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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 171232 matches for " Jo?o Carlos Pinto;Schofield "
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Controle da transmiss?o transfusional da doen?a de Chagas na Iniciativa do Cone Sul
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;Schofield, Christopher John;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86821998000400007
Abstract: the southern cone initiative against chagas' disease, was launched in 1991. the aim was to interrupt the transmission of chagas disease by elimination of domestic populations of the major vector, triatoma infestans, and by improved screening of blood donors. as a result of these activities, a marked reduction in the risk of transfusional transmission can now be seen throughout the programme area. in addition to specific legislation concerning the quality of transfused blood, a series of national and regional reference laboratories have been set up with the help of paho in order to improve the quality of pre-transfusional serodiagnosis. results indicate a progressive reduction in the overall infection prevalence of blood donors, and show that the age-prevalence curve has shifted towards older age-groups. in this paper we analyse the changes in infection prevalence in the southern cone countries, drawing attention to the situation in bolivia which has the highest indices of infection and lowest levels of coverage by the control programme. in this situation chemoprofylaxis of blood prior to transfusion may be recommended in accordance with paho criteria. in the medium term however, interruption of human chagas disease transmission may be expected over most of the southern cone region, as long as the control activities are continued and consolidated through effective epidemiological surveillance.
Controle da transmiss o transfusional da doen a de Chagas na Iniciativa do Cone Sul
Dias Joo Carlos Pinto,Schofield Christopher John
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 1998,
Abstract: Integrando os objetivos principais da iniciativa dos 6 Países do Cone Sul para a elimina o da doen a de Chagas, a partir de 1991, foram intensificadas as a es de controle das atividades hemoterápicas, em paralelo com o combate intensivo ao Triatoma infestans, principal vetor da doen a da Regi o. Através das atividades específicas e também como produto direto do controle vetorial, nota-se importante diminui o dos riscos da transmiss o transfusional do Trypanosoma cruzi nas áreas trabalhadas. Além de legisla o específica sobre a qualidade da hemoterapia, implementaram-se laboratórios nacionais e regionais de referência, com a assistência da OPS, objetivando-se uma boa sorologia pré-transfusional dos doadores, cuja cobertura tem aumentado. Observa-se ainda uma progressiva diminui o na prevalência da infe o chagásica entre doadores e também um progressivo deslocamento dos doadores infetados para grupos etários mais elevados, como fruto do controle vetorial e do próprio descarte de doadores soro-positivos em doa es anteriores. S o analisados dados e tendências do problema pelos Países, sendo mais preocupante a situa o da Bolívia, com maiores taxas de prevalência e menores de cobertura do programa, ali sendo indicadas a es de quimioprofilaxia, conforme os critérios da OMS. Antevê-se a médio prazo o controle da transmiss o da doen a de Chagas humana na maior parte da Regi o, desde que cumpridas corretamente as etapas do programa em andamento, devidamente consolidadas através de efetiva vigilancia epidemiológica.
Pesquisas prioritárias sobre doen a de Chagas na Amazonia: agenda de curto-médio prazo
Dias Joo Carlos Pinto,Vinhaes Márcio Costa,Silveira Ant?nio Carlos,Schofield Christopher John
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2001,
Abstract:
Ticks, ivermectin, and experimental Chagas disease
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;Schofield, Christopher J;Machado, Evandro MM;Fernandes, Alexandre José;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762005000800002
Abstract: following an infestation of dogticks in kennels housing dogs used for long-term studies of the pathogenesis of chagas disease, we examined the effect of ivermectin treatment on the dogs, ticks, trypanosome parasites, and also on triatomine vectors of chagas disease. ivermectin treatment was highly effective in eliminating the ticks, but showed no apparent effect on the dogs nor on their trypanosome infection. triatominae fed on the dogs soon after ivermectin treatment showed high mortality, but this effect quickly declined for bugs fed at successive intervals after treatment. in conclusion, although ivermectin treatment may have a transient effect on peridomestic populations of triatominae, it is not the treatment of choice for this situation. the study also showed that although the dogticks could become infected with trypanosoma cruzi, this only occurred when feeding on dogs in the acute phase of infection, and there was no evidence of subsequent parasite development in the ticks.
Doen?a de Chagas na Amaz?nia: esbo?o da situa??o atual e perspectivas de preven??o
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;Prata, Aluízio;Schofield, Christopher John;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822002000600021
Abstract: american trypanosomiasis (chagas' disease) due to trypanosoma cruzi in the amazon region has become a target of scientific preoccupation in recent years because of the wide dispersion of infected vectors and intensive human migration into the region. an european community and latin america triatominae network international workshop held in july 2002 analyzed the general situation and the perspectives of human chagas' disease in the area, concluding that although its occurrence remains sporadic, there is strong potential for the disease to spread, and a requirement for an integrated surveillance effort to be shared by all countries of the region.
