery size (diameter) was measured thirty times a second using a B-mode Ultrasound unit equipped with a high-resolution video capture device. Distension was calculated using systolic and diastolic diameters. To assess intersession variability, we made recordings over twelve minutes; with the probe being removed and re-positioned every four minutes. To assess variability due to probe selection and optimization, we manipulated four parameters: 1) Probe selection (7 - 13 MHz, 5 - 10 MHz, 6 - 9 MHz). 2) Probe frequency (11 MHZ, 9.6 MHZ, 8 MHz). 3) Measurement location (near, center or middle field). And, 4) Image mode (B-mode, duplex-mode). To assess inter-session variability, three sets of recordings were made for each probe selection and optimization setting. Results: Mean diameter ICC’s for inter-session variability, probe frequency, measurement location, image display size, and probe selection were 0.99, 0.98, 0.97, 0.99, and 0.90 respectively. Distension ICC’s for intersession variability, probe frequency, measurement location, image display size, and probe selection were 0.66, 0.26, 0.62, 0.60, and 0.51 respectively. Conclusions: Altering probe selection increases measurement variability to the greatest extent. However, as long as probe selection and optimization settings are kept constant, our inter-session variability shows that reliable measurements can be made.
Subarachnoid and Peripheral Nerve Block in a Patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease  [PDF]
Stinson T. Ritter, Ryan J. Jense, Joanna M. Davies
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.31012

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a hereditary peripheral neuropathy characterized by progressive distal muscle weakness and wasting. If conservative treatment fails, or is not appropriately initiated, deformity, immobility and chronic pain may result. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be required. With the exception of case reports and case series, limited safety and efficacy data exists regarding the use of neuraxial and regional anesthesia for patients with CMT. This paper describes an anesthetic case report of a patient with CMT, and also provides a review of general and regional anesthetic considerations for this cohort. The purpose of this report is to highlight the potential benefits of neuraxial and regional anesthesia in patients with neuromuscular disorders, especially in settings where intra- and post-operative resources may be limited.

Computing the Maslov index from singularities of a matrix Riccati equation
Thomas McCauley
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We study the Maslov index as a tool to analyze stability of steady state solutions to a reaction-diffusion equation in one spatial dimension. We show that the path of unstable subspaces associated to this equation is governed by a matrix Riccati equation whose solution $S$ develops singularities when changes in the Maslov index occur. Our main result proves that at these singularities the change in Maslov index equals the number of eigenvalues of $S$ that increase to $+\infty$ minus the number of eigenvalues that decrease to $-\infty$.
$S^1$-equivariant Chern-Weil constructions on loop space
Thomas McCauley
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We study the existence of $S^1$-equivariant characteristic classes on certain natural infinite rank bundles over the loop space $LM$ of a manifold $M$. We discuss the different $S^1$-equivariant cohomology theories in the literature and clarify their relationships. We attempt to use $S^1$-equivariant Chern-Weil techniques to construct $S^1$-equivariant characteristic classes. The main result is the construction of a sequence of $S^1$-equivariant characteristic classes on the total space of the bundles, but these classes do not descend to the base $LM$.
Protein stickiness, rather than number of functional protein-protein interactions, predicts expression noise and plasticity in yeast
Leandra M Brettner, Joanna Masel
BMC Systems Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-0509-6-128
Abstract: We find that protein “stickiness”, measured as network degree in ostensibly low quality yeast two-hybrid data, is a more predictive genomic metric than the number of functional protein-protein interactions, as assessed by supposedly higher quality high throughput affinity capture mass spectrometry data. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a protein’s high stickiness, but not its high number of functional interactions, predicts low stochastic noise in gene expression, low plasticity of gene expression across different environments, and high probability of forming a homo-oligomer. Our results are robust to a multiple regression analysis correcting for other known predictors including protein abundance, presence of a TATA box and whether a gene is essential. Once the higher stickiness of homo-oligomers is controlled for, we find that homo-oligomers have noisier and more plastic gene expression than other proteins, consistent with a role for homo-oligomerization in mediating robustness.Our work validates use of the number of yeast two-hybrid interactions as a metric for protein stickiness. Sticky proteins exhibit low stochastic noise in gene expression, and low plasticity in expression across different environments.A protein that functionally interacts with many other proteins may be more sensitive to noise in gene expression [1]. In agreement with this prediction, a negative correlation between noise and protein-protein interaction (PPI) degree has been found [2,3]. However, PPI datasets are notorious for high rates of false positive and false negative interactions [4-7]. Older high throughput datasets rely on yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) studies, which can measure interactions between two proteins that would never even encounter each other in nature. More recently, high throughput affinity capture mass spectrometry (ACMS) data have become available [8], which do not suffer from this drawback and subsequent high false positive rate.Y2H data may indicate the non-specific “
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