Doen a de Chagas na Amaz nia: esbo o da situa o atual e perspectivas de preven o
Dias Joo Carlos Pinto,Prata Aluízio,Schofield Christopher John
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2002,
Abstract: A tripanossomíase por Trypanosoma cruzi na Regi o Amaz nica tem sido motivo de preocupa o ao longo dos tempos, dada a grande dispers o de vetores infectados e crescentes migra es humanas. Um seminário internacional da ECLAT em julho/2002 analisou a situa o e perspectivas quanto à dispers o da doen a humana concluindo ser a mesma ainda esporádica e com potencial de amplia o na área, requerendo objetivo e integrado esfor o de vigilancia, compartido por todos os Países da Regi o.
Aspectos operacionais do controle do Triatoma brasiliensis
Diotaiuti, Liléia;Faria Filho, Osvaldo F.;Carneiro, Francisco C. F.;Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;Pires, Herton Helder R.;Schofield, Christopher J.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2000000800006
Abstract: vector control strategies against indigenous species is not easy, due to their capacity to reinvade treated premises from sylvatic ecotopes. between august 1996 and december 1997 we conducted a study on reinfestation of houses after spraying in a county in the state of ceará. of 277 houses examined, 113 (40.8%) were infested (21.7% intradomiciliary and 35.4% peridomiciliary). of the 433 triatominae collected, 207 were triatoma brasiliensis (49% of which intradomiciliary, with a mean of 1.8 insects/house) and 226 were triatoma pseudomaculata (97% peridomiciliary). the age structure of the two indicated a univoltine development cycle for t. brasiliensis and two cycles per year for t. pseudomaculata. four months after spraying with deltamethrin sc 25mg ia/m2, 9.7% of the houses were still positive, mainly with peridomestic infestations. intradomiciliary wall bioassays showed persistence of the insecticide up to 9 months after spraying. considering the high potential for recolonization of treated premises from sylvatic foci, we propose an operational strategy combining traditional evaluations and community-based surveillance with increased selective interventions and community education.
Elimination of Chagas disease transmission: perspectives
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762009000900007
Abstract: one hundred years after its discovery by carlos chagas, american trypanosomiasis, or chagas disease, remains an epidemiologic challenge. neither a vaccine nor an ideal specific treatment is available for most chronic cases. therefore, the current strategy for countering chagas disease consists of preventive actions against the vector and transfusion-transmitted disease. here, the present challenges, including congenital and oral transmission of trypanosoma cruzi infections, as well as the future potential for chagas disease elimination are discussed in light of the current epidemiological picture. finally, a list of challenging open questions is presented about chagas disease control, patient management, programme planning and priority definitions faced by researchers and politicians.
Southern Cone Initiative for the elimination of domestic populations of Triatoma infestans and the interruption of transfusion Chagas disease: historical aspects, present situation, and perspectives
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762007005000092
Abstract: created in 1991 by the governments of argentina, bolivia, brazil, chile, paraguay, and uruguay, the southern cone initiative (sci) has been extremely important for chagas disease control in this region. its basic objective was to reach the interruption of this disease, chiefly by means of the elimination of the principal vector triatoma infestans and by the selection of safe donors in the regional blood banks. after a summarized historic of sci, the text shows the advance of technical and operative activities, emphasizing some factors for the initiative success, as well as some difficulties and constraints. the future of sci will depend of the continuity of the actions and of political priority. scientific community has been highly responsible for this initiative and its maintenance. at the side of this, national and international efforts must be involved and reinforced to assure the accomplishment of the final targets of sci. very specially, the pan american health organization has cooperated with the initiative in all its moments and activities,being the most important catalytic and technical factor for sci success.
Prospec??o da doen?a de Chagas na regi?o de Janaúba, Minas Gerais
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1976, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761976000300005
Abstract: a prospective activity on chagas' disease is reported in a wide region of colonization projects at the northern part of minas gerais. triatomine-trypanosome search and sorological clinical inquiry among the population revealed a marked presence of triatoms in the area, with more than 60% of the dwellings infested by t. infestans or t. sordida, with global indexes of positiveness to t. (s.) cruzi at the level of 6.0% of the captured bugs. two distinct situations are defined according to the dwelling place of these species, t. infestans being undoubtedly associated to the precarious patterns of the poorer population's dwellings, especially in lagedinho and gado bravo, with high indexes of domicile density of this species. t. sordida apparently prevails on the southern part of janaúba, and we may suggest that the species is still in the predominant wild phase, with sporadic domiciliated foci. the analysis of the population reveals relative high indexes of infection (about 10%), sorologically demonstrated, showing recent transmission through positive examinations in low-aged persons. the apparent scarcity of serious clinical forms suggests at first that chagas' disease is, at the moment, being implanted as a human disease and is reproducing there, which must have occurred in a large extension of the nation, for the past two hundred years. parallel to the ecological study of the interaction man-vector-trypanosome, the detected situation seems to constitute an important model for concrete and actual situations, as the conquest of amazonia inclusive and specially in relation to the measures taken regarding the convenient prevention in benefit of the pioneer populations.
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